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Ch.

5: CLASSICAL GREECE
Todays Musical Selection: Troy 2004 Movie Soundtrack

AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Loessins World History Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50

TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Identify the ways geography and climate shaped Greek life. Explain the rise and development of Mycenaean civilization. Describe how Homer and Greek myths contributed to early Greek culture.

AGENDA: Please Begin your Warm-up Immediately !

WARM-UP Begin labeling your Map in packet, p. 16b


INTRODUCTION to UNIT and Project I assignment DISCUSSION of Section 1, Text p. 111 / Packet p. 4 DAILY QUIZ

NEXT ASSIGNMENT: Read Chapter 5, Section 2 and complete p. 5 in packet MANDATORY TEXTBOOK CHECK TOMORROW !

GREECE

Crete The Island of Crete in the time of the ancient Minoans (ancestors of the Greeks?)

The Palace of Knossos was first excavated in 1878 A.D. Covering 20,000 sq. meters, this was the palatial center of the Minoan civilization and dates back to 1700 B.C.

The most recognizable symbol of Crete's power: the bull. In Knossos' palace there are many depictions of bulls, including in the sport of bull jumping. The most famous example of the bull being used is the Minotaur, a powerful half man half bull that devoured the flesh of Athenian men. < The painting on this piece of pottery shows the mythological ending of the Minoans power. Here the hero, Theseus, who was aided by Ariadne, slays the half man half bull creature. Later in time, Athens became the premier power. < A disk with the Minoan Cretan's writing. There were three different types of writing that have been discovered: a hieroglyphic script, Linear A, and Linear B. The writing became necessary for trade and to keep track of built up wealth.

GREECE

Crete

1. What were three important features of Minoan culture on Crete?

Minoan mosaic

The beautiful island of Santorina (Thera) today is actually what remains of the volcanic crater that erupted and caused the cataclysmic destruction.

A peaceful people, Sea-faring Traders (Mariners) Excelled in Art Mosaics and Frescoes Would have influence on Greece later Worshipped female goddesses women as priestesses Volcanic eruption / earthquakes ended their civilization around 1200 B.C.

Bas relief depicting Phoenician sea-traders

2.

How did the Phoenicians spread their culture? TRADE

Byblos Bible Bibliography. < the great library

2.

How did the Phoenicians spread their culture?

TRADE 3. Why were trade networks so important? CULTURAL DIFFUSION

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Labeling Map

WARM-UP:

Begin labeling your map of Greece !


Enjoy the traditional Greek music!

MACEDONIA

Black Sea

Troy Aegean Sea MAINLAND Ionian Sea ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

IONIA Greek colonies

Athens Mycenae . PELOPONNESUS CYCLADES Sparta

Mediterranean Sea CRETE


PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

The people of Greece do not call their country Greece ! nor do they call themselves Greeks !

In their language their land is called


In their language they are the

(Hellas)

OS (Hellenes)

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Students BRAINSTORM: What do you know about the History of the Olympics ?

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Model of the sanctuary of Olympia.

The Olympics began in 776 B.C.


Originally part of a religious festival dedicated to the ancient Greek god Zeus. Wars between the city-states were suspended so that athletes could compete. The ancient Olympics were a total entertainment package for all who attended where five days of sometimes brutal sports competition mixed with wild partying.

The ancient games ended in 394 A.D.


The new Christian Roman emperor Theodosius banned all pagan festivals. Christians were oppossed to the Olympic Games a celebration of the human body, men covered in olive oil running around naked, drinking, fornicating, the whole bit. The end came as an incredible shock to the psyche of the ancient Greeks. They had assumed quite logically that the games would go on forever a time every four years when men put their differences aside and came together in the fraternity of athletic competition. The Discus Thrower was originally a bronze work by the Greek sculptor Myron. The famous great work of marble that we all recognize today is a Roman copy.

Linking the past.


Little is ever mentioned about the many, many attempts of the Greeks to revive the Olympic Games, long before the birth of the Baron de Coubertin. Yet, it is Coubertin who is given credit. Coubertin was a French aristocrat who was only seven years old when France was overrun by the Germans during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Coubertin attributed the defeat of France not to its military skills but rather to the French soldiers lack of vigor. Coubertin decided it was exercise, more specifically sports, that made a well-rounded and vigorous person. And so he began his crusade to revive the games. Many people truly contributed to the realization of the new Olympic Games. Baron Pierre de Coubertin The 19th century structure of the worlds new national states was ideal now for the the man who inspired the gradual acceptance of the Olympic Idea - a new national framework would replace revival of the Olympic Games. the old Greek city-state competition. The Olympics are revived in 1896.

Finally, in 1896, the 1st International Olympic Games took place in Athens. A wealthy Greek architect, Georgios Averoff, donated one million drachmas (over $100,000) to restore the Panathenaic Stadium, originally built in 330 BCE with white marble for the new 1896 Olympic Games. There were 14 nations, with the largest delegations coming from Greece, Germany, France and Great Britain. On 6 April 1896, the American James Connolly won the triple jump to become the first Olympic champion in more than 1,500 years!

Commemorative medal of the 1896 Olympic Games

Linking the past. to the present !

The Greeks were thrilled to be able to host the Olympics once again this year in 2004. It gave them a chance to showcase Athens, their capital, and to teach the world history again. Throughout the games, television viewers all over the world were reminded of where not only the Olympics began but where indeed it was here our Western Civilization was born !!!

Fireworks illuminate a dramatic performance at the $27 billion dollar Sports Complex Olympic Stadium during the closing ceremony of the Athens 2004 Summer Olympic Games. KODAK Olympic Journal Summer Games in Athens 2004 Medal count Athens 2004 Interactive Map History Timeline since 1896.

Besides the Olympics, GREECE was the starting line for many cultural achievements found in our society today.
Students BRAINSTORM: What else do you recall as part of the historic Legacy of The Greeks ?

Southwestern University students on a 1985 Study Abroad trip stand on the original starting line for the Olympic footrace.

ARCHITECTURE SCULPTURE SCIENCES

PHILOSOPHY

U.S. Supreme Court Building

The Legacy of THE GREEKS to Western Civilization


THEATER

DEMOCRACY

U.S. Constitution

Please pull out your Project I assignment !


PROJECT I Tuesday, Sept. 28 ! The Greeks DATE DUE: _________________________
TASK OBJECTIVE: The student will design a creative presentation that highlights one individual or other subject chosen from the Ancient, Classical, or Hellenistic periods in Greek history. See back of handout for List of Suggested Subjects ! PRESENTATION Options*: ART POSTER (Full-zize posterboard with 2-page, 10 pt. Font, typed paper attached or incorporated into the poster design. See Criteria List for information to include in your presentation. A list of Works Cited / Referenced in preparing your assignment should also be attached.)
Students may suggest other means of presenting their subject webpage design, miniature model of Greek temple or theater, plaster bust of a Greek figure, etc. Prior approval must be obtained from the instructor.

POWERPOINT (Saved to 3.5 floppy or CD-Rom, the presentation must include sufficient slides with appropriate graphics and associated text to address fully the Criteria List. A list of Works Cited / Referenced in preparing your assignment should also be attached.)

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GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea Text p. 111; Packet p. 4
Lets begin our first Objective by examining the effect geography had on the development of ancient Greece.

MACEDONIA

Black Sea

Troy Aegean Sea MAINLAND Ionian Sea ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

Marathon

Athens Mycenae . PELOPONNESUS CYCLADES Sparta

IONIA Greek colonies

Mediterranean Sea CRETE


PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea Text p. 111; Packet p. 4
CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

1.

