SEMINAR PRESENTATION ON

GREEN POLYMERS
PRESENTED BY: GAUTAM AHUJA M.TECH- POLYMER TECHNOLOGY 1st Year ROLL NO: 2k11/PTE/02

WHAT ARE GREEN POLYMERS ?
Green polymers comprise of the following: 1) Biopolymers 2) Biodegradable polymers (from biopolymers or petropolymers) 3) Recyclable polymers (from biopolymers or petro polymers) 4) Polymers from renewable resources

WHY THE NEED AROSE ?
 The opportunities for designing polymers and developing polymerization processes that are safe, prevent pollution, and are more efficient in the use of materials and energy are enormous.  New ways to make environmentally friendly polymers are needed due to dwindling reserves of petroleum and poor degradability of existing polymers.

 Synthetic polymers are being disposed off by the practice of land-filling. As such, these are continuously getting accumulated on land and creating unhygienic conditions.  The use of non-renewable sources is contributing to global warming.  Bio-plastics are capable of contributing positively to protect the environment.

CRUDE OIL PRICE RISE

POLYMER PRICE RISE

WHICH GREEN POLYMERS?
Some examples: The input materials for the production of these polymers may be either renewable (based on agricultural plant or animal products) or synthetic. There are four main types of green polymer based respectively on: 1. Starch 2. Sugar 3.Cellulose 4.Synthetic materials Current and future developments in biodegradable polymers and renewable input materials focus relate mainly to the scaling-up of production and improvement of product properties. Larger scale production will increase availability and reduce prices.

 One advantage of agricultural raw materials and bio-based building blocks is that they are potentially biodegradable and have less negative environmental impact.  In addition to the potential economic benefits, the use of agricultural by-products minimizes waste and mitigates disposal problems. Bio-catalysis is helpful in this effort because enzyme-catalysts often catalyze reactions of natural substrates at high rates. Many bio-based products are biodegradable, and hydrolytic enzymes are critically important for the break down of biomass to usable building blocks for fermentation processes  Another advantage of agricultural raw materials and bio-based building blocks is that they can often be recycled. Some resulting polymers that are biodegradable can undergo biological recycling by which they are converted to biomass, CO2, CH4 (anaerobic conditions) and water.

ADVANTAGES:-

STARCH BASED POLYMERS
APPLICATIONS:  Not suitable for packaging liquids (can sustain only brief contact with water) Good oxygen barrier properties. SOURCES:  Found as granules in plant tissue, from which it can easily be recovered in large quantities  Obtained from potatoes, maize, wheat and tapioca and similar sources. Starch can be modified in such a way that it can be melted and deformed thermoplastically (injection moulding and extruding).

PROCESSING OF CORN

SUGAR BASED BIOPOLYMERS
APPLICATIONS:  Medical applications. Examples include surgical implants which do not require operative removal.  Until recently, it was not feasible to use polylactides for packaging because of their high price, around US$500 per kilogram. SOURCES:  Polyhydroxibutyrate is made from sucrose or starch by a process of bacterial fermentation. The polymer can be formed by injection, extrusion, blowing and vacuum forming.  Polylactides (lactic acid polymers)are made from lactic acid, which is in turn made from lactose (or milk sugar) obtained from sugar beet, potatoes, wheat, maize etc. Polylactides are water resistant and can be formed by injection moulding, blowing and vacuum forming.

CELLULOSE BASED BIOPOLYMERS
APPLICATIONS:  Familiar applications of cellophane include packaging for confectionary and cigarettes. The material is gradually falling out of favor, however, owing to its high price and losing market share to polymers such as polypropylene. SOURCES:  The use of cellulose for making packaging material such as cellophane is long established. The material is transparent and has good folding properties. Whether in the form of pure cellulose or of a nitrocellulose coating, the material is wholly biodegradable and can be composted by existing waste processing plant.

