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Research Methodology

Unit 1

Introduction to business research


UNIT-1
Introduction to business research definition - research and managers -
need for business research type of business research major topics for
research in business business research in the 21
st
century the manager
and the consultant manager research relationship internal vs external
consultant / researchers advantages and disadvantages knowledge
about research and managerial effectiveness building blocks of science in
research induction deductive method case study.

1
DEFINING RESEARCH
What is research?
Systematized effort to gain knowledge- Redman and
Mory.
Research is a process of manipulation of things,
concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing
to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that
knowledge aids in the construction of theory or in the
practice of an art- Slesinger and Stephenson in
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
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DEFINING RESEARCH
Research comprises the following:

Defining and redefining the problem
Formulating hypothesis
Collecting, organizing and evaluating data
Making deductions and reaching conclusions
Carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
hypothesis

Methodology means the systematic study of the methods,
principles, procedures and rules applied within a discipline

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Why should managers study research Methodology ?


Aid to Informed decision making
Helps identify problem areas
Aid to forecasting
Helps business budgeting
Tool for efficient production and investment decision making
Optimal utilisation of resources
Basis for innovation
Managers need research to measure and compare the ROI on various
strategies.
Helps in a better understanding of employees, stockholders and customers




Why should managers study research Methodology ?


Significant in solving various operational and planning problems of
business and industry
Market research (investigation of the structure and development of
market)
Important for formulating policies for purchase, production and sales
Motivational research studies consumers motives in their purchase
behavior (Consumer behavior)
Operations research refers to the application of mathematical, logical and
analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of optimization of
resource use, cost minimization and profit maximization.

internal consultant / researchers
advantage
Disadvantage

Readily acceptable by
the employs
Team has good
knowledge about the
org.
Available for
implementation
Considerably less cost
Blocking new ideas
Vested interest and
influences
May not get enough
perception
Organizational bias
may affect the results
External consultant / researchers
advantage

Disadvantage

Wide experience with
different org.
Knowledge of
advanced methods
Specialized services
High cost
Resistance from
employees- non
acceptance
Additional fees for
implementation



Decision-Making
Decision-Making is the process of resolving a
problem or choosing amongst alternative
opportunities

What is the problem or opportunity?
How much Information is available?
What Information is needed?
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Decision-Making
Situation
Complete
Certainty
Absolute
Ambiguity
Value of Research
Certainty, Uncertainty, Ambiguity

- Decision-maker has all the requisite information concerning the business
problem (or opportunity). Research may be unnecessary. Complete certainty
about the future is rare in practice

- Uncertainty General nature of the business problem is clear but information
about alternative courses of action is incomplete as are the events which may
occur. Research may be a potentially valuable tool here

- Ambiguity Nature of the problem to be solved is unclear. Objectives are vague
and alternatives difficult to define. Research may be a useful excercise
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Iceberg principle
A sailor on the open sea notices only a small part
of an iceberg. Only 10% of it is above the
surface of the water , and 90% is submerged.
The dangerous part of many business problems is
neither visible to nor understood by business
managers
ROLE OF RESEARCH IN DECISION-MAKING
Decision-making is the process of selecting the best
alternative from the available set of alternatives.
Management is chiefly concerned with decision-making and
its implementation.
These decisions should be based on appropriate studies,
evaluations and observations.
Research provides us with knowledge and skills needed to
solve the problems and to meet the challenges of a fast
paced decision-making environment.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT MANAGERIAL DECISIONS
INTERNAL FACTORS factors present inside an organisation such as
resources, technology, trade unions, cash flow, manpower etc.
EXTERNAL FACTORS factors present outside the organisation such as
government policies, political factors, socio-economic factors, legal
framework, geographic and cultural factors etc.
QUANTITATIVE FACTORS factors that can be measured in quantities such as
time, resources, cost factors etc.
QUALITATIVE FACTORS factors that cannot be measured in quantities such
as organizational cohesiveness, sense of belonging of employees, risk of
technological change etc.
UNCERTAINITY FACTORS factors which cannot be predicted
Fields Where Business Research is Often Used (1)
General Business Conditions and
Corporate Research

Short- & Long-Range Forecasting,
Business and Industry Trends
Global Environments
Inflation and Pricing
Plant and Warehouse Location
Acquisitions
Financial and Accounting
Research

Forecasts of financial interest rate
trends,
Stock,bond and commodity value
predictions
capital formation alternatives
mergers and acquisitions
risk-return trade-offs
portfolio analysis
impact of taxes
research on financial institutions
expected rate of return
capital asset pricing models
credit risk
cost analysis
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Management and Organizational
Behaviour Research
Total Quality Management
Morale and Job Satisfaction
Leadership Style
Employee Productivity
Organizational Effectiveness
Structural ssues
Absenteeism and turnover
Organizational Climate
Fields Where Business Research is Often Used


Sales and Marketing Research

Market Potentials
Market Share
Market segmentation
Market characteristics
Sales Analysis
Establishment of sales quotas
Distribution channels
New product concepts
Test markets
Advertising research
Buyer behaviour
Customer satisfaction
Website visitation rates
Information Systems Research

Knowledge and information needs
assessment
Computer information system use
and evaluation
Technical suppot satisfaction
Database analysis
Data mining
Enterprise resource planning systems
Customer relationship management
systems
Corporate Responsibility Research
Ecological Impact
Legal Constraints on advertising and
promotion
Sex, age and racial discrimination /
worker equity
Social values and ethics

)
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Selected Examples of Real-Life Situations in
Which Business Research Methods are Used
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A firm wants to produce and market a new product but first wants to ascertain
if there is a potential consumer demand for this product in markets x,y and z
a multinational firm wants to establish a production facility in another country
after determining its technical and economic feasibility
A government agency wants to ascertain the satisfaction level of its employees,
the causes for any possible discontent, and propose a scheme for enhancing
this level
A financial institution wants to invest in commodities and commissions a study
to determine the past trends and forecast future returns in a portfolio of
commodities
The CEO of a firm wants to undertake a SWOT-Analysis as part of his plan to
redefine his organizations priorities

Value and Costs of Undertaking Business Research
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VALUE














Decreased Uncertainty
Higher Likelihood of
Correct Decisions
Better Business
performance
Higher Profits
Better Reputation
COSTS













Research Costs
Delay in Making Business
Decisions
Disclosure of Information to
Rivals
Possibility of Error
Business Research in the
International Context- 21
st
Century
Business Research is being increasingly applied in an
international context in the wake of globalization and the
consequent freedom of movement of the resources of labour,
capital and information of businesses and corporations:
Overseas market potential
Joint ventures and relocating production lines overseas
Framework considerations for investment and trade (e.g.
culture, legal environment, security, physical infrastructure,
availability and quality of human resources, logistics, political
stability, trade and investment incentives)

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Criteria Of Good Research
1 .Purpose should be clearly defined.
2. Research Process (source of data etc) should be
described in sufficient detail-except when secrecy is
required-This will help verify, correct and extend
knowledge, keeping the continuity of what has already
been achieved.
3. Design (Sampling, questionnaire, observation etc)
should be thoroughly planned so as to yield objective
results


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Criteria Of Good Research
4. High ethical standards -from misusing information , to
forcing respondents to answering questions to animal rights
and human dignity- Dilemma
5. Limitations should be frankly revealed (e-g., flaws in
design) so that the decision maker is made aware.
6. Analysis of data should be adequate and methods of
analysis appropriate. Should check for reliability and
validity, and probability of error
7.Unambiguous presentation
8. Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the
data of the research.

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Criteria Of Good Research
Good research is systematic- structured with specified
steps taken in specified sequence in accordance with
well-defined rules
Good research is logical: logical reasoning makes
research more meaningful in the context of decision
making
Good research is empirical: dealing with concrete data
that provides the basis for external validity to
research results.
Good research is replicable

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The Building Blocks of Research
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Measurements of phenomena
(e.g. sales statistics of a department store)

DATA

Determination of relationship amongst data with a
view to facilitating understanding of the phenomena,
their relationships and decision-making
(e.g. past and predicted future sales trends)

INFORMATION
KNOWLEDGE
Blend of information, experience and in-sights that
provides a framework that can be thoughtfully evaluated
when assessing new information or evaluating
relevant situations
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is basically an overarching
perspective on how scientific investigations should be
undertaken. It can, in effect, be considered as a complete
set of principles and methods that help researchers in all
scientific disciplines obtain valid results for their research
studies, and which includes the provision of clear and
universally accepted guidelines for acquiring, evaluating
and communicating information in the context of a research
study
The goals of scientific research are, broadly speaking, to
understand, explain and predict
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The Essence of the Scientific Method
5 23
Characteristics of the Scientific Method

Objectivity
Systematic Analysis
Logical Interpretation of Results
Elements of the
Scientific Method