Location around a sea

Provided transportation links for the various regions of Greece. Connected Greece to other societies / civilizations through trade.
See textbook map, p. 112

Cruising around the coastlines of Greece today.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

Greek fishermen.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea Text p. 111; Packet p. 4
CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

1.

Location around a sea

Provided transportation links for the various regions of Greece. Connected Greece to other societies / civilizations through trade. Made unification of Greek city-states difficult. Therefore, Greek city-states would be proudly independent, competitive, isolated societies. Made land transportation difficult.

2.

Rugged mountains

The ruins of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi Greece.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea Text p. 111; Packet p. 4
CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

1.

Location around a sea

Provided transportation links for the various regions of Greece. Connected Greece to other societies / civilizations through trade. Made unification of Greek city-states difficult. Therefore, Greek city-states would be proudly independent, competitive, isolated societies. Made land transportation difficult. Only 20% was arable (suitable for farming). Resulted in small population whose diet was mainly grains, grapes, olives. Also, led to the need for colonies.

2. 3.

Rugged mountains Little fertile farmland

Picking and Pressing Olives

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea Text p. 111; Packet p. 4
3. Little fertile farmland led the Greeks to send their people out to colonize elsewhere.

MACEDONIA

Black Sea

Troy Aegean Sea MAINLAND Ionian Sea ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

IONIA Greek colonies

Athens Mycenae . PELOPONNESUS CYCLADES Sparta

Mediterranean Sea CRETE


PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 Cultures of the Mountains & the Sea Text p. 112; Packet p. 4
CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

1.

Location around a sea

Provided transportation links for the various regions of Greece. Connected Greece to other societies / civilizations through trade. Made unification of Greek city-states difficult. Therefore, Greek city-states would be proudly independent, competitive, isolated societies. Made land transportation difficult. Only 20% was arable (suitable for farming). Resulted in small population whose diet based on grains, grapes, olives. Also, led to the need for colonies. Greek life was centered around the outdoors taking part in an active civic life in city marketplaces, open-air Temples and gymnasiums.

2. 3.

Rugged mountains Little fertile farmland

4.

Moderate climate

Greece has a beautiful, moderate climate. A constant 80 degrees Farenheit throughout the summer makes it a holiday destination for Europeans and international travelers < Greece: the Land even today! (Lands, Peoples &

Cultures) available at Amazon.com and your library.

Read Text p. 112; Myceaean Civilization Develops -The Mycenaeans were part of the Indo-European migrations - settled on Greek mainland ca. 2,000 B.C. - Their leading city, Mycenae. - Invaded Crete and finished off the Minoans. - From the Minoans they learned the importance of becoming sea-borne traders. - May have been the terrifying sea peoples? mentioned in Egyptian records. (recall CH 4.) - Preserved and assimilated elements of Minoan culture into their own.

STOP!
When did the Mycenaean Civilization flourish?

Mycenaean port

GREECE: Myceaean Civilization Develops Text p. 113; Packet p. 4


CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

5.

Mycenaean invasions

Mycenaeans adopted and spread Minoan culture through Greece, including legends that would form the core of Greek religion, politics, and literature / myths.

CRITICAL THINKING:
Can you describe another such instance of cultural diffusion weve already discussed one in which the old religious ideas of one group were assimilated into the new religion. The Minoans on Crete designed mosaics of seashells and painted beautiful frescoes on Theseus slaying the Minotaur the walls of their homes depicting their is an example of a Greek myth that daily life as well as myths about their gods. originated with the Minoans on Crete. The Mycenaeans invaded the Minoans and

adopted their same religious myths !

Read about The Trojan War - Text p. 113

Was there really a Trojan War ?


- For many years it was thought the legends found in Homers epic, the Illiad, were fictional. - In 1870, archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann believes he discovered the site. - Troy appears to have been destroyed around 1200 B.C. by a war the city lost.

<< Because Paris stole Helen? STOP!


Remember Achilles, Paris, Helen, Hector?

- It is believed today the wars cause was: Troy and the Mycenaeans were competing for a crucial waterway connecting the Mediterranean to the Black Sea.

The Trojan Horse story is still loved today and coined the familiar saying, Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.
The hilltop excavation of Troy in todays northwestern Turkey.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 1 The Trojan War Text p. 113


Troy and the Mycenaeans were competing for a crucial waterway connecting the Mediterranean to the Black Sea.

MACEDONIA
Dardanelles Strait

Black Sea

Troy Aegean Sea MAINLAND Ionian Sea ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

IONIA Greek colonies

Athens Myceneane . PELOPONNESUS CYCLADES Sparta

Mediterranean Sea CRETE


PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

For all practical purposes, Western literature begins with the Iliad. We still use expressions like Achilles heel, Trojan horse, or the face that launched a thousand ships, all with roots in the Iliad or the mythic cycle on which it is based, nearly 3,000 years after the poem was written. And, at least in terms of the number of copies to survive from antiquity, the poems of Homer are second only to the Bible in popularity. Iliad means the story of Ilion, the Greek name for Troy. The epic poem has much more to say about Achilles and Hector than it does about Troy. As the first word of the Greek text suggests (Rage! Goddess, sing the rage of Peleuss son Achilles), this poem has a lot to do with anger that can consume and cripple an individual. Honor, glory, and fate are also themes of this great work of Western literature.

Appreciating Classic Literature

Rage! Goddess, sing the rage of Peleuss son Achilles

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Myceaean Civilization Develops Text p. 113; Packet p. 4


CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

5.

Mycenaean invasions

Mycenaeans adopted and spread Minoan culture through Greece, including legends that would form the core of Greek religion, politics, and literature / myths.

6.

The Trojan War

The wars story provided the basis for Greek legends and Homers epics (Illiad and the Odyssey). The war may have contributed to the collapse of Mycenaean civilization.

GREECE: Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Text p. 113; Packet p. 4
CAUSE

A. How did each of the following effect the Greek civilizations History and Culture

EFFECT

5.

Mycenaean invasions

Mycenaeans adopted and spread Minoan culture through Greece, including legends that would form the core of Greek religion, politics, and literature / myths.

6.

The Trojan War

The wars story provided the basis for Greek legends and Homers epics (Illiad and the Odyssey). The war may have contributed to the collapse of Mycenaean civilization.
Led to Greeces Dark Ages a decline in economy, trade, and even writing. A period we know little about since no written records were kept.

7. Collapse of Mycenaean civilization

The Dorians STOP!


Who invaded Mycenae Greece around 12001100 B.C.?

- Distant relatives of the Bronze-Age Greeks - Were they taking revenge on the Indo-European Mycenaeans for invading their land centuries earlier? -Spoke a dialect of Greek, but were far less advanced than the Mycenaeans. -Greeks appear to forget the art of writing This is the Greek Dark Ages no written records for 400 years (1150-750 B.C.)
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GREECE: Epics of Homer / Greeks Create Myths Text p. 114; Packet p. 4

B. Explain the significance of the epics of Homer and myths in ancient Greek culture.

During the Greeks Dark Ages, the story of the Trojan War was passed on through the spoken word (oral tradition). According to Greek tradition, their greatest storyteller was a blind man named Homer. Homers two greatest epic poems are the Iliad and the Odyssey, both dealing with the Trojan War and are believed to have been written around 750-700 B.C. Epics are long, narrative poems that celebrate heroic deeds. The heroes of the Iliad are warriors: the fierce Greek, Achilles, and the courageous and noble Hector of Troy. The Iliad gives us a good example of the Greek idea of arte, meaning virtue and excellence. A Greek could display this ideal on the battlefield, in combat, in political life, or in athletic contest. The Odyssey concerns the adventures of Odysseus on his return home from defeating the Trojans.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Epics of Homer / Greeks Create Myths Text p. 114; Packet p. 4

B. Explain the significance of the epics of Homer and myths in ancient Greek culture.
The Greeks developed a rich set of myths ~ traditional stories of a particular culture passed on for many years. The Greeks developed extensive myths about their gods. Like the religious myths found in most cultures, the Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions. For example, myths explained the changing of the seasons, the cause of lightening, etc. Human qualities such as love, hate, and jealousy were attributed to the Greek gods. Check it out COOL WEBSITES
http://www.mythweb.com/

also
http://www.pantheon.org/areas/myt hology/europe/greek/articles.html

Find other helpful websites that could help you with your PROJECT I on the inside front cover of your packet. 40 ft. gold statue of Zeus in the Temple at Olympia The
was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Artist conception of the 40 ft. statue of Athena that once stood in the Parthenon (the Temple to Athena) in Athens.