SYNTHETIC BASED BIOPOLYMERS
APPLICATIONS:  The relatively high price of biodegradable polymers of synthetic substances, e.g. aliphatic aromatic co-polyesters has prevented them from reaching a large scale market. The best known application is for making substrate mats. SOURCES:  Synthetic compounds derived from petroleum can also be a starting point for biodegradable polymers, e.g. aliphatic aromatic co-polyesters.  These polymers have technical properties resembling those of polyethylene (LDPE). Although these polymers are produced from synthetic starting materials, they are fully biodegradable and compostable.

GLYCERIN BASED POLYMER PRODUCTS

COMMERCIAL BREAKTHROUGH

BRASKEM PVT LIMITED
 Braskem announced the production of the first internationally certified polyethylene made from sugarcane ethanol, using competitive technologies developed at the company’s Technology and Innovation Center.  The green polymer developed by Braskem - a high-density polyethylene, one of the resins most widely used in flexible packagings.  The certification was conducted by a leading international laboratory, Beta Analytic, which certified that the product contained 100% renewable raw materials.  This international groundbreaking development by Braskem is aligned with its innovation strategy and its commitment to fostering sustainable development, fulfilling the expectations of both Brazilian and international society for initiatives that contribute materially to reducing the greenhouse effect.

BIOTA SPRING WATER
 The Biota Water bottle looks and feels like plastic, but it's actually made from corn.  The new, high-tech material is just as effective as plastic and it's biodegradable.  If you throw it in a landfill or compost pile, the bottle dissolves in as little as 80 days, according to Biota.

APPLICATIONS OF GREEN POLYMERS
Polymers have properties that make them suitable for use in protecting products from moisture, increasing shelf-life and making products easier to dispense. Every biopolymer has its own material-specific properties, e.g. barrier properties such as oxygen permeability. The barrier properties are relevant to the choice of biopolymers for the packaging of particular products. Bio-plastics have very promising prospects for use in pesticide soil pins, for packaging in-flight catering products and for packaging dairy products.

RESEARCH PROGRESS

SOYABEAN OIL
 Soybean oil is available in large quantities from soybean oilseeds and represents one of the cheapest and most abundant annually renewable natural resources. It has been now confirmed that a variety of promising new polymeric materials-ranging from soft rubbers to hard, tough, rigid plastics-can be prepared by cationic copolymerization of readily available soybean oils with styrene and divinylbenzene.  This technique relies on the catalyst boron trifluoride diethyl etherate to initiate the cationic polymerization of the oil.

BIOWASTE
 A team of undergraduate engineering students at Oregon State University have discovered that blending byproducts from biodiesel production and winemaking produces an environmentally friendly polymer that could one day replace polystyrene foam meat trays in supermarkets.  It may also be valuable in the manufacture of furniture, particle board, fire logs, insulation and even hair gel.  “Producing biodiesel produces a lot of glycerin. Now it seems that even the waste from green industries can be put to another good use – one that can help in the solution to a global problem.”

POLYLACTIC ACID
 Poly-lactic acid (PLA) may provide a solution; it is a polyester material made from renewable resources that uses less petroleum to make comparable petroleum-based fibres. It also degrades easily in landfill.  However, use of PLA in commercial fabrics has not been popular, in part because of difficulties in the dyeing process.  The sharp rise in the prices for petroleum, a major component of PET and other packaging plastics, has made PLA a competitive alternative.

BIOPOLYMERS ARE RENEWABLE, SUSTAINABLE, AND CAN BE CARBON NEUTRAL
Biopolymers are renewable, because they are made from plant materials which can be grown year on year indefinitely. These plant materials come from agricultural non-food crops.  Therefore, the use of biopolymers would create a sustainable industry.  In contrast, the feed stocks for polymers derived from petrochemicals will eventually run out.  In addition, biopolymers have the potential to cut carbon emissions and reduce CO2 quantities in the atmosphere: this is because the CO2 released when they degrade can be reabsorbed by crops grown to replace them: this makes them close to carbon neutral.

THANK YOU !

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