Empirical Approach
Observations
Questions
Hypotheses
Experiments
Analysis
Conclusion
Replication
Basic
Research
Applied
Research
S
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
i
c

M
e
t
h
o
d

Information or
Ideas for alternative
Courses of action

General Laws

Elements of the Scientific Method
Empirical Approach
Observation
Questions
Hypotheses
Experiments
Analysis
Conclusion
Replication
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Elements of the Scientific Method

1.(Empirical Approach)
Evidence-based approach. The guiding principle behind all
research conducted in accordance with the scientific method
Data derived from direct, systematic and careful observation
and experimentation (as opposed to speculation, intuition,
opinions, hunches, gut feeling)
2.Observation
Evidence-based approach. The guiding principle behind all
research conducted in accordance with the scientific method.
Data derived from direct, systematic and careful observation
and experimentation (as opposed to speculation, intuition,
opinions, hunches, gut feeling)



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Elements of the Scientific Method

3.Questions
Making an answerable question out of a research idea.
The question must be answered using available and
established scientific research techniques and
procedures. Scientific Analysis should not be attempted
on questions which cannot be answered
4.Hypotheses
Hypotheses attempt to explain phenomena of interest. A
hypothesis is a proposition which is empirically testable.
It usually seeks to explain relationships between
variables, and predict, and must be falsifiable


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Elements of the Scientific Method
5.(Experiments) -Experiments are basically about measuring
phenomena and collecting accurate and reliable data which
are used for analysis and evaluation
Accuracy Correctness of the Measurement
Reliability Consistency of the Measurement
6.Analysis-Analysis is about the use of qualitative or quantitative tools and
techniques to process data .
Quantitative tools and techniques are considered more desirable (objective)
than qualitative tools and techniques
Statistical analysis is typically used to quantitatively analyze data acquired in
research studies


Elements of the Scientific Method
7.(Conclusions) which are not supported by the
Based on the results of the analysis conducted, and used to
support or disprove a hypothesis
When undertaking research, conclusions should only be
based on the available data and not broadened to include
statements data
8.(Replication)
The purpose of replication is to ensure that if the same
research study is conducted with different participants (i.e.
researchers, research subjects), then the same results are
achieved
Replication establishes the reliability of a research studys
conclusions


When Should Business Research
be Undertaken?
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Is sufficient time
available?
Is information
inadequate?
High importance
of decision?
Research benefits
greater than costs?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Undertake Business Research
NO
Do not
undertake Business Research
Research
Methodology
UNIT-2
The research process: An overview type of research explorative
study descriptive casual research influence of uncertainty on the
research. Broad problem areas Preliminary data collection nature
of data to be gathered background information of the organization.
Literature survey reasons conduct write up the literature review
problem definition theoretical frame work
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7 basic steps:
1. Select a topic
2. Review existing research and theory that are relevant
3. Develop a hypothesis or research question/s
4. Determine the appropriate methodology/research
design
5. Collect relevant data
6. Analyze and interpret the results
7. Present the results in an appropriate form
Research is basically scientific.
Purpose: to provide an objective, unbiased evaluation of data.
Stages in the Research Process
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Define
Problem
Planning a
Research Design
Planning
a Sample
Gathering
the Data
Conclusions
and Report
Flowcharting the Research Process
(1)
2005

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Problem Discovery
Secondary (historical) data
Pilot Study
Experience Survey
Case Study
Problem Definition
(Statement of research objectives)
Selection of
exploratory
research technique
Selection of
basic research
method
Survey (Interview, Questionnaire)
Experiment (Laboratory, Field)
Secondary Data Study
Observation
Flowcharting the Research Process (2)
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Survey (Interview, Questionnaire)
Experiment (Laboratory, Field)
Secondary Data Study
Observation
Sample Design
Probability
Sampling
Non-Probability
Sampling
Collection of Data (Fieldwork)
Editing and Coding Data
Data Processing and Analysis
Interpretation of Findings
Report
Objectives of Research
Objectives:
1. To gain familiarity with a certain phenomenon or gain new
insights (Exploratory research)
2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, group or situation. (Descriptive)
3. To see the frequency with which some phenomenon is
associated with something else (Diagnostic)
4. Hypothesis of causal relationship between variables
(Hypothesis-testing)
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Types of Research-



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TYPES OF RESEARCH
BASIC APPLIED
Research is undertaken in numerous scientific disciplines,
e.g.:
O Natural / Physical Sciences
O Social Sciences
O Management Sciences
O Humanities
Non-Specificity Specificity
Basic and Applied Research
1.Research that is intended to expand the boundaries of
knowledge itself or to verify the acceptability of a given
theory
Eg.
GLOBAL WARMING
EFFECTIVENESS OF INFO.SYSTEM
2. Research undertaken to
answer
questions about specific
problems or to make decisions about a particular course of
action or policy decision
Eg.
What should be done to increase the efficiency and promote the sales?

Types of Research
1.Exploratory Research:
undertaken with the aim of clarifying ambiguous problems
general problems usually known but not sufficiently understood
the purpose is to get more information, not to uncover specific
courses of action (subsequent research)

Determining a specific course of action to follow is not a purpose of
exploratory research!

Example: Child-Care support programme for employees
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Types of Research
2.Descriptive Research:
undertaken with the aim of determining the characteristics of a
population or phenomenon
Previous knowledge of problem exists
High degree of precision or accuracy required
It can only describe the situation, not what caused it
Examples:
Who are the main consumers of organic foods?
How many students read the prescribed course literature?
Where do most holiday-makers travelling overseas go?
When do petrol stations tend to raise their prices?
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Types of Research
3.Causal Research:
undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect relationships
amongst variables
are normally preceeded by exploratory and descriptive research
studies
Often difficult to determine because of the influence of other variables
(concommitant Variation and the presence of other hidden variables)
There are two types of causal research:
Experimental
Observational (quasi-experimental)
Example: Higher ice-cream consumption causes more
people to drown (indicative of a causal relationship (?))
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Some other types of research..
4 Quantitative Research is employed for measuring the
quantity or amount of a particular phenomena by the
use of statistical analysis
5 Qualitative Research is a non-quantitative type of
analysis which is aimed at finding out the quality of a
particular phenomenon.
6 Conceptual Research is generally used by philosophers
and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret
existing ones.
7 Empirical Research is a data based research which
depends on experience or observation alone. It is aimed
at coming up with conclusions without due regard for
system and theory

8 One-time Research Research confined to a single time
period.
9.Longitudinal Research Research carried on over several
time periods.
10.Diagnostic Research It is also called clinical research
which aims at identifying the causes of a problem,
frequency with which it occurs and the possible solutions
for it.
11. Experimental Research: In experimental studies, units
(people, etc.) are put into control or exposure groups by
the researcher
13 Observational Research: In an observational study, members of the
control group are pre-determined. They can be matched according to demographic
information to a member of the exposure group
RESEARCH PROBLEM

What is a research problem?
+ The term problem means a question or issue to be
examined.
+ Research Problem refers to some difficulty /need which a
researcher experiences in the context of either theoretical or
practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.
The first step in the research process definition of the problem
involves two activities:

Identification / Selection of the Problem

Formulation of the Problem


FORMULATION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM initial steps

1.Finding out the Broad problem area
2.Preliminary information gathering
3.Problem definition
1. Broad problem area
Problem currently existing-
A situation requiring improvement
A conceptual issue that needs to be tightened
Find some answers empirically.

2.Preliminary information gathering
-nature of information
A) Background information of organization
B) Managerial philosophy
C)Perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral responses of
organizational members

A) Background information of organization
Origin and history
Size in terms of employees, assets
Purpose and ideology
Location
Recourses
Dependency on other institutions
Financial position


B) Managerial philosophy
Roles and positions
Extent of specializations
Communication channels
Control systems.
Reward system
C)Perceptions, attitudes,
Nature of the work
Work flow
Superiors in the organization
Participation in decision making
Co- workers
CSR


Factors to consider in the choice of a research topic
1. Novel When considering a research topic, the researcher has to focus
on one which has not been investigated before. In the event that the
problem has been studied before, he has to inject originality in it by
coming up with another research design, using a different data-gathering
tool or a different scheme for analyzing the research data.
2. Interesting The researcher needs to consider his interest in the choice of
a research problem. Interest counts a lot in the conduct of a study. If a
researcher is not interested in the topic, it will be difficult on his part to
put his heart and soul in it
3. Relevant The results of the study on a given problem should be of
practical value to the researcher and the significant others in the field.
This means that once the study had been completed, its findings, its
conclusions and recommendations can be used in improving practices or
solving an identified difficulty.
Will the results add knowledge to information already available in the
field?



Factors to consider in the choice of a research problem
4. Feasible This means that a problem that an investigator is going to work
on can be completed without undue amount of time, money or effort.
Feasibility of research also means that the researcher has the necessary
competence or expertise to conduct the study on the chosen problem.
Is the topic too broad? (e.g. the effects of TV violence on children)
Can the problem really be investigated? (e.g. availability of information)
What costs and time are involved in the analysis?

