"Incredible INDIA – An Ancient Land In All Seasons

"

Prasad S. Burange
May 23, 2007

DISCLAIMER
• People from India = INDIAN • I do NOT have intention to hurt any kind of feelings or beliefs. It would be a mere coincidence if it is accidentally related to some one.

Where is India?
West Pakistan USA
Middle East

China

North-east Nepal Bangladesh East Myanmar

Sri Lanka South

A sovereign country in South Asia

The Republic of India
- 28 states - 7 union territories - 1.1 Billion population (2007 estimate) - 3.28 million Km2 – Area - 7,516 Km – Coastline Arabian Sea (West) Bay of Bengal (East) Indian Ocean (South)

• 23 official languages

(including Hindi and English) • 325 languages spoken - 800 different languages - ~ 2000 dialects

Worlds
- Largest English speaking nation

- 2nd most populous country - 7th largest country (geographical area) - Most populous liberal democracy - 2nd largest pool of scientists and engineers - 4th largest economy - 4th largest in purchasing power - 3rd largest standing army force

Timeline of Indian History
Stone Age 70,000–3300 BC

· Mehrgarh Culture Indus Valley Civilization
Late Harappan Culture Vedic Period · Iron Age · Vedic Kingdoms Maha Janapadas Magadha Empire · Maurya Empire Middle Kingdoms · Satavahana Empire · Kushan Empire · Gupta Empire · Pala Empire · Chola Empire

· 7000–3300 BC 3300–1700 BC
1700–1300 BC 1500–500 BC · 1200–500 BC · 1200–700 BC 700–300 BC 684 BC–AD 550 · 321–184 BC 230 BC–AD 1279 · 230 BC–AD 199 · 60–240 · 240–550 · 750–1174 · 250 BCE –1279

Timeline of Indian History
Islamic Sultanates
· Delhi Sultanate · Deccan Sultanates Hoysala Empire Kakatiya Empire Vijayanagara Empire Mughal Empire Maratha Empire Sikh Empire

1206–1596
· 1206–1526 · 1490–1596 1040–1346 1083–1323 1336–1565 1526–1707 1674–1818 1799–1849

Colonial Era Modern States

1757–1947 1947 onwards

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh (9000-7000 BC)
Stone age rock shelters and paintings

New Cave Paintings Discovered in Tapti Valley, Central India

Mehrgarh Culture (7000-3300 BC)
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Early farming village in Mehrgarh with houses built with mud bricks c. 7000 BCE

A figurine from Mehrgarh c. 3000 BCE

The Indus Valley Civilization
(c. 3300–1700 BC, flowered 2600–1900 BCE) • An ancient riverine civilization • Flourished in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys • Is now Pakistan and northwestern India • Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, after the first excavated city of Harappa

Indus Life

Seals with the Indus Script
Swastika

Bullocks

Indus Valley excavation Harappa

Mohen Jo Daro (Mound of the dead)
UNESCO World Heritage Site

• • • •

Built around 2600 BC The largest city of Indus Valley Mohenjo Daro was one of the world’s first cities 25 km southwest of Larkana,Sindh Province of Pakistan • Center of Indus Valley Civilization 2600 BC-1700 BC • Contemporaneous with ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations • Sometimes referred to as "An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis"

Archaeological Ruins at Mohenjo-daro
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Mohenjo-daro (2600 BC)

"Priest King” statue Mohenjo-daro Wearing Sindhi Ajrak ca. 2500 BC
National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan

The “Dancing Girl of Mohenjo Daro"

Similarities to Greek mythology

Hercules fighting the Lernaean Hydra

Lord Krishna fighting the Kaliya Serpent

Did the Indians travel as far as Easter Island?
The Easter Islands located in the Pacific Ocean, were situated far away from any civilization The sign script of the Easter Islands almost equals the ancient scripts of Indus Valley

Indus Saraswati symbols Easter Island symbols Were the Ancient Vedic civilisation of Indus Saraswati valley Trans-Oceanic seafarers?

The Great Stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh
commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in

3rd century BCE