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2

Projectile motion

A projectile is any body that is given an initial velocity and then

follows a path (its trajectory) determined entirely by the effects

of gravitational acceleration and air resistance. Here, we consider

an idealized model, representing the projectile as a particle with

an acceleration due to gravity that is constant in both magnitude

and direction, and neglecting the effects of air resistance, and the

curvature and rotation of the earth.

0

o

0 0 0

coso = v v

x

0 0 0

sin o = v v

y

3

Projectile motion (cont)

Remark 1: Projectile motion is two-dimensional, always confined

to a vertical plane determined by the direction of the initial

velocity the acceleration due to gravity being purely vertical

cant accelerate the projectile sideways.

4

Projectile motion (cont)

Remark 2: We can treat the x-

and y-coordinates separately.

The trajectory of a projectile is

a combination of horizontal

motion with constant velocity

and vertical motion with

constant acceleration.

5

Projectile motion (cont)

0 =

x

a

g a

y

=

0 0 0

coso = = v v v

x x

gt v gt v v

y y

o = =

0 0 0

sin

At t = 0, x

0

= y

0

= 0, v

0x

= v

0

coso

0

, and v

0y

= v

0

sino

0

. For t > 0,

( )t v x

0 0

coso =

The trajectory is a parabola:

( )

( )

2

2

0 0

0

cos 2

tan x

v

g

x y

o

o =

( )

2

0 0

2

1

sin gt t v y o =

6

Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile

A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v

0

= 37.0

m/s at an angle of o

0

= 53.1

o

. (a) Find the position of the ball

and its velocity at t = 2.00 s. (b) Find the time when the ball

reaches the highest point of its flight, and its height h at this time.

(c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the horizontal distance

from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground.

7

Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile (cont)

Solution:

At t = 2.00 s,

( ) m 4 . 44 cos

0 0

~ o = t v x

( ) m 6 . 39

2

1

sin

2

0 0

~ o = gt t v y

s m 2 . 22 cos

0 0

~ o = v v

x

s m 0 . 10 sin

0 0

~ o = gt v v

y

8

Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile (cont)

Solution (cont):

At the highest point of its flight,

0 sin

1 0 0

= o = gt v v

y

s 02 . 3

sin

0 0

1

~

o

=

g

v

t

g

v

h

2

sin

0

2 2

0

o

=

( ) m 7 . 44

2

1

sin

2

1 1 0 0

~ o = gt t v h

9

Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile (cont)

Solution (cont):

When the ball hits the ground,

( ) 0

2

1

sin

2

0 0

= o = gt t v y

s 04 . 6

sin 2

0 0

~

o

=

g

v

t

( ) m 134 cos

0 0

~ o = t v R

g

v

g

v

R

0

2

0 0 0

2

0

2 sin cos sin 2 o

=

o o

=

10

Example 3.10 The zookeeper and the monkey

A monkey escapes from the zoo and climbs a tree. After failing to

entice the monkey down, the zookeeper fires a tranquilizer

dart directly at the monkey. The monkey lets go at the

instant the dart leaves the gun. Show that the dart will always hit

the monkey, provided that the dart reaches the monkey before he

hits the ground and runs away.

11

Example 3.10 The zookeeper and the monkey (cont)

( )t v x

0 0 dart

coso =

( )

2

0 0 dart

2

1

sin gt t v y o =

2

0 monkey

2

1

tan gt d y o =

2

0 dart dart

2

1

tan gt x y o =

12

Position vector

To describe the motion of a particle in space, we must first be

able to describe the particles position. Consider a particle that

is at a point P at a certain instant.

The Cartesian coordinates x, y,

and z of point P are the x-, y-,

and z-components of the

position vector of the particle

at this instant:

k z j y i x r

+ + =

origin of the coordinate system

to the point P.

13

Average velocity vector

Suppose during a time interval At = t

2

t

1

, the particle moves

from P

1

to P

2

. The displacement (change in position) during

this interval is

( ) ( ) ( )k z z j y y i x x r r r

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

+ + = A

The average velocity during

this interval,

1 2

1 2

av

t t

r r

t

r

v

=

A

A

Note

k

t

z

j

t

y

i

t

x

v

av

A

A

+

A

A

+

A

A

=

k

t t

z z

j

t t

y y

i

t t

x x

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

=

14

Instantaneous velocity vector

The (instantaneous) velocity is the limit of the average velocity

as the time interval approaches zero it equals the instantaneous

rate of change of position with time.

dt

r d

t

r

v

t

=

A

A

A 0

lim

Note

k

t

z

j

t

y

i

t

x

v

t t t

lim

lim

lim

0 0 0

A

A

+

A

A

+

A

A

=

A A A

k v j v i v k

dt

dz

j

dt

dy

i

dt

dx

z y x

+ + = + + =

The magnitude of the

(instantaneous) velocity vector,

i.e., the speed, is given by

2 2 2

z y x

v v v v v + + = =

15

The acceleration vector

Suppose during a time interval

At = t

2

t

1

, the particle moves

from P

1

to P

2

. The change in

velocity vector during this

interval is

1 2

v v v

A

The average acceleration

during this interval,

1 2

1 2

av

t t

v v

t

v

a

=

A

A

16

The acceleration vector (cont)