5. Researchable Data can be collected to answer the problem posed by the
researcher.
Can the data be analyzed? (Can the data be measured?)


6. Ethical A problem is said to be ethical when it does not involve physical or
psychological harm or damage to human beings or organizations. In other
words, a study on a particular topic should not put people or
institutions in a bad light


Two types of definitions:
1. Conceptual definition definition of a term as given by
authoritative sources (e.g. Websters dictionary; a
well-known research study; textbook, etc..)
2. Operational definition researchers own definition,
based on how it will be used in the study
This requires the researcher to specify actions or
operations necessary to identify and measure the
term
A concept converted into a measurable or
observable elements- series of steps
1.Identify the Behavioral Dimensions
2. Identify Behavioral Dimensions' elements
Eg.a) Achievement motivation
b) Learning


LEARNING
( D)
UNDERSTANDING
(E)
ANSWER
CORRECTLY
(E)
GIVING
EXPLANATION
( D)
RECALL
(E)
RECALL AFTER
SOME TIME
( D)
APPLICATION
(E)
SOLVING
PROBLEMS
(E)
INTEGRATION
WITH RELATED
MATERS
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
+ Literature Review is the documentation of a comprehensive
review of the published and unpublished work from secondary
sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher.

+ The main aim is to find out problems that are already
investigated and those that need further investigation.
+ It is an extensive survey of all available past studies relevant to
the field of investigation.

+ It gives us knowledge about what others have found out in the
related field of study and how they have done so.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW
=To gain a background knowledge of the research
topic.
=To identify the concepts relating to it, potential
relationships between them and to formulate
researchable hypothesis.
=To identify appropriate methodology, research
design, methods of measuring concepts and
techniques of analysis.
=To identify data sources used by other researchers.
=To learn how others structured their reports.
SOURCES OF LITERATURE
* Books and Journals
* Electronic Databases
Bibliographic Databases
Abstract Databases
Full-Text Databases
* Govt. and Industry Reports
* Internet
* Research Dissertations / Thesis

RECORDING THE LITERATURE
* The most suitable method of recording notes
is the card system.

* The recording system involves use of two
sets of cards:
Source cards (3x 5) used for noting
bibliographic information.
Note cards (5x 8) used for actual note taking.
SOURCE CARDS
* The recording of bibliographic information should be made in proper
bibliographic format.

* The format for citing a book is:
Authors name, (year), Title of the book, Place of publication,
Publishers name.
* For Example; Koontz Harold (1980), Management, New Delhi, McGraw-
Hill International.

* The format for citing a journal article is:
Authors name, (year), Title of the article, Journal name, Volume
(number), pages.
* For Example; Sheth J.N (1973), A Model of Industrial Buying Behaviour,
Journal of Marketing, 37(4), 50-56.
theoretical frame work
Theoretical Framework
Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the
entire research project is based.
A theoretical framework is a conceptual model of
how one makes logical sense of the relationships
among the several factors that have been identified
as important to the problem.
Researcher wants to know what produces inflation-
another one wants to know if organisational structure
influences leadership style
Both want to be able to predict behavior
prediction and understanding are two purposes of Theory

Where do theories come from?
Theory construction is often the result of a
combination of DEDUCTIVE and INDUCTIVE
reasoning
The logical process of deriving a conclusion by
logical generalization of known fact-(from
universal to particular)
e.g. All managers are human beings.
Mr.Goal is a manager, then we can deduce----
Mr.Goal is a human being
Hypothetic deductive method

Inductive reasoning
The logical process of establishing a
general proposition on the basis of
observation of particular facts. (from
particular to universal)
It involves two processes observation and
generalization
All managers that have ever been seen are
human beings; therefore ,all managers
are human beings
theory
A coherent set of general propositions used to
explain the apparent relationships among certain
observed phenomena .


Observations of objects and events ..


..Concept------propositions------- THEORIES


Theories are networks of propositions
Only when we explain how concepts relate to other concepts do we
begin to construct theories



HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is an assumption about relations
between variables.

Hypothesis can be defined as a logically conjectured
relationship between two or more variables
expressed in the form of a testable statement.

Relationships are conjectured on the basis of the
network of associations established in the theoretical
framework formulated for the research study.
VARIABLES
;Anything that can vary can be considered as a variable.

;A variable is anything that can take on differing or
varying values.

For example; Age, Production units, Absenteeism,
Sex, Motivation, Income, Height, Weight etc.

Note: The values can differ at various times for the
same object or person (or) at the same time for
different objects or persons.
Variable / Attribute
;A variable is a characteristic that takes on two or more
values whereas, an attribute is a specific value on a
variable (qualitative).

For example;
; The variable SEX/GENDER has 2 attributes - Male
and Female.
; The variable AGREEMENT has 5 attributes
Strongly Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly
Disagree.

Types of variables:
1. Independent variables the cause supposed to be
responsible for the bringing about change in a
phenomenon or situation.
2. Dependent variables the outcome of change brought
about by change in the independent variable
3. Intervening variable a variable whose existence is
inferred but cannot be manipulated or controlled
4. Moderator variable a variable that may or may not
be controlled but has an effect on the research
situation/phenomenon.
For example:
Does a commitment to ethics among
media practitioners depend on their
educational or professional training?
1.Independent variable: educational
attainment of journalist.
2.Dependent variables: ethical behavior,
knowledge of Code of Ethics
3.Intervening variable: newsroom policies
4.Moderator variables: civil status, age, years
of work experience
Types of Variables
;Explanatory vs Extraneous Variable
The variables selected for analysis are called explanatory
variables and all other variables that are not related to the
purpose of the study but may affect the dependant variable are
extraneous.
;Dependant vs Independent Variable
The variable that changes in relationship to changes in
another variable(s) is called dependant variable.
The variable whose change results in the change in
another variable is called an independent variable.
OR
An independent variable is the one that influences the
dependant variable in either a positive or negative way.
HYPOTHESIS
Research Hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates
an independent variable to a dependant variable.
Hypothesis must contain at least one independent
variable and one dependant variable.
Hypothesis are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the
solution of the problem.
Hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It
describes in concrete terms what you expect to happen in
the study.
Hypothesis is an assumption about the population of the
study.
It delimits the area of research and keeps the researcher
on the right track
PROBLEM (VS) HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis is an assumption, that can be tested and
can be proved to be right or wrong.

A problem is a broad question which cannot be
directly tested. A problem can be scientifically
investigated after converting it into a form of
hypothesis.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS
OConceptual Clarity - It should be clear and precise.

OSpecificity - It should be specific and limited in scope.

OConsistency - It should be consistent with the
objectives of research.

OTestability - It should be capable of being tested.

OExpectancy - It should state the expected
relationships between variables.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS
OSimplicity - It should be stated as far as possible in
simple terms.
OObjectivity - It should not include value judgments,
relative terms or any moral preaching.
OTheoretical Relevance - It should be consistent with a
substantial body of established or known facts or
existing theory.

OAvailability of Techniques Statistical methods should
be available for testing the proposed hypothesis.
Discussions with colleagues and experts about the
problem, its origin and objectives in seeking a solution.
Examination of data and records for possible trends,
peculiarities.
Review of similar studies.
Exploratory personal investigation / Observation.
Logical deduction from the existing theory.
Continuity of research.
Intuition and personal experience.
SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS
1Descriptive Hypothesis
These are assumptions that describe the characteristics
(such as size, form or distribution) of a variable. The variable
may be an object, person, organisation, situation or event.
Examples:
Public enterprises are more amenable for centralized planning.
1Relational Hypothesis [Explanatory Hypothesis]
These are assumptions that describe the relationship
between two variables. The relationship suggested may be
positive, negative or causal relationship.
Examples:
Families with higher incomes spend more for recreation
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
1Null Hypothesis

When a hypothesis is stated negatively, it is called null
hypothesis. It is a no difference, no relationship hypothesis.
ie., It states that, no difference exists between the parameter
and statistic being compared to or no relationship exists
between the variables being compared.
It is usually represented as H
O
or H
0 .

Example:
H
0
: There is no relationship between a familys income and
expenditure on recreation.
1Alternate Hypothesis
It is the hypothesis that describes the researchers
prediction that, there exist a relationship between two
variables or it is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is
represented as H
A
or H
1.



Example:
H
A
: There is a definite relationship between familys
income and expenditure on recreation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS
OConceptual Clarity - It should be clear and precise.

OSpecificity - It should be specific and limited in scope.

OConsistency - It should be consistent with the
objectives of research.

OTestability - It should be capable of being tested.