A visit to the Greek isles is an unforgettable experience for all who get the chance. The British poet Lord Byron became such a Romantic for this birthplace of Western Civilization he joined the Greeks in their nationalist revolution against the Ottomans in the 19th c.

THE isles of Greece! the isles of Greece Where burning Sappho loved and sung, Where grew the arts of war and peace, Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung! Eternal summer gilds them yet, But all, except their sun, is set.
~ Lord Byron, 19th c.

Island of Santorini today

GREECE: Text p. 115, Rule and Order in Greek City States / Handout, Identifying Terms
After the fall of the Mycenaean and Minoan civilizations, Greek culture retrogressed for 300 years into a period of Dark Ages. The invading Dorians were illiterate. Cities were destroyed and plundered. Eventually cities began to grow again. These cities were walled for protection. Each city-state was independent of each other.

I.

VOCABULARY

A. polis the Greek city-state It was a political unit, and included the central city and surrounding countryside (which could include numerous villages as well).

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GREECE: Text p. 115, Rule and Order in Greek City States / Handout, Identifying Terms

The city state, or polis, was the dominant governmental structure of Ancient Greece. Describe: 1. The polis was small in size. Athens was the largest, yet at its height had only 40,000 people. 2. Each polis had an acropolis a high point, where the governmental and religious buildings were constructed. 3. The market-place, or agora, was the meeting-place for most of the people and was the economic center of the polis. 4. The surrounding farmland supported the large population inside the walled cities.

I.
Study the photo: What natural feature can you detect that made the old city-state of Athens easy to defend?

VOCABULARY

A. polis the Greek city-state


B. acropolis high point of It was a political unit, the polis, usually a and included the central city fortified hilltop, where and civic buildings were surrounding countryside located. (which could the marketplace C. agora include numerous villages as well). and economic center of the polis.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

An aerial view today of the acropolis in Athens, Greece.

GREECE: Text p. 115, Rule and Order in Greek City States / Handout, Identifying Terms

EARLY LACK OF UNITY AMONG THE GREEK CITY-STATES

Explain why:
Separated by barriers of sea and mountains, by local pride and jealousy, The independent city states never considered uniting their independent Greek-speaking city-states into one single political unit. They formed alliances only when some other powerful city-state embarked on conquest and attempted to dominate over the rest. LATER GREEKS WILL BECOME UNITED Explain what influences led to eventual unity: a common language, common religion, common literature, similar customs, the religious festivals, the Olympic Games But even in times of foreign invasion it was difficult to induce the cities to act together. As we will see tomorrow, the threat of the mighty Persian Empire would finally unite the Greeks together against a common enemy but not without persistent inner-squabbling!

I.

VOCABULARY

A. polis the Greek city-state B. acropolis high point of It was a political unit, the polis, usually a and included the central city fortified hilltop, where and civic buildings were surrounding countryside located. (which could the marketplace C. agora include numerous villages as well). and economic center of the polis.

GREECE: Text p. 117, Greek Political Structures / Handout, Identifying Terms


Students,

TYPES of GOVERNMENT
MONARCHY
A state / nation ruled by a king or queen. Rule is usually passed on in hereditary fashion. Some rulers in early times claimed Divine right Mycenae had a monarchy (ca. 1450 B.C.)

All the Terms on todays handout from CH 5, Sec. 2 will be on Fridays MAJOR QUIZ !

ARISTOCRACY
State ruled by nobility (the land-owning families) Rule is hereditary / based on land-ownership Social status / wealth support rulers authority Athens had an aristocracy in its early history (594 B.C.)

OLIGARCHY
State ruled by a small group of elite citizens Rule is based on wealth The ruling elite group controls the military Sparta had an oligarchy (800-600 B.C.) GREECE: See chart in Textbook p. 117
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Text p. 115, A New Kind of Army Emerges / Handout, Identifying Terms

THE IRON AGE BRINGS CHANGE


Iron, harder than bronze, but more importantly, cheaper! This meant ordinary citizens could now arm themselves. Citizen-soldiers composed of merchants, artisans, small landowners were now expected to defend the polis.

Hoplites foot soldiers


stood side-by-side, holding a spear in one hand, shield in the other formed the Phalanx a fearsome battlefield formation of hoplite soldiers, The most powerful fighting force in the Ancient World.
The phalanx formation called for each trust his If thereIt was a sightsomefriend,manlover. With neighboring were only equally awfultoand terrifyingain his wayorof contriving infantryman, often times a relative, whenright, each man depended on hisshield they marched in step a fellow left hand and a spear in his state or anfor full body coverage. of lovers and and lost army made up Battles were won their with the rhythm of the flute, hoplite's shield depending onwithout any gap to very bestof fighting at the phalanx's ability in their formation. Lined loves, they would be the hold itsline - battle, shoulder to shoulder with approximately sixty-five pounds of armor, limited each and hearing, with willing to die theirthe love at and a hoplite's crucial duties required little tactical skill, vision other's side, no confusion in for souls, only to push forwardcalmly and line together.moving their man's ability to wouldnervethe most confusion and rose side, but and keep thebe amidst such fearsome they keep his cheerfully Outstanding valor from a with the one that could overcome rested on fellow brutality. In such a scene, the outcome of to their deadly fight. army and strains of their hymn the battle the world. soldiers love and trust for one another. ~ Plato,T. Loessin; Akins High School; ~ Plutarch, Lycurgus 22.2-3 Symposium Pre-A.P. World History PP Design of The

GREECE: Text p. 115, Tyrants Seize Power / Handout, Identifying Terms

When no wars among city-states were being fought, the armed and powerful citizen-soldiers could become troublesome for city-state rulers. Unemployed farmers and debt-ridden artisans often joined in revolts against the nobility.
In such times arose leaders called tyrants powerful individuals who gained control by appealing to the poor and discontented for support.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

As we have seen, the Greek city-states had various types of government monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, and even tyranny (rule by tyrants). But the two most powerful city-states would find completely new ways to govern themselves.

Sparta would build a strict Military State and Athens would create the worlds first Limited Democracy!
Ionian Sea IONIA Greek colonies Athens

MAINLAND

PELOPONNESUS
Sparta

Mediterranean Sea

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 Sparta Builds a Military State Text p. 116; Packet p. 5

A. Recognizing Facts and Details


725 B.C. Sparta conquers Messenia

1. How did the Spartans treat the Messenians? Made them helots peasants forced to work the Spartan land had to turn over of all crops to the Spartans.

The Peloponnesus region


Please have your homework,
Packet p. 5
When the SpartansStudents, realized they needed more arable land they looked to the southwest to the more fertile soil of Messenia.

Think About It

Out on your desk during our class discussions so that I can Sparta Messenia .eye it!

