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Indoor/outdoor temperature sensors Seat belt tension

Oil sensor Water coolant temperature Oxygen sensor Rain sensor

Passenger Occupancy

Fuel level

Parking sensor Speedometer Odometer Tachometer GPS Tire pressure monitor Radar sensor

Anti thief sensors

Wheel speed

Engine Sensors
Oxygen sensor
Oil sensors Mass Air Flow Knock

O2 sensors

Miniature voltage generator

Compare the exhaust O2 level and outside air O2 level

O2 sensors
High voltage: fuel mixture rich, little unburned oxigen
Low voltage: fuel mixture lean, excess oxygen

Oil sensors
They are basically of two types:
Oil level sensors 2. Oil condition sensors Oil quality sensors Oil debris sensors


Measures the volume & density of air entering the engine. The computer uses this information to calculate the apt

amount of fuel to deliver ,in conjunction with other sensors like oxygen sensor.

Vane meter sensor

Measures the air flow into

Hot wire sensor

Determines the mass of

the engine with a spring loaded flap attached to a potentiometer.

air flowing into the engine by heating a wire, with an electric current, suspended in the air stream.

Used to detect engine detonation.

Located on the top center of the engine block.

Accelerometer with sensor resonate at approximately

the same frequency as the engine knock frequency.

Detects the presence of nearby objects without any

physical contact. It emits an electrostatic field & looks for changes in the field.

They alert the driver to unseen obstacles during

parking maneuvers They use ultrasonic proximity detectors embedded in the bumpers, to measure the distances to nearby objects.

Electromagnetic parking sensor

Rely on the vehicle moving

slowly & smoothly towards the object to be avoided. If the vehicle momentarily stops on its approach the sensor cannot detect the object. Holes are not required to be drilled into the bumper during fitting.

Ultrasonic parking sensors

Much more reliable than electromagnetic

sensors They continue to indicate the object distance even when the vehicle is stationary.

Intelligent parking system

Uses computer processors, backup camera, forward sensors attached to front side fenders.
The sensor calculates steering angle data and

steers the vehicle automatically Once the brake is pressed or the steering wheel is touched ,the automatic parking disengages.

Temperature sensors
Different types: Engine coolant temperature Intake air temperature Exhaust recirculation gases
They all have the same working principle. The ECM detects the temperature from the voltage of the signal generated.

Rain sensor

Based on total internal reflection.

Optical sensors are used to detect the moisture .

The sensor projects infrared light into the windshield. Photodiode Amplifier CPU wipers on, windows up