OExpectancy - It should state the expected relationships
between variables.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHESIS
OSimplicity - It should be stated as far as possible in
simple terms.
OObjectivity - It should not include value judgments,
relative terms or any moral preaching.
OTheoretical Relevance - It should be consistent with a
substantial body of established or known facts or
existing theory.
OAvailability of Techniques Statistical methods
should be available for testing the proposed
hypothesis.

Research proposal-(research design)
A written statement of the research design
that includes a statement explaining the
purpose of the study and detailed
,systematic outline of a particular
research methodology.

Research design can be the reflection of
the structure of research
it is the "glue" that holds all of the
elements in a research project together

The design design should be based
1. What is the study about?
2. Why is the study being made?
3. Where will the study be carried out?
4. What type of data is required?
5. Where can the required data be found?
6. What will be the sample design?
7. What techniques of data collection will be
used?
8. How will the data be analyzed?
9. In what style will the report be prepared?
Research Design
Purpose/Nature of the study
Exploratory study
Descriptive study
Hypotheses testing
Case studies
Types of Data
Primary vs. Secondary Data
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Longitudinal vs. Non-Longitudinal
Using Control / Comparison Groups
81
Research design
Purpose of the study:
Exploratory study
Is undertaken when no information is available on how
similar problems or research issues have been solved in the
past
Descriptive study
Is to able to describe the characteristics of the variables of
interest in a situation.
Hypotheses testing
Is undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent
variable or to predict organizational outcomes.
Case studies -A technique that intensively investigates
one or a few situations similar to the researchers
problem situation


The Research Proposal
The research proposal is:

A written statement of the research design
Includes an explanation of the research studys purpose and
the problem definition
Outlines the research methodology and procedures that will be
utilized throughout the research study
Includes information on cost and deadlines

Research proposals must be as specific and clear as possible
about
what is to be achieved and how it is to be achieved.
Questionnaires
and other supporting documents should be attached for
reference
83
Writing Research Objectives

Research Objectives should be clear and
achievable, as they directly assist in answering
the research problem.
The objectives may be specified in the form of
either statements or questions.
Generally, they are written as statements, using
the word to. (For example, to discover , to
determine , to establish , etc. )
Research objectives are simply research questions rewritten in statement
form.
How does age, education level and gender influence
individual attitudes towards legalized gambling?
What would be the corresponding research objective?

84

Measurement of variables operational definitions dimensions and elements Scales
nominal ordinal, interval, ratio scales dimensions of operational definition and
scaling. Reliability and validity goodness of measures item analysis type of validity.
Data collection method Primary sources of data Secondary sources interviewing
questionnaire design guidelines , other method of data collection observation
projective methods . Sampling types issue of precessions and confidence in determining
sample size. Importance of sample, sampling design and sample size.

85
Measurement and Scaling (1)
In business research, measurement of variables is a
indispensable requirement

Problem
Defining what is to be measured, and how it is to be
accurately and reliably measured

Some things (or concepts) which are inherently abstract in
their nature (e.g. job satisfaction, employee morale, brand
loyalty of consumers) are more difficult to measure than
concepts which can be assigned numerical values (e.g. sales
volume for employees X, Y and Z)


. 86
Measurement and Scaling (2)
In order for a concept to have the quality of being
measurable, it must first be made operational

An operation definition may be defined as a definition that
gives meaning to concept by specifying the activities or
operations which are necessary in order to measure it

Example A satisfied consumer will make at least five
purchases of Product A from Shop T over a three-month
period of time

Note that sometimes depending on the context of the
research study - it may be difficult to make operational
definitions

87
Measurement and Scaling (3)
A scale is basically a continuous spectrum or
series of categories and has been defined as any
series of items that are arranged progressively
according to value or magnitude, into which an
item can be placed according to its quantification

Four popular scales in business research are:

Nominal scales
Ordinal scales
Interval scales
Ratio scales

88
Measurement and Scaling (4)
A nominal scale is the simplest of the four scale
types and in which the numbers or letters
assigned to objects serve as labels for
identification or classification

Example:

Males = 1, Females = 2
Sales Zone A = Islamabad, Sales Zone B = Rawalpindi
Drink A = Pepsi Cola, Drink B = 7-Up, Drink C = Miranda


89
Measurement and Scaling (5)
An ordinal scale is one that arranges objects
or alternatives according to their magnitude

Examples:

Career Opportunities = Moderate, Good, Excellent
Investment Climate = Bad, inadequate, fair, good, very
good
Merit = A grade, B grade, C grade, D grade

A problem with ordinal scales is that the difference between
categories on the scale is hard to quantify, I,e., excellent is
better than good but how much is excellent better?

90
Measurement and Scaling (6)
An interval scale is a scale that not only arranges
objects or alternatives according to their respective
magnitudes, but also distinguishes this ordered arrangement
in units of equal intervals (i.e. interval scales indicate order
(as in ordinal scales) and also the distance in the order)
Examples:
Opportunities offered by the job are very important to me because
a) Interacting with others 1.SDA 2.DA 3.NA/NDA 4.A 5.SA
b) Serving others - 1.SDA 2.DA 3.NA/NDA 4.A 5.SA

Interval scales allow comparisons of the differences of magnitude (e.g. of
attitudes) but do not allow determinations of the actual strength of the
magnitude

91
Measurement and Scaling (7)
A ratio scale
is a scale that possesses absolute
rather than relative qualities and has an absolute
zero.

Examples:

Money

Weight

Distance

Temperature on the Kelvin Scale



Interval scales allow comparisons of the differences
of magnitude (e.g. of attitudes) as well as
determinations of the actual strength of the
magnitude

92
Measurement and Scaling (8)
Type of Scale Numerical Operation Descriptive Statistics
Nominal Counting Frequency in each
category, percentage in
each category, mode
Ordinal Rank Ordering Median, range,
percentile ranking
Interval Arithmetic Operations on
Intervals between
numbers
Mean, standard
deviation, variance
Ratio Arithmetic Operations on
actual quantities
Geometric mean,
coefficient of variation
93
Index Measures
If a concept is simple, it can be measured easily usually with one question or
observation

Example: To what extent do consumers of Product X like the products packaging
material? (very much, somewhat, not at all)

If, however, the concept to be measured is complex and abstract, two or more
questions or observations may be required in order to get accurate data

Example: The level of a salespersons motivation depends on (1) job satisfaction (2)
workplace environment (3) family life
Indexes (or composite measures) are meant to deal with the issue
of multidimensionality (e.g. an index of social class may be the variables residence,
occupation and education)
94
Criteria for Good Measurement

Reliability Reliability is the degree to which measurements are devoid of error and
therefore in the position to yield consistent results, also over repeated attempts over
time (ordinal measures always yield the same order, interval measurements always
yield the same order and same distance between the measured items)

Validity Validity is the ability of a scale or measuring instrument to measure what it is
intended to measure (e.g. is absenteeism from work a valid measure of job satisfaction
or are there other influences like a flu epidemic which is keeping employees from work)

Sensitivity Sensitivity is the ability of a measurement instrument to accurately measure variability
in stimuli or responses (e.g. on a scale, the choices very strongly agree, strongly agree, agree, dont
agree offer more choices than a scale with just two choices - agree and dont agree and is thus
more sensitive)


Attitude
Measuring Attitude is a frequent undertaking in business
research
Attitude may be defined as an enduring disposition to
consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects
Attitude has three dimensions:
MACFAST 96
Affective
Component
Cognitive
Component
Behavioural
Component
Components of Attitude
Affective Component Reflective of a persons general feelings or
emotions towards an object or subject (like, dislike, love, hate)

Cognitive Component Reflective of a persons awareness of and
knowledge about an object or subject (know, believe)

Behavioural Component Reflective of a persons intentions and
behavioural expectations, and predisposition to action
97
Measuring Attitude
It can be difficult to measure attitude, therefore, indicators such as
verbal expression, physiological measurement techniques and
overt behaviour are used for this purpose. The three different
components of attitude may require different measuring
techniques

Common techniques used in business research to determine
attitude include rating, ranking, sorting and the choice technique
98
Rating Techniques to Measure Attitude

Rating Scales are frequently employed in business research for measuring
attitude, and many scales have been developed for this purpose,
including:

Simple Attitude Scales
Category Scales
Likert Scale
Semantic Differential
Numerical Scales
Constant-Sum Scale
Stapel Scale
Graphic Scales
99
Data collection methods
Data can be collected in a variety ways ,data sources can be
primary or secondary.
Data collection methods such as:
interview(face-to- face, telephone, computer-assisted interviews),
Questionnaires
Observation
Motivational techniques
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Quantitative research:
Structured research
instruments
Larger sample size
Results easily replicated
Information about how
often or how many
Less in-depth, flexible


Qualitative research:
Less structured instruments
Smaller sample size
Results difficult to replicate
Information about why and
how
More in-depth, flexible
102
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Quantitative research:
Researcher should know
clearly what he / she is
looking for
Statistical analysis


Qualitative research:
Researcher may only
know roughly what he /
she is looking for
Analysis is subjective
Can be used to
determine the focus of
follow-up, quantitative
inquiries
103
Data Sources
Primary Data
Observations
Direct communication with subjects
(surveys, interviews, etc.)
Secondary Data
Existing data sources collected for some
other purpose than the proposed study
(reports, databases, results of past
studies or surveys).