Helots were Messenians who the Spartans What brought in had conquered and risk is thereback to Sparta conquering an entire large to do their work, treated like slaves, forced to population a Spartan noblemans be tied for generations toof people, forcing them to leave their lands. land and work your lands instead? They worked the land around Sparta in order for the Spartan males to focus on their superior military training.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 Sparta Builds a Military State Text p. 116; Packet p. 5

A. Recognizing Facts and Details


725 B.C. Sparta conquers Messenia

1. How did the Spartans treat the Messenians? Made them helots peasants forced to work the Spartan land had to turn over of all crops to the Spartans. 2.

600 B.C. Spartans put down a revolt

by Messenians

3. What type of society did Sparta create in response to the revolt? Sparta creates a tough, militaristic state. Rigorous military training was the life of the Spartan male The Greek historian Herodotus 60. reports from Video clip: the age of 7 to that The Messenian helots outnumbered the Spartans just before themales8 to 1. The History 20 Battle of Thermoplyae, At age Channel were allowed to marry a Spartan warrior named Dienekes was presentsin order to procreate, told that the Persian livestaged a revolt, Not Spartans but The surprisingly, to archers could barracks the men continued they in their own blank Spartans were one which theoutone another. just barely with the sun The entire program to put down. able with their full volley of arrows. is available replied He from your instructor "Good, then we shall have our for Illustration depicting At left: 2-day checkout. the famous legend of the Spartan boy battle in the shade."
who, being so disciplined, stood at attention before a superior while a fox he had hid beneath his tunic chewed away at his stomach.

An old man wandering around the Olympic Games looking for a seat was jeered at by the crowd until he reached the seats of the Spartans, where every Spartan younger than him, and some that were older, stood up and offered him their seat. The crowd applauded and the old man turned to them with a sigh, saying, "All Greeks know what is honorable and right, but only the Spartans do it!"

"Come back with your shield - or on it" was supposed to be the parting cry of mothers to their sons. According to the writer Plutarch, Mothers whose sons died in battle openly rejoiced, mothers whose sons survived hung their heads in shame.

Asked why it was dishonorable to return without a shield and not without a helmet, the Spartan king, Demaratos, is said to have replied: "Because the latter they put on for their own protection, but the shield for the common good of all." (Plutarch)

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Text p. 117; Packet p. 5

A. Recognizing Facts and Details


621 B.C. Draco writes the first legal code.

2. What was the primary cause of conflict between rich and poor in Athens? The poor wanted more political rights / power. Debt slavery intensified the conflict.

In contrast to Sparta, Read Textbook, top of p. 117 in Athens In Athens, and other Greek city-states In both outlook and values, girls didnt attend school boys few fortunate ones Athens constrasted sharply with Sparta. but a attended school from about 7 14. did have private tutors. Boys learned arithmetic, An ambassador from the city-state of Corinth reading, writing, and In general, READ Textbook, p. 117: Political and Economic Reforms memorized the heroic epic once compared the Spartans to the Athenians women focused their attention poems of Homer. on child-rearing, in a speech to the Spartan assembly. Music,Whencloth lyre,of peasants agreed to thwart the attempt of an Athenian nobleman especiallygroup a the weaving wasshown here), to establish a tyranny, (as also stressed. Young men mastered the art of He told the Spartans that they had the strongest preparing meals, they demanded infor return that the citys aristocrats write a code of laws for all the people. Debating and, to prepare army in Greece, but they were too cautious. and managing the household. battle, took up wrestling or He also said that the Spartans other sports. They got more than they bargained for. lacked imagination and curiosity. Wealthy parents frequently made arrangements to place theirDracos code was harsh and included the idea of debt slavery. son Athenians, he said, were always eager to learn with an older male tutor new ideas because they had been educated to and these relationships Today, we still call harsh or unfair laws draconian in our English language. were often long-lasting. think and act as free people.

But dont be fooled Things were not always the life of leisure in the more highly cultured Athens!

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Text p. 117; Packet p. 5

A. Recognizing Facts and Details


621 B.C. Draco writes first legal code 2. What was the primary cause of conflict between

rich and poor in Athens? The poor wanted more political rights / power. Debt slavery intensified the conflict. 594 B.C. Solon chosen by aristocrats 4. What economic and political reforms did Solon initiate? He outlawed debt slavery, gave more power to to lead Athens. the peoples assembly, allowed all citizens to bring legal suits, encouraged profitable trade. for Athens.
546 B.C. Pisistratus the Tyrant,

seizes power in Athens.

5. How did Pisistratus gain the support of the poor? He provided money to the poor to buy farm stuff, creating jobs by starting public building programs to put the poor back to work.

508 B.C. Cleisthenes introduces

6. What steps did Cleisthenes take to create a first political reforms in Athens. limited Democracy in Athens? Broke up the power of the nobility by reorganizing the law assembly, allowing all citizens to submit laws. He created the Council of 500.

These reforms allowed all Athenian citizens to participate in a limited democracy, though only one-fifth of Athenian residents were classified as citizens (free, adult, males over 20.)

GREECE: See chart in Textbook p. 117

Handout, Identifying Terms

TYPES of GOVERNMENT
MONARCHY
A state / nation ruled by a king or queen. Rule is usually passed on in hereditary fashion. Some rulers in early times claimed Divine right Mycenae had a monarchy (ca. 1450 B.C.)

Linking the Past to the Present


The United States of America in the 18th c. A.D. became the worlds first Democracy since the time of the 5th c. B.C. Athenians.

ARISTOCRACY
State ruled by nobility (the land-owning families) Rule is hereditary / based on land-ownership Social status / wealth support rulers authority Athens had an aristocracy in its early history (594 B.C.)

OLIGARCHY
State ruled by a small group of elite citizens Rule is based on wealth The ruling elite group controls the military Sparta had an oligarchy (800-600 B.C.)

However, the United States has what is known as a Representative Democracy since a direct democracy
was not feasible.

DIRECT DEMOCRACY
State ruled by its citizens Rule is based on citizenship Majority rule is method of decision-making Athens had the first such Democracy (461 B.C.)

Ch. 5: CLASSICAL GREECE


Section 2: The Persian Wars
TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Identify the causes of the Persian Wars and major battles in this historic conflict. Describe the Greek military method (hoplite phalanx) Describe the consequences of the Persian Wars on the Greek homeland.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 118; Packet p. 6

I. CAUSES
A. Greek colonies in Ionia (the coast of Asia Minor) are conquered by the Persians B. Athens responds by sending aid to the colonists ships, soldiers, etc. to help them rebel against Persias presence in the area. C. King Darius of Persia defeats the rebels and vows to destroy Athens in revenge.
THE PERSIAN THREAT The Western World Feels The Heat!!
MACEDONIA

Black Sea

Byzantium

Persian Empire >>


Aegean Sea Ionian Sea Sparta

IONIA Greek colonies Athens

Darius the Great of Persia

Mediterranean Sea

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 118; Packet p. 6

II. THE BATTLES A. The Persian army larger and superior on land, but the Greeks were masters of the Sea and had the fearsome hoplite phalanx. B. The Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) 25,000 Persians vs. 10,000 Athenians The light-armored Persians not familiar with the hoplite style of warfare. Persians lost 6,500; Athenians lost 192 Athenian army fighting at Marathon realizes Persian ships are now heading toward Athens, which is defenseless in their absence. Send Pheidippides, the Marathon runner (about 26 miles) to warn the people of Athens that although the Athenian army was victorious at Marathon, the Persian ships now heading to Athens.

Persian Navy

Greek Victory at Marathon

The Olympic footrace is shown. Pheidippides had been the winner of this difficult Olympic event four times! He was the perfect choice to make the Marathon run to Athens, telling the Athenian people, Rejoice, we conquer! But prepare yourselves Athensfor Persian ships now head your way.

