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# 1

## Motion in Two or Three Dimensions

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Projectile motion
A projectile is any body that is given an initial velocity and then
follows a path (its trajectory) determined entirely by the effects
of gravitational acceleration and air resistance. Here, we consider
an idealized model, representing the projectile as a particle with
an acceleration due to gravity that is constant in both magnitude
and direction, and neglecting the effects of air resistance, and the
curvature and rotation of the earth.
0
o
0 0 0
coso = v v
x
0 0 0
sin o = v v
y
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Projectile motion (cont)
Remark 1: Projectile motion is two-dimensional, always confined
to a vertical plane determined by the direction of the initial
velocity the acceleration due to gravity being purely vertical
cant accelerate the projectile sideways.
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Projectile motion (cont)
Remark 2: We can treat the x-
and y-coordinates separately.
The trajectory of a projectile is
a combination of horizontal
motion with constant velocity
and vertical motion with
constant acceleration.
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Projectile motion (cont)
0 =
x
a
g a
y
=
0 0 0
coso = = v v v
x x
gt v gt v v
y y
o = =
0 0 0
sin
At t = 0, x
0
= y
0
= 0, v
0x
= v
0
coso
0
, and v
0y
= v
0
sino
0
. For t > 0,
( )t v x
0 0
coso =
The trajectory is a parabola:
( )
( )
2
2
0 0
0
cos 2
tan x
v
g
x y
o
o =
( )
2
0 0
2
1
sin gt t v y o =
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Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile
A batter hits a baseball so that it leaves the bat at speed v
0
= 37.0
m/s at an angle of o
0
= 53.1
o
. (a) Find the position of the ball
and its velocity at t = 2.00 s. (b) Find the time when the ball
reaches the highest point of its flight, and its height h at this time.
(c) Find the horizontal range R that is, the horizontal distance
from the starting point to where the ball hits the ground.
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Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile (cont)
Solution:
At t = 2.00 s,
( ) m 4 . 44 cos
0 0
~ o = t v x
( ) m 6 . 39
2
1
sin
2
0 0
~ o = gt t v y
s m 2 . 22 cos
0 0
~ o = v v
x
s m 0 . 10 sin
0 0
~ o = gt v v
y
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Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile (cont)
Solution (cont):
At the highest point of its flight,
0 sin
1 0 0
= o = gt v v
y
s 02 . 3
sin
0 0
1
~
o
=
g
v
t
g
v
h
2
sin
0
2 2
0
o
=
( ) m 7 . 44
2
1
sin
2
1 1 0 0
~ o = gt t v h
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Example 3.7 Height and range of a projectile (cont)
Solution (cont):
When the ball hits the ground,
( ) 0
2
1
sin
2
0 0
= o = gt t v y
s 04 . 6
sin 2
0 0
~
o
=
g
v
t
( ) m 134 cos
0 0
~ o = t v R
g
v
g
v
R
0
2
0 0 0
2
0
2 sin cos sin 2 o
=
o o
=
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Example 3.10 The zookeeper and the monkey
A monkey escapes from the zoo and climbs a tree. After failing to
entice the monkey down, the zookeeper fires a tranquilizer
dart directly at the monkey. The monkey lets go at the
instant the dart leaves the gun. Show that the dart will always hit
the monkey, provided that the dart reaches the monkey before he
hits the ground and runs away.
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Example 3.10 The zookeeper and the monkey (cont)
( )t v x
0 0 dart
coso =
( )
2
0 0 dart
2
1
sin gt t v y o =
2
0 monkey
2
1
tan gt d y o =
2
0 dart dart
2
1
tan gt x y o =
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Position vector
To describe the motion of a particle in space, we must first be
able to describe the particles position. Consider a particle that
is at a point P at a certain instant.
The Cartesian coordinates x, y,
and z of point P are the x-, y-,
and z-components of the
position vector of the particle
at this instant:
k z j y i x r

+ + =

## this vector goes from the

origin of the coordinate system
to the point P.
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Average velocity vector
Suppose during a time interval At = t
2
t
1
, the particle moves
from P
1
to P
2
. The displacement (change in position) during
this interval is
( ) ( ) ( )k z z j y y i x x r r r

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
+ + = A

The average velocity during
this interval,
1 2
1 2
av
t t
r r
t
r
v

=
A
A

Note
k
t
z
j
t
y
i
t
x
v

av
A
A
+
A
A
+
A
A
=

k
t t
z z
j
t t
y y
i
t t
x x

1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2

=
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Instantaneous velocity vector
The (instantaneous) velocity is the limit of the average velocity
as the time interval approaches zero it equals the instantaneous
rate of change of position with time.
dt
r d
t
r
v
t

=
A
A

A 0
lim
Note
k
t
z
j
t
y
i
t
x
v
t t t

lim

lim

lim
0 0 0
A
A
+
A
A
+
A
A
=
A A A

k v j v i v k
dt
dz
j
dt
dy
i
dt
dx
z y x

+ + = + + =
The magnitude of the
(instantaneous) velocity vector,
i.e., the speed, is given by
2 2 2
z y x
v v v v v + + = =