104
Advantages of Secondary Data
Pool of already existing data
Cost-effective vis--vis primary data
Quick availability
No need for designing and undertaking a
research study
Collecting primary data may not be
feasible (privacy issues)
Many different sources are available
105
Disadvantages of Secondary Data
Relevance for researcher
Does data apply to target population?
Time-frame consistent with researchers requirement? (out
datedness)
Variation in terms of definition of terms
Different units of measurement (data conversion)
Verification of datas accuracy (inherent biases due to
vested interests)
Reputation of the data-collecting organization and research
design used may not be good


106

Data never gathered before
Advantage: find data you need to suit your
purpose
Disadvantage: usually more costly and time
consuming than collecting secondary data
Main sources
Individuals
Focus groups
Panels
self-effacing method



Census & sampling

Census
A census is a investigation of all
the individual elements of a population


sampling
The process of using a small number of
items or parts of a larger population
to make conclusions about the whole
population
Sampling
109
Population








Sample
A sample is a subset of a
larger population of objects
individuals, households,
businesses, organizations
and so forth.

Sampling enables researchers
to make estimates of some
unknown characteristics of
the population in question

A finite group is called population
whereas a non-finite (infinite)
group is called universe


The Sampling Process
MBA III (Research Methodology)
Course Instructor: Dr.
Aurangzeb Z. Khan 110
Define the Target
population
Select a
Sampling Frame
Determine if a probability
or non-probability sampling
method will be chosen
Plan procedure for
selecting sampling units
Determine sample size
Select actual sampling units
Conduct fieldwork 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Defining the Target Population
The target population is that complete group whose relevant
characteristics are to be determined through the sampling

A target population may be, for example, all faculty members
in the Department of Management Sciences in the IMK
network, all housewives in Alapuzha, all pre-college students
in Kollam and all medical doctors in Kerala

The target group should be clearly delineated if possible, for
example, do all pre-college students include only primary and
secondary students or also students in other specialized
educational institutions?


111
The Sampling Frame
The sampling frame is a list of all those population
elements that will be used in the sample

Examples of sampling frames are a student telephone
directory (for the student population), the list of companies
on the stock exchange, the directory of medical doctors
and specialists, the yellow pages (for businesses)

Often, the list does not include the entire population. The
inconsistency is often a source of error associated with the
selection of the sample (sampling frame error)

Information relating to sampling frames can be obtained
from commercial organizations
112
Sampling Units
The sampling unit is a single element or group
of elements subject to selection in a sample.
Examples:

Every student at KMA whose first name begins with the
letter A
All child passengers under 18 years of age who are
traveling in a train from destination X to destination Y
All jeweler shops in sectors F-6, F-7 and F-8 in the city

Sampling Errors (1)
Random Sampling Error This is defined as the difference between
the sample result and the result of a census conducted using identical
procedures and is the result of chance variation in the selection of
sampling units

If samples are selected properly (for e.g. through the technique of
randomization), the sample is usually deemed to be a good
approximation of the population and thus capable of delivering an
accurate result

Usually, the random sampling error arising from statistical fluctuation
is small, but sometimes the margin of error can be significant
Sampling Errors (2)
Systematic (Non-Sampling) Errors These errors result from factors
such as an improper research design that causes response error or
from errors committed in the execution of the research, errors in
recording responses and non-responses from individuals who were
not contacted or who refused to participate

Both Random sampling errors and systematic (non-sampling) errors
reduce the representativeness of a sample and consequently the
value of the information which is derived by business researchers
from it
115
Graphical Depiction of
Sampling Errors
116
Total Population
Sampling Frame Error
Random Sampling Error
Sampling Frame
Planned
Sample
Non-Response Error
Respondents
(actual
sample)
Probability and Non-Probability Sampling
Probability Sampling Every element in the
population under study has a non-zero probability of
selection to a sample, and every member of the
population has an equal probability of being selected

Non-Probability Sampling An arbitrary means of
selecting sampling units based on subjective
considerations, such as personal judgment or
convenience. It is less preferred to probability
sampling
117
Non-Probability Sampling (1)
Convenience Sampling This is a sampling
technique which selects those sampling units
most conveniently available at a certain point in,
or over a period, of time

Major advantages of convenience sampling is that is
quick, convenient and economical; a major disadvantage
is that the sample may not be representative

Convenience sampling is best used for the purpose of
exploratory research and supplemented subsequently
with probability sampling
29 August 2005 118
Non-Probability Sampling (2)
Judgment (purposive) Sampling This is a sampling
technique in which the business researcher selects the
sample based on judgment about some appropriate
characteristic of the sample members

Example 1: The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is based on
a judgment sample of market-based items, housing
costs, and other selected goods and services which are
representative for most of the overall population in terms
of their consumption

Example 2: Selection of certain voting districts which
serve as indicators for the national voting trend
119
Non-Probability Sampling (3a)
Quota Sampling This is a sampling technique in which
the business researcher ensures that certain characteristics
of a population are represented in the sample to an extent
which is he or she desires

Example: A business researcher wants to determine through
interview, the demand for Product X in a district which is very
diverse in terms of its ethnic composition. If the sample size is to
consist of 100 units, the number of individuals from each ethnic
group interviewed should correspond to the groups percentage
composition of the total population of that district
120
Non-Probability Sampling (3b)
Quota Sampling has advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages include the speed of data collection, less cost,
the element of convenience, and representativeness (if the
subgroups in the sample are selected properly)

Disadvantages include the element of subjectivity
(convenience sampling rather than probability-based which
leads to improper selection of sampling units)
121
Non-Probability Sampling (4)
Snowball Sampling This is a sampling technique in which individuals
or organizations are selected first by probability methods, and then
additional respondents are identified based on information provided by
the first group of respondents

Example: Through a sample of 500 individuals, 20 Mamooty fans are
identified which, in turn, identify a number of other Mamooty fans

The advantage of snowball sampling is that smaller sample sizes and
costs are necessary; a major disadvantage is that the second group of
respondents suggested by the first group may be very similar and not
representative of the population with that characteristic
122
Probability Sampling (1)
Simple Random Sampling This is a technique which
ensures that each element in the population has an
equal chance of being selected for the sample

Example: Choosing raffle tickets from a drum, computer-
generated selections, random-digit telephone dialing

The major advantage of simple random sampling is its simplicity
123
Probability Sampling (2)
Systematic Sampling This is a technique which in which
an initial starting point is selected by a random process, after
which every nth number on the list is selected to constitute
part of the sample

Example: From a list of 1500 name entries, a name on the list is
randomly selected and then (say) every 25
th
name thereafter. The
sampling interval in this case would equal 25.

For systematic sampling to work best, the list should be random in
nature and not have some underlying systematic pattern
124
Probability Sampling (3)
Stratified Sampling This is a technique which in which simple random
subsamples are drawn from within different strata that share some common
characteristic
Example: The student body of KUSAT is divided into two groups
(management science, engineering) and from each group, students are
selected for a sample using simple random sampling in each of the two
groups, whereby the size of the sample for each group is determined by that
groups overall strength
Stratified Sampling has the advantage of giving more representative samples
and less random sampling error; the disadvantage lies therein, that it is more
complex and information on the strata may be difficult to obtain
There are other specialized techniques of sampling such as: 1Cluster
Sampling 2 Multistage Area Sampling 3 Internet Sampling


Khan 125
Issues in Sample Design and Selection
Accuracy Samples should be representative of the
target population (less accuracy is required for
exploratory research than for conclusive research
projects)

Resources Time, money and individual or
institutional capacity are very important
considerations due to the limitation on them. Often,
these resources must be traded against accuracy


126
Issues in Sample Design and Selection
Availability of Information Often information on potential sample
participants in the form of lists, directories etc. is unavailable
(especially in developing countries) which makes some sampling
techniques (e.g. systematic sampling) impossible to undertake

Geographical Considerations The number and dispersion of
population elements may determine the sampling technique used
(e.g. cluster sampling)

Statistical Analysis This should be performed only on samples which
have been created through probability sampling (i.e. not probability
sampling)
127
Surveys
A Survey is a research technique in which data is collected from a
sample of people using an interview or questionnaire
Surveys are a crucial tool of business research methods
Surveys are undertaken using verbal or written means to obtain
primary data for the research project
Surveys target individuals and/or organizations (respondents)
Surveys are often quantitative, occasionally also qualitative in their
orientation
Surveys are usually done for descriptive purposes and for
ascertaining the characteristics of a group, to measure attitudes and
determine behavioural patterns, and sometimes to explore ideas or
provide causal explanations
128
Advantages of Undertaking Surveys
Surveys have a number of advantages in terms of
collecting, analyzing and assessing information from the
sampled population:
Quickness
Inexpensiveness
Flexibility
Efficiency
Accuracy
Helpful in the decision-making process
The advantages are only evident when surveys are properly
conducted!