Linking the Past to the Present: Read about the Marathon today, Textbook p. 118

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 118; Packet p. 6

II. THE BATTLES A. The Persian army larger and superior on land, but the Greeks were masters of the Sea and had the fearsome hoplite phalanx. B. The Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) 25,000 Persians vs. 10,000 Athenians The light-armored Persians not familiar with the hoplite style of warfare. Persians lost 6,500; Athenians lost 192 Athenian army fighting at Marathon realizes Persian ships are now heading toward Athens, which is defenseless in their absence. Send Pheidippides, the Marathon runner (about 26 miles) to warn the people of Athens that although the Athenian army was victorious at Marathon, the Persian ships now heading to Athens. Athenian Greeks arrive home to Athens before Persian ships pull into harbor. The Persians retreat!
Show Video Clip Greek Victory at Marathon

Persian Navy

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 118; Packet p. 7


10 years after the amazing victory of the Athenians at Marathon, the Persians return !

II.

THE BATTLES C. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) King Darius of Persia now dead, his son, Xerxes, attempts to crush the Greeks.

See Textbook map, p. 119 Your Packet Map, p. 16b


10 years of planning an invasion of Greece that will avenge his fathers loss, Xerxes is certain his plan will work. It will involve the largest army AND the largest naval fleet ever assembled up to that day. The navy will sail along the coastline of the Aegean Sea supplying the land army on its long march. A huge bridge had to be constructed across the Hellespont .

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2: The Persian Wars

PERSIAN WARS in 480 B.C.


Major Battle Locations

MACEDONIA

Byzantium Hellespont crossing

Black Sea

Persian Army Aegean Sea


Thermopylae

.
Marathon

ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

Ionian Sea

Athens

IONIA Greek colonies

Sparta

CYCLADES

Mediterranean Sea CRETE

Persian Navy

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 118; Packet p. 7


10 years after the amazing victory of the Athenians at Marathon, the Persians return !

II.

THE BATTLES C. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) King Darius of Persia now dead, his son, Xerxes, attempts to crush the Greeks.

Greeks are divided some want to stand against the enormous Persian army / fleet;
others are bitter at Athens and think it is better to let Persia get its revenge on Athens and be done with the matter. Some Greeks even fought on the side of Persian army as it began marching down the eastern coast of Greece toward Athens.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 118; Packet p. 7


10 years after the amazing victory of the Athenians at Marathon, the Persians return !

II.

THE BATTLES C. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.)

- Persian army comes to narrow mountain pass of Thermopylae and are met by 7,000 Greeks; including 300 Spartans blocking the pass. - 3-Day fight ends after a Greek traitor tells the Persians about a secret path around the cliffs. A nightmare for the Greeks! - The Spartan force alone held the pass, allowing their fellow Greek forces safe retreat. The Spartans sacrifice all were killed made a great impression on the Greeks.
Video Clip

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2: The Persian Wars

PERSIAN WARS in 480 B.C.


Major Battle Locations

MACEDONIA

Byzantium Hellespont crossing

Black Sea

Persian Army Aegean Sea


Thermopylae

.
Salamis . Athens

ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

Ionian Sea

IONIA Greek colonies

Sparta
Mediterranean Sea
Persian Victory

CYCLADES

Persian Navy CRETE

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 119; Packet p. 7


10 years after the amazing victory of the Athenians at Marathon, the Persians return !

II.

THE BATTLES C. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) D. The Battle of Salamis - Knowing the Persians are now on their way to Athens, the Athenians take action. - Themistocles convinces the Athenians to evacuate their city and fight at sea. - Greeks position themselves in a narrow channel near island of Salamis. - Angry at finding the city empty, Xerxes burns Athens ! - Xerxes orders his ships to block the channel but the large, bulky Persian ships get trapped and the Athenian navy moves in for the kill ! ______________________________

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 119; Packet p. 8


10 years after the amazing victory of the Athenians at Marathon, the Persians return !

II.

THE BATTLES C. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) D. The Battle of Salamis - The Greeks steer their fast-moving triremes around the large Greek vessels driving their battering rams into the Persian ships hulls. Video Clip Xerxes loses 1/3 of his fleet and orders retreat.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 119; Packet p. 8


10 years after the amazing victory of the Athenians at Marathon, the Persians return !

II.

THE BATTLES C. The Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) D. The Battle of Salamis - The Greeks steer their fast-moving triremes around the large Greek vessels driving their battering rams into the Persian ships hulls. Xerxes loses 1/3 of his fleet and orders retreat. - The Spartans continue the land battle in the north and defeat the rest of the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2: The Persian Wars

PERSIAN WARS in 480 B.C.


Major Battle Locations

MACEDONIA

Byzantium Hellespont crossing

Black Sea

Persian Army Aegean Sea


Thermopylae

.
Plataea . Salamis . Athens

ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

Ionian Sea

IONIA Greek colonies

Sparta
Mediterranean Sea
Greek Victories Persian Victory

CYCLADES

Persian Navy CRETE

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 119; Packet p. 8

III. THE CONSEQUENCES of the Persian Wars

UNIFIED THE GREEKS

for a short time! A. Greeks now feel a sense of confidence and pride B. Athens rises from the ashes to bask in glory of victory and rebuild its city in a glorious fashion. C. Athens will lead the formation of an Alliance of the Greek city-states called the Delian League 1. Athens collected dues from city-state members 2. Drove the Persians from remaining Greek areas and promised to end any future threats 3. Athens will build a powerful naval empire and now Was a 40-foot tall uses it to dominate over the other Greek city-states. gold & ivory statue of Athena Athens uses the proceeds from the dues to create the really necessary, Athens? costly building projects on the Acropolis (the Parthenon, etc.) This led to resentment towards Athens among the other Greeks

Ch. 5: CLASSICAL GREECE


Section 3: Greeces Golden Age
TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Identify the three goals of Pericles for Athens. Describe Greek styles in the arts. Explain the major conflicts in the Peloponnesian War.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Text p. 120; Packet p. 8

THE ANCIENT WORLD NEWS


Winter, 480 B.C.

NEWS FLASH: Sacrifice of Sparta & Athens Brings Victory for Greeks and New Unity Among Them
Section 2 Recap:

EXPLAIN THE MEANING OF THIS ANCIENT NEWSPAPERS HEADLINE

What was the sacrifice of Sparta? What was the sacrifice of Athens? How did each event help bring unity among the Greeks? Athens even led the formation of the first Greek-alliance. What was this organizations name? What were its goals? How were the goals supposed to be financed?

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 2 The Persian Wars Text p. 119; Packet p. 8

III. THE CONSEQUENCES of the Persian Wars

UNIFIED THE GREEKS

for a short time! A. Greeks now feel a sense of confidence and pride B. Athens rises from the ashes to bask in glory of victory and rebuild its city in a glorious fashion. C. Athens will lead the formation of an Alliance of the Greek city-states called the Delian League 1. Athens collected dues from 140 city-state members 2. PURPOSE: Drive the Persians from remaining Greek areas and promised to end any future threats 3. Athens will build a powerful naval empire and now Was a 40-foot tall uses it to dominate over the other Greek city-states. gold & ivory statue of Athena Athens uses the proceeds from the dues to create the really necessary, Athens? costly building projects on the Acropolis (the Parthenon, etc.) This led to resentment towards Athens among the other Greeks

140 Greek city-states paid dues into the Delian League for promises from Athens to rebuild its navy, to drive remaining Persian troops from Greek Ionia and protect Greece from further Persian threat. Athens does indeed rebuild its navy but now uses that mighty to dominate over the other Greek city-states. This led to resentment. Worse, Athens also uses the proceeds from the dues to rebuild their own burned city. creating the costly building projects on the Acropolis (the Parthenon, etc.)