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The acceleration vector
Suppose during a time interval
At = t
2
t
1
, the particle moves
from P
1
to P
2
. The change in
velocity vector during this
interval is
1 2
v v v

A
The average acceleration
during this interval,
1 2
1 2
av
t t
v v
t
v
a

=
A
A

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The acceleration vector (cont)
Note
k
t t
v v
j
t t
v v
i
t t
v v
k
t
v
j
t
v
i
t
v
a
z z
y y
x x z
y
x

1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
av

=
A
A
+
A
A
+
A
A
=

dt
v d
t
v
a
t

=
A
A

A 0
lim
Note
k
t
v
j
t
v
i
t
v
a
z
t
y
t
x
t

lim

lim

lim
0 0 0
A
A
+
A
A
+
A
A
=
A A A

k a j a i a k
dt
dv
j
dt
dv
i
dt
dv
z y x
z
y
x

+ + = + + =
The (instantaneous) acceleration is
the limit of the average acceleration as
the time interval approaches zero it
equals the instantaneous rate of
change of velocity with time.
k
dt
z d
j
dt
y d
i
dt
x d

2
2
2
2
2
2
+ + =
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The acceleration vector (cont)
Remark 3: Parallel & perpendicular components of acceleration
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19
Examples 3.1, 3.2, & 3.3
A robotic vehicle, or rover, is exploring the surface of Mars. The
stationary Mars lander is the origin of coordinates, and the
surrounding Martian surface lies in the xy-plane. The rover, which
we represent as a point, has x- and y-coordinates that vary with
time:
( )
2 2
s m 25 . 0 m 0 . 2 t x = ( ) ( )
3 3
s m 025 . 0 s m 0 . 1 t t y + =
(a) Find the rovers coordinates and distance from the lander at
t = 2.0 s.
(b) Find the rovers displacement and average velocity vectors for
the interval t = 0.0 s to t = 2.0 s.
(c) Find a general expression for the rovers instantaneous velocity
vector. Express its velocity at t = 2.0 s in component form and in
terms of magnitude and direction.
Solution:
( )t v
x
2
s m 50 . 0 = ( ) ( )
2 3
s m 075 . 0 s m 0 . 1 t v
y
+ =
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Examples 3.1, 3.2, & 3.3 (cont)
(d) Find the components of the average acceleration for the
interval t = 0.0 s to t = 2.0 s.
(e) Find the instantaneous acceleration at t = 2.0 s.
(f) Find the parallel and perpendicular components of the
acceleration at t = 2.0 s.
Solution (cont):
2
s m 50 . 0 =
x
a
( )t a
y
3
s m 15 . 0 =
At t = 2.0 s,
s m 0 . 1 =
x
v
s m 3 . 1 =
y
v
2
s m 50 . 0 =
x
a
2
s m 30 . 0 =
y
a
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Uniform circular motion
When a particle moves in a circle of radius R with constant
speed v, the motion is called uniform circular motion.
There is no component of acceleration parallel (tangent) to the
path; otherwise, the speed would change the acceleration
vector is perpendicular (normal) to the path and hence directed
inward (never outward!) toward the center of the circular path.
T
R
v
t
=
2
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Uniform circular motion (cont)
R
v
a
2
rad
=
Proof:
v
v
R
s

A
=
A
~ | A
R
v
t
s
R
v
t
v
a
t t
2
0 0
rad
lim lim =
A
A
=
A
A
=
A A

## In uniform circular motion, the

magnitude a
rad
of the
instantaneous acceleration is
equal to the square of the speed
v divided by the radius R of the
circle. Its direction is
perpendicular to v and inward
along the radius centripetal
acceleration.
v

2
2
rad
4
T
R
a
t
=
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Nonuniform circular motion
When a particle moves in a circle of radius R with a varying
speed v, the motion is called nonuniform circular motion.
R
v
a
2
rad
=
dt
dv
a =
tan
2
tan
2
rad
a a a + =
Remark 4:
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Relative velocity
In general, when two observers A and B measure the velocity of a
moving body P, they get different results if one observer (B) is
moving relative to the other (A).
A B B P A P
r r r

+ =
A B B P A P
r
dt
d
r
dt
d
r
dt
d
+ =
A B B P A P
v v v

+ =
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Relative velocity (cont)
A B B P A P
v v v

+ =
Peter
Alice
Betty
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Example 3.14 and 3.15
An airplanes compass indicates that it is headed due north, and
its airspeed indicator shows that it is moving through the air at
240 km/h. If there is a 100-km/h wind from west to east,
(a) what is the velocity of the airplane relative to the earth?
(b) in what direction should the pilot head to travel due north?
What will be her velocity relative to the earth?
j v

240
air plane
=

i v

100
earth air
=

## The velocity of the plane relative to the earth,

j i v v v

240

100
earth air air plane earth plane
+ = + =

Solution: The velocity of the plane relative to the air,