129
Types of Survey Research Methods
Surveys can be classified according to the mode of communication
with the respondent (personal interviews, telephone interviews, mail
surveys, internet surveys etc.)
Surveys can be classified according to the type of questions asked of
respondents (structured questions, disguised questions).
Structured questions impose a limit on the number of permissible
responses, while disguised questions try to hide the purpose of the
study from the respondents and get information that respondents
may otherwise be reluctant to give.
Surveys often incorporate both structured and disguised questions


130
Types of Survey Research Methods
Surveys can be classified according to their time frame
(cross-sectional studies, i.e., where data is collected from
respondents at a single point in time, and longitudinal
studies, i.e., where data is collected from a group of
respondents over a time interval, with a view to examining the
level of continuity or change over time

If data is collected from the same sample of individuals, the
longitudinal study is called a panel study. A method for
documenting data in panel studies is to use diaries for tracking

131
Personal Interviews
A personal interview is a form of direct communication in which an
interviewer asks respondents in a face-to-face conversational situation

Personal interviews can take place in various locations, often at the
respondents place of residence or in their workplaces (door-to-door
interviews), in shopping malls and in supermarkets (mall intercept
interviews) and in other high-traffic areas (this has the advantage of lower
cost but, on the downside, it has a higher refusal rate due to the
respondents time limitation and there may be sampling issues to consider)

Personal interviews have a number of advantages and disadvantages for
business researchers
132
Advantages of Personal Interviews
O Opportunity for Feedback Interviewer can provide direct feedback to the
respondent, give clarifications and help alleviate any misconceptions or
apprehensions over confidentiality that the respondent may have in answering the
interviewers questions

O Probing Complex Answers Interviewers can probe if the respondents answer is
too brief or unclear. This gives interviewers some flexibility in dealing with
unstructured questions and is especially suited for handling complex questions

O Length of Interview If the questionnaire is very lengthy, the personal interview
is the best technique for getting respondents to cooperate, without overtaxing their
patience


133
Advantages of Personal Interviews
O Complete Questionnaires Personal ensures ensure that the respondent will
answer all questions asked, unlike in telephone interview where the respondent may
hang up or in mail questionnaire where some questions may go unanswered

O supports & Visual Aids Interviewers have the opportunity of showing
respondents items such as sample products, graphs ands sketches, which can aid in
their answers

O High Participation Interviewing respondents personally can increase the
likelihood of their participation, as many people prefer to communicate directly
verbally and sharing information and insights with interviewers
134
Disadvantages of Personal Interviews
O Cost Personal interviews are usually more expensive than mail, telephone and
internet surveys. Factors influencing the cost of the interview include the
respondents geographic proximity, the length and complexity of the questionnaire,
and the number of non-respondents

O Lack of Anonymity Respondents are not anonymous in a personal (face-to-face)
interview and may be reluctant to disclose certain information to the interviewer.
Hence, considerable must be expended by the interviewer when dealing with
sensitive questions to avoid bias effects on the respondents part

O Necessity for Callbacks When a person selected for interview cannot be reached
the first time, a callback has to be scheduled which result in extra cost and time
spent
135
Disadvantages of Personal Interviews
O Variance Effects It has been shown that the demographic characteristics of the
interviewer can influence the answers of the respondents. In one study, male
interviewers had a much larger variance of answers than female interviewers in a
sample of most female individuals

O Dishonesty Interviewers cheat to make their life easier and save time and effort

O Personal Style The interviewers individual questioning style, techniques,
approach and demeanor may influence the respondents answers

O Global Considerations Cultural aspects may influence peoples willingness to
participate in an interview (e.g. repressive Middle Eastern cultures discourage
females from being questioned by male interviewers)
136
Telephone Interviews
In telephone interviews, respondents are contacted by telephone in
order to collect data for surveys

Telephone interviewing has been used for decades and, in some
ways, has advantages over other methods of undertaking surveys

With improvements in the IT-field, computers can be used to assist in
telephone interviewing, and answers given by respondents can be
entered by interviewers directly into the computer, saving effort, time
and cost
137
Advantages of Telephone Interviews (
O Speed Speed is a major advantage of telephone interviewing, enabling data to be
collected on very short notice (example: a union decides whether to organize a
strike by telephone-interviewing members over a one-day period)

O Cost Telephone interviews are comparatively cheaper to conduct than personal
interviews. No travel time and travel cost is involved.

O No Face-to-Face Contact Because telephone interviews lack the direct element
of interaction, respondents may be more willing to provide certain information that
they would be reluctant to disclose in a personal (face-to-face) interview
138
Disadvantages of Telephone Interviews
O No Face-to-Face Contact Interviewer may not be able to record
the respondents data fast enough and the respondent, who cannot
see this, may continue to add data. Also, due to the visual
communication gap, there is a greater tendency for interviewers to
record no-answers and incomplete answers than in a personal
interview

O Cooperation Research shows that response rates in telephone
interviews are declining with the passage of time and the availability
of respondents has also declined for various reasons. Also, reaching
executives in workplaces can be very difficult due to tight schedules
and the work load
139
Disadvantages of Telephone Interviews
O Lack of Visual Mediums Visual aids cannot be used by interviewers in telephone
interviews, hence, surveys which need visual aids to help respondents cannot be
undertaken with this survey method

O Limited Duration Length of interview time in a telephone interview is limited. Too
long interview times may result in exasperated respondents hanging up the telephone
or refusing to answer questions

O Representative Samples Using the telephone directory as the basis for sampling can
be problematic in the sense that many persons are unlisted or do not have telephones,
but whose opinions are nevertheless important
O Global Considerations In many countries, people are reluctant to divulge information
over the telephone
140
Mail Surveys
Disadvantages
Interviewer Absence
Standardized
Questions
Time Factor
Length of Mail-
Questionnaire
Wrong Respondents
Social Factors

A mail survey is a self-
administered questionnaire
dispatched to respondents
through the mail

Mail surveys have several
advantages and disadvantages:

geographic flexibility
cost
respondent convenience
interviewers absence
standardized questions
time factor
length of the questionnaire

Internet Surveys
Internet Survey An internet survey is a self-administered questionnaire which
is posted on a website. Some major advantages of using the Internet for
Conducting Surveys:
access to a large (possibly global) audience on 24-hour basis
Real-time data entry and analysis
More accurate data capture if properly programmed
obtaining confidential, anonymous answers quickly and cost-effectively
No costs for paper, postage, data entry and administrative costs
Large samples can be larger than with interviews and other types of self-
administered questionnaires
Questionnaires can include use of appealing multimedia aids including
photographs or drawings of prototypes
Callbacks are automated (if response incomplete or not given)
eMail can be used to invite respondents to visit the website, for e.g. to
participate in panels
Flexible and personalized questioning of respondents

Some major disadvantages of using the internet for conducting
surveys:
Many people in the general population do not have access to the
internet
Different levels of technology may be prevalent (broadband or dial-up
connectivity) which may result in some users not being able to access
information as quick as others
Hardware deficiencies and/or software incompatability
Different computer skill levels
Physical incentives (e.g. inclusion of money) is not possible, only the
promise of a future reward
Research on internet surveys is small and so are ideas for improving
response rates

Self-Administered Questionnaires
144
Self-Administered
Questionnaires
Printed Questionnaires
Electronic Questionnaires
Mail
In-Person Drop-Off
Inserts
Fax
E-Mail
Internet Website
Interactive Kiosk
Self-Administered Questionnaires

Self-administered questionnaires are those questionnaires that
are filled in by the respondent independently, i.e. without the
direct interaction with an interviewer

There are many ways for distributing self-administered
questionnaires, for example, by mailing or faxing questionnaires
to people, by posting them on websites, by distributing them at
certain locations and places (airline flights, resteraunts, hotels
etc.), by including them as inserts in magazines and so forth

Researchers who have to interpret self-administered
questionnaires have to be skillful at trying to understand what is
being conveyed to them in written or electronic - rather than
verbal - form
145
Constructing the Questionnaire
Select the correct types of questions:
open ended harder to score but get richer
information
closed ended, dichotomous offer two
either/or responses (true/false; yes/no;
for/against
multiple choice select one or more than one
scaled response gather range of values
(strongly disagree, somewhat disagree,
neutral, somewhat agree, strongly agree
Open-Ended Questions
These require the respondent to answer the question in his or her
own words
Why do you like studying at IMK?
Open-ended questions allow the respondent to ask or probe the
respondent further if he/she feels that clarification of a point, or
additional information, is needed. Good for exploratory research.
Disadvantage are the difficulties of analyzing the data and in
categorizing and summarizing answers because of the unique
resonses. Also, there is the possibility of interviewer bias and bias
caused by the different education levels of the respondents