As Athens constructs a Golden Age of building construction


the other Greeks were stupefied and bitter!
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GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Text p. 120; Packet p. 8

IV. ATHENS GOLDEN AGE A. Achievements of Pericles 1. Strengthened the Athenian Democracy 2. Strengthened the Athenian Empire / Navy 3. Brought glory to Athens Textbook, p. 120: sculptor Designed, along with the greatIn what Phidias, way did Pericles the Parthenon; temple to Athena in Athens strengthen
Democracy?

The great Athenian leader Pericles who rebuilt Athens from ashes, a skilled politician, would hold on to popular support for 32 years. Read textbook, History Makers p. 121 Whats the story? Why does the Parthenon stand in ruin today?
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GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Text p. 121-122; Packet p. 8

IV. ATHENS GOLDEN AGE


B. GREEK ART 1. Classical Art a style that values orderly arrangement of design, balance, exact proportions, as well as an emphasis on realism and the grace and beauty of the human body.
http://www.crystalinks.com/greekart.html

Sculptures of gods/goddesses or Greek athletes idealized the human form.

The Greeks employed what is known in Geometry as The Golden Mean in the construction of the Parthenon. Life-size marble statue of Apollo with his lyre. The classical style is still popular today.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; Pre-A.P. World History

Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Labeling Features of Classical Architecture Packet p. 16c

PEDIMENT CORNICE TRIGLYPHS METOPES CAPITAL SHAFT COLUMN FREIZE ENTABLATURE

BASE

It is only because of Pausanias' description that we know the details of the central subject of the East Pediment, for much of this great sculpture was sadly destroyed in the process of making the Parthenon into a Christian church. But we can see the sun god leading his horse-drawn chariot out of Oceanos (the band of water that encloses the earth) into the sky across and over the group of gods witnessing Athena's birth: the dawning of a new day.
PEDIMENT FREIZE METOPES

Visitors to the British museum in London today viewing the famous Elgin marbles taken from the Parthenon in Athens.

Marble metope from the Parthenon freize A fight between a human Lapith and a Centaur The Acropolis, Athens, Greece, around 440 BC

Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Labeling Features of Classical Architecture Packet p. 16c

DORIC
The oldest style. Sturdy with plain top. Used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.

CORINTHIAN
This later style was seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.

IONIC
This style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design. This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.

A very plain capital indicates this is an early Doric design.

Corinthian

The Erechtheum also sits on the Athenian Acropolis. These elaborate maidens used as column supports are called Caryatids. This style was quite rare.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Text p. 123; Packet p. 9

C. GREEK DRAMA 1. Greeks invented, built the first theaters


Today we still enjoy the 2 TYPES of DRAMA first written by the Greeks:

2. TRAGEDY a serious drama about themes like war, love, jealousy, betrayal, and untimely death. Notable Greek Tragedy Playwrights: Sophocles ~ Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex); Antigone Euripides ~ Medea Aeschylus CHORUS
SKENE

Often in Tragedies, a hero is brought down to a tragic end / fall because of his excessive pride (such as thinking himself like a god / immortal, etc.)

This type ofTHEATRON pride / arrogance that led to a mans downfall is known as hubris.
ORCHESTRA / STAGE

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 Greeces Golden Age Text p. 123; Packet p. 9

C. GREEK DRAMA 1. Greeks invented, built the first theaters


Today we still enjoy the 2 TYPES of DRAMA first written by the Greeks:

2. TRAGEDY a serious drama about themes like war, love, jealousy, betrayal, and untimely death. 3. COMEDY a type of dramatic production that contains humor. Notable Greek Comedy Playwright: Aristophanes ~ The Clouds; Lysistrata Some comedies are satire humor that pokes fun at present-day subjects, political scandals, peoples customs, etc.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 The Peloponnesian War Text p. 123; Packet p. 9

IV. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR A. CAUSES The power and glory of Athens (paid for by the Delian League dues the city-states were being
forced to continue to pay to Athens, even though the Persian threat was now over)
Athens arrogance led to much bitter resentment among the other Greeks.

Men talk politics in new Athens, the glorious new buildings are seen on the Acropolis above them.

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 The Peloponnesian War Text p. 123; Packet p. 9

IV. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR A. CAUSES The power and glory of Athens led to much bitter resentment.
Sparta began assembling its own Peloponnesian League of City-States to counter-attack the Delian League. Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 B.C. Spartans sweep into the Athenian countryside and burn the Athenian fields (food supply). Pericles orders the Athenians inside the city walls.

Sparta even managed to gain the Macedonians as one of its allies in the Peloponnesian Leagues coalition against the Athenian League

GREECE: Chapter 5, Section 3 The Peloponnesian War Text p. 123; Packet p. 9

IV. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR A. THE BATTLE Spartas advantage on land; Athens on sea Sparta begins terrorizing / burning Athenian countryside Pericles orders all residents within the city walls A horrible plague strikes Athens in the 2nd year of the war. Almost 1/2 of Athenian population dies, including Pericles Athenian fleet carrying 27,000 soldiers is shipwrecked in a storm while battling Syracuse (one of Spartas allies)

NEWS FLASH !! READ ALL ABOUT IT Plague Strikes Athens p. 12b in your packet

After 27 years of war fighting the other Greeks In the Peloponnesian War Athens loses its empire, power, and wealth. The HUBRIS (arrogant pride) of the Athenians would bring about their downfall it was a real-life Tragedy! Worse, confidence in their Democratic government began to falter After Pericles, leaders who followed were weak or corrupt. In this time of questioning, uncertainty, and searching several great thinkers appeared hoping to provide understanding or Truth that would help the Athenians make sense of their Tragedy these were the Philosophers. Tomorrow we finish Section 3 and you take your MAJOR QUIZ

Ch. 5: CLASSICAL GREECE


Section 3: Greeces Golden Age
TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Identify the three goals of Pericles for Athens. Describe Greek styles in the arts. Explain the major conflicts in the Peloponnesian War.

AGENDA: WARM-UP Examine Chart, Textbook p. 120 Compare Athenian and United States forms of Democracy DISCUSSION of Section 3, Textbook p. 120-124 LABELING features of Classical Architecture

TOMORROW: Major Quiz !!


STUDY Textbook CH 5, Sections 1 3 and all Lecture notes! PROJECT I is due next Tuesday !

Pre-A.P. Library reserve article Alexander the Conquerer due Mon.!

Ch. 5: CLASSICAL GREECE

TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Identify philosophers and the role they played in Greek culture. Identify the contributions of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Thucydides: Greatest Historian of the Ancient World

The End of Ancient Greece As we knew it.

Socrates
A sculptor, whose true love was Philosophy Taught for no pay. Created the Socratic Method questions and answers

The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David


1787 Oil on canvas 51 x 77 1/4 in. (129.5 x 196.2 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Plato
A Student of Socrates

The Greatest Philosopher of Western Civilization Unlike Socrates, he wrote down his thinking

Aristotle
A student of Plato Wide ranging interests including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics.

Author of History of the Persian Wars It is commonly regarded as the first real history in Western Civilization.

Herodotus

Thucydides
The greatest historian of the ancient world. An Athenian General who fought in the Peloponnesian War. Wrote History of the Peloponnesian War

Eratosthenes

Astronomer determined that earth is round calculated circumference 24,676 miles very close to the actual figure.

Euclid

Mathematician who wrote the Elements, which was a text book on plane geometry that is still used today.

Ch. 5: GREECE
Sec. 4: Alexander Builds An Empire

TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Describe Philip II of Macedonias conquest of Greece. Summarize Alexanders character and the role it played in his conquests. Summarize the impact Alexanders conquests had on future cultures.
Film Opens Nov. 5 !