Note

k

t t

v v

j

t t

v v

i

t t

v v

k

t

v

j

t

v

i

t

v

a

z z

y y

x x z

y

x

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

av

=

A

A

+

A

A

+

A

A

=

dt

v d

t

v

a

t

=

A

A

A 0

lim

Note

k

t

v

j

t

v

i

t

v

a

z

t

y

t

x

t

lim

lim

lim

0 0 0

A

A

+

A

A

+

A

A

=

A A A

k a j a i a k

dt

dv

j

dt

dv

i

dt

dv

z y x

z

y

x

+ + = + + =

The (instantaneous) acceleration is

the limit of the average acceleration as

the time interval approaches zero it

equals the instantaneous rate of

change of velocity with time.

k

dt

z d

j

dt

y d

i

dt

x d

2

2

2

2

2

2

+ + =

17

The acceleration vector (cont)

Remark 3: Parallel & perpendicular components of acceleration

18

19

Examples 3.1, 3.2, & 3.3

A robotic vehicle, or rover, is exploring the surface of Mars. The

stationary Mars lander is the origin of coordinates, and the

surrounding Martian surface lies in the xy-plane. The rover, which

we represent as a point, has x- and y-coordinates that vary with

time:

( )

2 2

s m 25 . 0 m 0 . 2 t x = ( ) ( )

3 3

s m 025 . 0 s m 0 . 1 t t y + =

(a) Find the rovers coordinates and distance from the lander at

t = 2.0 s.

(b) Find the rovers displacement and average velocity vectors for

the interval t = 0.0 s to t = 2.0 s.

(c) Find a general expression for the rovers instantaneous velocity

vector. Express its velocity at t = 2.0 s in component form and in

terms of magnitude and direction.

Solution:

( )t v

x

2

s m 50 . 0 = ( ) ( )

2 3

s m 075 . 0 s m 0 . 1 t v

y

+ =

20

Examples 3.1, 3.2, & 3.3 (cont)

(d) Find the components of the average acceleration for the

interval t = 0.0 s to t = 2.0 s.

(e) Find the instantaneous acceleration at t = 2.0 s.

(f) Find the parallel and perpendicular components of the

acceleration at t = 2.0 s.

Solution (cont):

2

s m 50 . 0 =

x

a

( )t a

y

3

s m 15 . 0 =

At t = 2.0 s,

s m 0 . 1 =

x

v

s m 3 . 1 =

y

v

2

s m 50 . 0 =

x

a

2

s m 30 . 0 =

y

a

21

Uniform circular motion

When a particle moves in a circle of radius R with constant

speed v, the motion is called uniform circular motion.

There is no component of acceleration parallel (tangent) to the

path; otherwise, the speed would change the acceleration

vector is perpendicular (normal) to the path and hence directed

inward (never outward!) toward the center of the circular path.

T

R

v

t

=

2

22

Uniform circular motion (cont)

R

v

a

2

rad

=

Proof:

v

v

R

s

A

=

A

~ | A

R

v

t

s

R

v

t

v

a

t t

2

0 0

rad

lim lim =

A

A

=

A

A

=

A A

magnitude a

rad

of the

instantaneous acceleration is

equal to the square of the speed

v divided by the radius R of the

circle. Its direction is

perpendicular to v and inward

along the radius centripetal

acceleration.

v

2

2

rad

4

T

R

a

t

=

23

Nonuniform circular motion

When a particle moves in a circle of radius R with a varying

speed v, the motion is called nonuniform circular motion.

R

v

a

2

rad

=

dt

dv

a =

tan

2

tan

2

rad

a a a + =

Remark 4:

24

Relative velocity

In general, when two observers A and B measure the velocity of a

moving body P, they get different results if one observer (B) is

moving relative to the other (A).

A B B P A P

r r r

+ =

A B B P A P

r

dt

d

r

dt

d

r

dt

d

+ =

A B B P A P

v v v

+ =

25

Relative velocity (cont)

A B B P A P

v v v

+ =

Peter

Alice

Betty

26

Example 3.14 and 3.15

An airplanes compass indicates that it is headed due north, and

its airspeed indicator shows that it is moving through the air at

240 km/h. If there is a 100-km/h wind from west to east,

(a) what is the velocity of the airplane relative to the earth?

(b) in what direction should the pilot head to travel due north?

What will be her velocity relative to the earth?

j v

240

air plane

=

i v

100

earth air

=

j i v v v

240

100

earth air air plane earth plane

+ = + =

Solution: The velocity of the plane relative to the air,

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