Closed-Ended Questions-
These require the respondent to choose, among a limited number of
alternative given responses, the one which coincides closely with his
or her view or behaviour.
Are you interested to study in KMA-...Yes/N

Advantages include requiring less interviewer time, less interviewer
skill and ease of answer for respondents. Disadvantages are that the
researcher may be basing the response structure on assumptions
which may be incorrect, and that there may be additional responses
which are not indicated. Also, care must be taken to ensure that
response categories are mutually exclusive and do not overlap
Questionnaire Relevancy & Accuracy
Qustionnaires must fulfill the two fundamental criteria of redundancy
and accuracy in order to meet the purposes for which the research is
being undertaken

Relevancy means that no unnecessary information is obained from
the questionnaire and that all the information that is needed for the
purpose of the research is collected, and that no important
information is omitted

Accuracy means that the questions are worded in a manner which
ensures the collection of correct information from respondents














guidelines for phrasing
questionnaires:

1.Avoidance of Complexity / Use Simple Language Respondents may have
quite different educational backgrounds (from illiterate or semi-literate to
PhD) and conversational levels (from quiet and shy to articulate) which
have to be taken into consideration when designing a questionnaire which
is intended for general circulation. Technical jargon should only be
considered when the group of respondents is homogenous and familiar
with the jargon

2.Avoidance of Leading and Loaded Questions Both are major sources
of bias in the wording of questionnaires. Leading means implying certain
answers which respondents are pushed towards (see example on page
336); Loading pushes the respondent towards a socially desirable or
politically correct answer or puts a question which is emotionally charged
guidelines for phrasing questionnaires
Counterbiasing Statements Respondents are presented with an
introductory statement or preface to a question or section of questions
that may help reduce the respondents reluctance to answer the
question(s) (see example on page 338)
Avoidance of Ambiguity Respondents must not be presented with
terms and words that are vague or general or which cause confusion and
misunderstanding (example: How frequently do you go the the internet
cafe? Do you usually pepare for your examinations alone?
Avoidance of Double-Barreled Questions Questions which adress two
or more issues simultaneously








guidelines for phrasing questionnaires
Avoidance of Assumptions Respondents are presented
with assumptions which cause them to give biased responses
(see example on page 343)

Avoidance of Burdensome (and Memory Taxing) Questions
Respondents are asked to give answers to questions which
they may not be in a position to give due to forgetfulness
(note: aided and unaided recall). See example on page 343

Sequencing Questions in Questionnaires
The order in which questions are put in a questionnaire may
significantly affect the response rate
Asking questionnaires which require resondents to give
personal details at the beginning of the questionnaire is
generally not recommended
Usually, researchers prefer to ask general questions from
respondents before moving on to specific questions (funnel
technique)
Often, it is advisable to produce multiple versions of a
questionnaire in which fixed-alternative responses are shuffled
about

Factors to consider in questionnaire layout:

The layout of questions can also influence the answers of the
respondents. Good, simple and visually appealing layouts are a must for
mail surveys, but also can be useful in personal and telephone interviews
Factors to consider in questionnaire layout:
Dont overcrowd the questionnaires
Use margins of adequate size
Use white space if needed to seperate sections of the questionnaire
Keep questionnaires as brief as possible
Use a booklet instead of stapled form
Use good quality paper
Ensure that the title and subtitles of the questionnaire and questionnaire sections
are carefully phrased and captures the respondents attention
Include a privacy and confidentiality mention

Important characteristics of good questionnaires
Plan a user-friendly format
Gather demographic data age, gender, etc.,
when necessary.
Guarantee anonymity
Ensure ease of tabulation Scranton forms
Ask well-phrased and unambiguous questions
that can be answered
Develop for completeness get all the data
Pilot test the instrument
Pre-Testing Questionnaires
Pretesting is a technique used to improve the quality of questionnaires with a view to
ensuring that respondents understand and do not omit questions or do not
misinterpret instructions given to them for filling out the questionnaire
Step 1
Administer the tool to a small group of people, who know little or nothing about the
research
Can they clearly understand what is being asked?
Does the flow of the questions make sense?
Will other people have difficulty?
Which questions in particular might pose problems?
Step 2
Test your tool with a small number of people from your sampling frame

156
Pre-Testing Questionnaires

Are there too many "neutral", "dont know" or "dont
remember" responses?
Do you need additional questions relevant to the research?
Do you need to provide more space for written responses?
Did respondents respond appropriately to open-ended
questions?
Will other people have difficulty?
Which questions in particular might pose problems?
157
Introductory Statement

The purpose of this survey is to help management identify family
issues that our employees experience that are related to job
performance. Please respond to the following survey items by
checking the appropriate response next to each question/item.
Your responses are completely anonymous and will only be used
to assess overall employee characteristics.
ensure anonymity
purpose of the survey
Scientific Observation
Scientific Observation is the systematic process of recording the behavioural
patterns of people, objects, and occurrences as they are witnessed

In observation, there is no direct interaction with respondents no
communication or questioning takes place while data is collected

A major advantage of observation (over surveys) is that the data collected is
done at the time the actual behaviour or situation takes place, and it is not
subject to distortions, inaccuracies and respondent biases and so forth.

A major limitation of observation is that many cognitive phenomona such as
attitudes, motivations, expectations, intentions and preferences cannot be
observed. Also, observation usually is of short-duration as observation over
longer periods is tedious and expensive

Scientific Observation
Visible and Hidden ObservationVisible Observation

Visible Observation This occurs when the observers presence is visible to the
research subject
Visible Observation has the advantage that the research subject is aware of his or
her participation in the research and can choose to terminate it if desired; the
disadvantage lies in that the subject may adapt his or her behaviour and that the
data collected may consequently not be accurate

Hidden Observation This occurs when the observers presence is not
visible to the research subject

Hidden Observation has the advantage that the subjects consent is not required and
that because the subject is unaware of being observed, he or she will not adapt the
behaviour accordingly; the disadvantage lies in the violation of the subjects privacy



Scientific Observation
There are two ways for observing people, objects,
events and other phenomona:

Human Observation Human observers are used when
the behaviour or situation to be recorded is complex and
not easily predictable in advance of the research

Mechanical Observation - Mechanical Observation is used
when the behaviour or situation to be recorded is
routine, repetitive or programmatic

Scientific Observation
There are 7 types of observable phenomona:
Human behaviour or action (e.g.: movement patterns of workers in a factory or
consumers in a shopping mall)
Verbal behaviour (e.g.: statements made by shoppers waiting in the queue)
Expressive behaviour (e.g.: body language, facial expressions and tone of voice)
Spatial relations (e.g.: proximity of the offices of corporate executives to the office
of the CEO)
Temporal patterns (e.g.: duration it takes an employee to perform a task)
Physical objects (e.g.: how much paper is recycled in an office)
Verbal or pictorial records (e.g.: how many graphics and sketches appear in an
appliance instruction manual)

Direct Observation
Direct observation is an attempt by the researcher to observe and record what naturally
occurs without creating any artificial situation

Direct observation can yield many types of data more accurately than through questioning
(e.g. respondents being interviewed might not be able to indicate how much time they spend
performing individual tasks but direct observation can determine this quite straightforwardly)

Direct observation is often the only feasible or economic option for collecting data (e.g.
collecting data on market prices for specific products or determining where the majority of a
supermarkets customers come from based on their car registration numbers)

Direct observation also has shortcomings. Observer Bias, for instance, may arise from the
element of subjectivity brought into play by observers and false attributions about the
subjects educational background and economic status, failure to record all the relevant data
and misinterpretation of the data (facial expressions are wrongly interpreted, spatial
proximity has another reason etc.)
163
Projective techniques
An indirect means of questioning that
enables a respondent to project beliefs
and feelings on to a third party
Word association test
Sentence completion
Third person technique
Role playing


Data analysis and interpretation getting data ready for analysis editing data Handling
blank response code categorization entering data. Data analysis Testing goodness of
fit of data reliability Cronbachs Alpha choosing appropriate statistical technique
parametric and non-parametric tests multi variant analysis analysis of dependence
analysis of interdependence multiple regressions, discriminate analysis, factor analysis,
cluster analysis SPSS.