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 128; Packet p. 13

I. Locate MACEDONIA A. Relationship to the Greeks :

Macedonians were a rugged, rural people, not as advanced, envious of the Greeks, and threatened by the Athenian Empire. Even allied themselves with Sparta in the Greeks Peloponnesian War helping to defeat Athens.

Label your map, Packet p. 16b

MACEDONIA

Black Sea

Aegean Sea Ionian Sea


MAINLAND GREECE

ASIA MINOR (Anatolia)

IONIA

Athens
PELOPONNESUS

Sparta

Mediterranean Sea

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 128; Packet p. 13

I. Locate MACEDONIA A. Relationship to Greeks B. King Philip II 1. His goal: Take Greece and then even Persia !!! 2. Transforms army: phalanx 16 x 16 with 18 foot pikes (spears called sarissa)
Philip II ruled Macedonia from 359 to 336 BC. He was born in Pella, the capital of the Macedonian kingdom, as the youngest son of king Amyntas III. Philip II was a hostage of the Greeks at Thebes following the Greeks Peloponnesian War, between 368 and 365 BC. But while in captivity there, he observed the military techniques of the superior Greek hoplite phalanx. When he returned to Macedonia he immediately set forth in helping his brother Perdiccas III, who was then king of Macedonia, to strengthen and reorganize their Macedonian army. But in 359, when his brother set out to battle the Illyrians to free northwestern Macedonia, the Macedonian army suffered a disastrous defeat. 4,000 Macedonian soldiers, including their king lay dead on the battlefield. Philip ascended on the Macedonian throne in the most difficult times; the country was virtually at the brink of collapse, its neighbors ready to put an end to its existence. Philip was not about to let that happen!

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 128; Packet p. 13

II. INVASION OF GREECE A. The Athenian leader Demosthenes tries to warn the Greeks 1. But Greeks cities still not unified following the awful Peloponnesian War fought between themselves. 2. Athens and Thebes finally join forces to try to prevent Philips invasion of Greece, but too late!
Of all the people we should sit idly by and allow to invade our lands not only are they no Greek, nor related to the Greeks, they are not even barbarians from a place that can be named with honors, but rather from pestilent Macedonia, a place from where it is not even possible to buy a decent slave!" (Demosthenes in his Third Philippic, 31; 341 B.C.E.)

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CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 128; Packet p. 13

II. MACEDONIAN INVASION OF GREECE B. Battle of B. Battle of Chaeronea; 338 B.C. Chaeronea; 338 B.C. 1. Philips 18 y.o. son, Alexander, leads the charge makes an impression! 2. Greeks are defeated !

The Battle of Chaeronea, Aug. 2nd, 338 BC is considered by historians as an end to Greek liberty and history. Pic: The flat plain of Chaeronea today. Greece will not regain its freedom from foreign occupation again until the early 19th century AD when it finally gained its independence.

DID YOU KNOW?

Dysfunctional Family
As Philip made his preparations for the Persian invasion, it is now that, historians believe, he made the greatest mistake of his life. Philip had married six times to all non-Macedonian women. His sixth wife, a Greek woman named Olympias from Epirus, was the mother of Alexander. Upon returning from his victories in Greece, Philip surprises everyone by falling in love with a young girl who actually was from high Macedonian nobility.

He decides to marry her and breaks with both Olympias and the young Alexander, his son although, he does invite Alexander to the wedding.
At the wedding banquet, the new wifess uncle made a rude remark about King Philip now having an opportunity to actually father a legitimate heir (i.e., one that was of pure Macedonian blood). Alexander threw his cup at the man, blasting him for calling him a bastard child. Philip stood up, drew his sward, and charged at Alexander, only to trip and fall on his face in his drunken stupor at which Alexander shouted:

"Here is the man who was making ready to cross from Europe to Asia, and who cannot even cross from one table to another without losing his balance.

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 128; Packet p. 13

III.

Death of Philip II Assassinated at daughters wedding by one of his own generals.

The CONSPIRATORS ?

Olympias the jilted ex-wife?

Alexander The angry son who felt threatened?

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129; Packet p. 13

IV. Alexander the Great Who was Bucephalus? Who was Haphaestian? Boyhood friends who played mythic heroes and who grew up to become them. A. King now at 20 y.o. - he takes over his fathers plans to invade Persia. B. Having been taught by Aristotle, he envisions spreading the achievements of the superior Greek culture.
C. Is disappointed by revolting Greeks; and decides to teachAlexander leads the Thebes. a brutal lesson at combined
Greek and Macedonian forces across the Hellespont to go conquer Persia.

With the Greeks properly subdued, he rallies them with the words:

Come with me to take your revenge on Persia!


The Greeks join the Macedonian army.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129; Packet p. 14 HOMEWORK Packet p. 14

Action(s)
1. Led soldiers across Hellespont into Anatolia.

Goal(s)
To fulfill his fathers goal conquer Persia!

Result(s)
King of Persia, Darius III, is alerted mobilizes army to meet Greek forces. Black Sea

Label your map, Packet p. 16b

MACEDONIA

Hellespont
MAINLAND GREECE

Ionian Sea

Aegean Sea

PERSIAN EMPIRE ASIA MINOR (Anatolia) IONIA

PELOPONNESUS

Athens

Sparta Mediterranean Sea

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129; Packet p. 14

Action(s)
1. Led soldiers across Hellespont into Anatolia.

Goal(s)

Result(s)
King of Persia, Darius III, is alerted mobilizes army to meet Greek forces. Darius III flees humiliating retreat!

To fulfill his fathers goal conquer Persia! 2. Launched a surprise attack Heavily outnumbered, he against Persians near Issus. uses surprise attack strategy and scores big!

In a wealthy Roman villa in Pompeii was found this beautiful mosaic tile floor depicting Alexander conquering Darius III at the Battle of Issus.

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129; Packet p. 14 THE SEIGE OF TYRE After his resounding defeat of the Persians at Issus, Alexander moved south toward Egypt. He Action(s) convince the Egyptians to see him as their liberator from Result(s) had been Goal(s) hoped he could Persia- they 1. Led soldiers across by Persia fulfillsince the devastating conquest by Cambyses in 525 B.C. sporadically occupied King of Persia, Darius III, is alerted To ever his fathers goal Hellespont into Anatolia. mobilizes army to meet Greek forces. conquer Persia! On the way to Egypt, in 332 B.C., he reaches Tyre an island fortress off the coast of modern Heavily outnumbered, he 2. Launched a surprise attack the city to control the Eastern Mediterranean and to provide a Darius III flees Lebanon. Alexander needed against Persians near Issus. uses surprise attack humiliating retreat! secure port through which to funnel reinforcements and supplies. The Tyrians knew Alexander strategy and scores big! was coming and had stocked up on supplies; it also had its own source of fresh water. Tyre refuses to surrender so Alexander started to build a two hundred yard wide mole (land bridge) from the mainland to the island, a distance of approximately one half mile. While the mole was being built, he took part of his cavalry and went to Sidon where he commandeered one hundred twenty triremes, which were sailed to and surrounded Tyre. Click link.

Map in Textbook, p. 130

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129; Packet p. 14

Action(s)
1. Led soldiers across Hellespont into Anatolia. 2. Launched a surprise attack against Persians near Issus. 3. He rejects Darius peace offer of a third of his empire.

Goal(s)
To fulfill his fathers goal conquer Persia! Heavily outnumbered, he uses surprise attack strategy and scores big! He wants it all!

Result(s)
King of Persia, Darius III, is alerted mobilizes army to meet Greek forces. Darius III flees humiliating retreat! Moves on to take Egypt (gains another ally against Persia), is proclaimed a Pharoah.

Now ready to take Persia!

Alexander founded over 30 cities named for himself including the famous Alexandria, Egypt.
In 332-331 B.C. Alexander conquered Egypt and was proclaimed a pharoah by Egyptian priests. By now his stories of being a descendant of Zeus had begun to spread.

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129-130; Packet p. 14

Action(s)
2. Launched a surprise attack against Persians near Issus. 3. He rejects Darius peace offer of a third of his empire. 4. Launched a phalanx attack followed by cavalry charge at Gaugamela.

Goal(s)
Heavily outnumbered, he uses surprise attack strategy and scores big! He wants it all!

Result(s)
Darius III flees humiliating retreat! Moves on to take Egypt, is proclaimed a Pharoah. Now ready to take Persia! Takes Babylon, Susa, & Persepolis shares the wealth with his men! Persian Empire ends!

Defeat of Darius!

Persepolis burns!

After spending several months in Persia, contemplating what to do next return home now and rule over what he had conquered? or continue taking more territory?

Alexander begins to envision a union of Macedonian-Greeks (the West) and Persians (the East).
He adopts the Persian style of dress and the customs of the Persian royal court,
He allows Persian troops into his army and made young Persian nobles part of his elite cavalry,

He marries a Persian princess named Roxanne (the daughter of Darius III), and presides over a mass marriage of thousands of his own soldiers to Persian women a grand event meant to symbolize his vision of a new world culture.
Alexanders grand vision / plan was now evolving a union of the Western (Greco-) world with the Eastern (Persian) world. This new culture enriched by the best elements of both worlds would become known as the Hellenistic Culture. This period in history, known as the Hellenistic Period.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129-130; Packet p. 14

Action(s)
3. He rejects Darius peace offer of a third of his empire. 4. Launched a phalanx attack followed by cavalry charge at Gaugamela. 5. Led army into Indus valley.

Goal(s)
He wants it all!

Result(s)
Moves on to take Egypt, is proclaimed a Pharoah. Now ready to take Persia! Takes Babylon, Susa, & Persepolis shares the wealth with his men! Persian Empire ends! He defeats an Indian army but Discovers morale his mens Darius is low III dead and demand to go home!

Defeat of Darius! Wants to extend empire further eastward to the edge of world Ocean

Map in Textbook, p. 130

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 129-130; Packet p. 14

Action(s)
4. Launched a phalanx attack followed by cavalry charge at Gaugamela. 5. Led army into Indus valley.

Goal(s)
Defeat of Darius! Wants to extend empire further eastward to the edge of world Ocean To encourage / inspire his discouraged troops during long march home.

Result(s)
Takes Babylon, Susa, & Persepolis shares the wealth with his men! Persian Empire ends! He defeats an Indian army but his mens morale is low and demand to go home! As always before, It wins their admiration again and they continue to follow him.

6. Poured out drinking water offered to him in the desert.

Map in Textbook, p. 130

ARABIA

324 B.C. Alexander returns to Babylon which he makes his new capital. He begins to make plans for his new empire construction projects, new cities, and plans to conquer Arabia. June 6, 323 B.C. - Residing in the old palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, he is struck by a high fever for several days and suddenly, at 33, is found dead.

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 131; Packet p. 13

IV. Alexander the Great Who was Bucephalus? extended his empire east to the Indus River. D. Conquered Persia and Who was at 33. E. Dead Haphaestian? BoyhoodLEGACY: played mythic heroes and who grew up to become them. F. His friends who 1. His generals fought over control of empire after his death A. Kingending the democratic traditionhis fathers plans to invade Persia. - now at 20 y.o. - he takes over started in Greece B. Having been taught by Aristotle, he envisions spreading the achievements of the superior Greek culture.
C. Is disappointed by revolting Greeks; and decides to teach a brutal lesson at Thebes.

With the Greeks properly subdued, he rallies them with the words: A Boy who fulfilled the Dream of his on Persia! Come with me to take your revengeFather !

A Man who believed himself descended of the gods ! A Military Genius who united twojoin the and got men from both to follow him! The Greeks worlds Macedonian army.

A Giant in History, like many, whose empire crumbled after his death.

An old trusted general of both Alexander and his father, Ptolemy would receive the Egyptian kingdom in 241 B.C. Ptolemy would take the title of Pharoah and begin the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt of which Cleopatra would descend in 44 B.C.

CH 5: GREECE Sec. 4, Alexander Builds an Empire Textbook p. 131; Packet p. 13

IV. ALEXANDER THE GREAT D. Conquered Persia and extended his empire east to the Indus River. E. Dead at 33. F. His LEGACY: 1. His generals fought over control of empire after his death - ending the democratic tradition started in Greece 2. The HELLENISTIC CULTURE a new culture that blended (western) Greek, Egyptian, and (eastern) Persian customs.

PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School; World History

Ch. 5: GREECE
Sec. 4: Alexander Builds An Empire

AKINS HIGH SCHOOL Mr. Loessins World History Room 167 Tutorials: T-F 8:20-8:50

TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Describe Philip II of Macedonias conquest of Greece. Summarize Alexanders character and the role it played in his conquests. Summarize the impact Alexanders conquests had on future cultures.
Film Opens Nov. 5 !

AGENDA: WARM-UP Read History Makers, in Textbook p. 129 INTRODUCTORY CLIP: Trailer for the new Alexander movie DISCUSSION of Section 4, Text p. 129 / Packet p. 13-14 RETURNING MAJOR QUIZ from Friday

NEXT ASSIGNMENT:
Read Chapter 5, Section 5 and complete p. 15a in packet PROJECT I is due TOMORROWNo exceptions ! TEST is Wednesday - Begin reviewing all notes, quizzes, and CH 5 in Textbook !

Ch. 5: GREECE
Sec. 5: The Hellenistic Age

Hellenistic Art Winged Victory Marble, height 11 ft. Found on the island of Samothrace ca. 190 BC

TODAYS OBJECTIVES: Describe what is meant by the Hellenistic Age and describe Hellenistic culture in Alexandria. Identify the major achievements of Hellenistic scholars. Summarize the major philosophies and artistic styles of this period.

2. Mathematics
Euclid taught geometry and wrote the first geometry textbook. It was used by Europeans and the Muslim world until the 1900s Archimedes calculated pi. and the beginnings of calculus. Considered one of the greatest mathematicians / scientists 3. Physics Archimedes - Explained the law of the lever, Invented the pulley, a missile-throwing catapult, and a steam engine

1. ASTRONOMY Aristarchus sun larger than the earth and the planets revolve around the sun.
Eratosthenes used geometry to compute the earths circumference. He served as the head of the Alexandrian library in Egypt Ptolemy incorrectly concluded the earth was the center of the universe. His was the geocentric theory. X Hipparchus designed latitude and longitude for plotting locations on a map.

4.

Philosophy in the Hellenistic Age

Zeno founded Stoicism, a school of thought that provided an ethical way to live and instructed its followers to refrain from pointless emotions when facing lifes inevitable events (like death, etc.) and to focus instead on things that we can control. Why do you weep for the dead, they are gone from you. Weep for the living who suffer and do something about it. Epicurus founded Epircureanism, a school of thought which taught that the greatest good and highest pleasure in life comes from behaving good and avoiding pain. Eat, drink, be merry.for tomorrow we die!

5. MEDICINE
Hippocrates the father of medicine

- listed first pharmaceutical guide to herbs and plants used as remedies / cures.
- had a school students he trained - attempted to replace limbs and organs - wrote for himself, and had his students take, oath still used taken today by medical students, The Hippocratic Oath