165
Editing and Coding Data
Editing is the process of checking data for errors
such as omissions, illegibility and inconsistency,
and correcting data where and when the need
arises

Example 1: A questionnaire meant to be
answered by adults over the age of 30 years has
also been answered by some persons under the
age of 30 years

Example 2: A respondent gives her birthday as
1865 or claims to have a car insurance but says
she doesnt own a car
166
Data Consistency and Completeness
The data obtained from a questionnaire must be logically
consistent, especially when questions are related

Sometimes inconsistency of data may not be readily
apparent. In this case, the data editor must judge what
action to take (example: Salary of the CEO of a big
corporation is given as USD 25,000 per annum)

Circumstances permitting, the data editor may have to insert
data if answers to questions have been omitted by the
respondent, but which can be answered on the basis of the
other data obtained (example: respondent does not answer
a question asking if his organization has a website, but
somewhere later answers that the organization has three
websites)
167
Data Analysis and Interpretation
The data analysis involves three major steps, done in roughly
this order:

Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis (Data
Preparation)

Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics)


Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential Statistics)

Qualitative Data Analysis
Steps of Qualitative Data Analysis:
Data transcription
Organizing data & numbering
Familiarization
Initial coding
Combining and renaming codes
Re-coding
Generating & summarizing themes

169
Non-Responses and Out-Of-Order Answers
Often, questions are left unanswered by respondents
(Item Non-Response). In such cases, where data must be
inserted, the data editor has some options such as using a
plug value according to some prespecified rule

Sometimes respondents give answers to (open-ended)
questions in other questions. In such cases, data has to
be shifted around the questions

n 170
Reliability- refers to the extent to which the scale /
survey provides consistent results when
surveying similar populations.
Multiple types of reliability
Internal consistency - correlation among the
variables comprising the set ( Cronbach's alpha)
Split-half reliability - correlation of two equivalent
forms of the scale (Spearman-Brown coefficient)
Test-retest reliability - correlation between two (or
more) administrations for different times, locations,
or populations, (Spearman-Brown coefficient)
Assessing Correlations /Cronbachs Alpha

Cranach's alpha is an index of reliability associated
with the variation accounted for by the true score
of the "underlying construct."
Allows a researcher to measure the internal
consistency of scale items, based on the average
inter-item correlation
Indicates the extent to which the items in your
questionnaire are related to each other
Indicates whether a scale is unidimensional or
multidimensional
Assessing Correlations /Cronbachs Alpha

The higher the score, the more reliable
the generated scale is
A score of .70 or greater is generally
considered to be acceptable
.90 or > = high reliability
.80-.89 = good reliability
.70-79 = acceptable reliability
.65-.69 = marginal reliability
lower thresholds are sometimes used in
the literature.



Validity

Validity refers to the extent to which the scale /
survey measures what it is intended to measure.
Multiple types of validity (here are just 3)

Construct validity - the approximate truth of the
conclusion that your operationalization accurately
reflects its construct.

Face validity whether operationalization "on its face"
it seems like a good translation of the construct.

Content validity - check of the operationalization against
the relevant content domain for the construct.

This approach assumes that you have a good detailed
description of the content domain, something that's not
always true.
Reliability vs Validity
Statistical Data Analysis
Collecting data on the basis of surveys and
questionnaires is the first step towards interpreting
and utilizing the data for decision-making

After data has been collected, it must be organized
and analysed using various statistical tools and
techniques
176
Descriptive and Inferential
Statistics
Descriptive statistics The branch of
statistics which describes or summarizes
information about a population or sample

Examples:

The number of employees with MBA degrees in
an organization
The number of students who failed to qualify
their final examination at IMK
. 177
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (
Inferential statistics The branch of statistics
which is used to make inferences or judgments
about a population on the basis of a sample

Examples:

The demand for a new Product X based on a sample
conducted in Region Y
The general election result based on a representative
survey of voters in electoral district Z
178
Descriptive statistics
provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.
Central Tendency. The central tendency of a distribution is an estimate of the "center"
of a distribution of values. There are three major types of estimates of central tendency:
Mean is the most common-used measure of data tendency.=average.
Median is the middle value , when the data is arranged in numerical order.
Mode is the value ( number) that appears the most.
Dispersion (Range, Standard Diviation)refers to the spread of the values around the
central tendency
Inferential statistics
t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), regression
analysis, Correlation is a measure of the relation between two or more variables.
we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed
difference between groups. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from
our data to more general conditions;
we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data.
Statistical Data Analysis
(Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))
A frequency distribution (or frequency table) is a set of data which records the
number of times a particular vlaue of a variable, or range of values of a
variable, occurs

Example:

Amount Deposited (Rs.) Frequency
Less than 50,000
50,000 100,000
Above 100,000
6700
1240
375
29 August 2005
180
Total = 8,315
Statistical Data Analysis
(Frequency Distribution (relative distribution))
Amount Deposited (Rs.) Frequency
Less than 50,000
50,000 100,000
Above 100,000
80%
15%
5%
29 August 2005
Total = 100%
Amount Deposited (Rs.) Frequency
Less than 50,000
50,000 100,000
Above 100,000
0.80
0.15
0.05
Total = 1
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

Proportions
Proportions are the percentage of popluation
elemts that succesfully fulfill some specific
criteria

Examples:

The proportion of KUSAT Management Science
students who are in the evening programme
The proportion of jeweller shops in KTM who have
an annual revenue exceeding 50 million Rupees
182
Univariate Analysis
Measures of Central Tendency
Accesses properties of a single variable

The purpose of measures of central
tendency is to determine the average value
in a set of values

There are three measures of central
tendency:

(Arithmetic) Mean
Median
Mode
183
Measures of Central Tendency
(Arithmetic Mean)
The arithmetic mean is the average of all the
values under consideration


Branch Revenue
1
2
3
4
50,000,000
150,000,000
40,000,000
60,000,000
29 August 2005
184
Total = 300,000,000
Arithmetic Mean = 300,000,000 / 4 = 75,000,000
Measures of Central Tendency
(Median)
The Median is the midpoint of the distribution of
values under consideration


Salesperson Number of Sales
Calls
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4
3
2
5
3
3
1
5
Median = 3
1 2 3 3 3 4 5 5
Measures of Central Tendency
(Mode)
The Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in
the distribution of values under consideration


Salesperson Number of Sales
Calls
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4
3
2
5
3
3
1
5
29 August 2005
)
186
Mode = 3
Measures of Dispersion

Measures of dispersion provide an indication of the
tendency of value to depart from their central
tendency

Two sets of values may have the same central
tendency, but their dispersion may differ significantly

See example table 17.5 on page 407 of the text book

187
Measures of Dispersion
(The Range)

The Range is the simplest measure of dispersion of values and is defind as
the distance between the smallest and the highest value (i.e. the extreme
values) in a frequency distribution

Refer again to table 17.5 on page 407 of your text book for an example

See the deviation score (the distance of a value from the arithmetic mean,
e.g. deviation score = 500 750 = - 250)

The deviation score is used as the basis of computing the average
deviation which is simply the summation of all deviation scores divided by
the sample size. The absolute values of the deviation scores should be
used

29 August 2005 188
Measures of Dispersion
(The Variance)

The variance is another very useful measure of the level
of dispersion or variability in a set of values

The variance is computed by squaring the deviation
scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the
sample size minus one

The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the
distance from the arithmetic mean
189
Measures of Dispersion
(The Standard Deviation)

The standard deviation is simply the square root of the
variance and is considered a very accurate measure of
variation or dispersion in a set of values

The standard deviation is preferred by business
researchers over the variance

If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important
to note that the standard deviation of the sample may
differ from the standard deviation of the whole population
190
Inferential Statistics
Statistical inference involves drawing
samples from populations and making
decisions about those populations from
the sample data.
Statistical techniques, known as
parametric methods, make a number of
assumptions about the nature of the
sampled populations. The term
parametric implies assumptions about
parameters.
191
parametric and non-parametric tests
Parametric Tests
Normal distribution
Homogeneity of variance
N should be large (N > 30)
Data should be at least interval scale
More powerful
Prone to Type I error
Less chance of Type II error
Unfortunately, these assumptions are not
always appropriate, or cannot be always
supported or validated


parametric and non-parametric tests
Nonparametric methods do not have the
same restrictions placed on them as do their
parametric counterparts.
there are underlying distributional
requirements, but the requirements are
much less restrictive.
Nonparametric tests are also referred to as
distribution-free tests. These tests have
the obvious advantage of not requiring the
assumption of normality or the assumption of
homogeneity of variance.


Nonparametric tests have different characteristics:
They are concerned with quantities other than
parameters of distributions.
They can be used when the assumptions of
parametric tests do not hold for the particular data
under consideration.
They make minimal assumptions about the
population from which the sample comes.

A common example is the situation in which an
underlying population is not normally distributed.
Other tests, such as a median test or the sign test,
can be used in place of t-tests for means and
paired comparisons, respectively.
Nonparametric tests are normally used in three
cases:
When the distribution of the data to be analyzed
indicates or suggests that a parametric test is not
appropriate.
When the data are ordinal or ranked, as
parametric tests normally require the data to be
interval or ratio. One might be ranking the
performance of investment managers; such
rankings do not lend themselves to parametric tests
because of their scale.
When your test does not involve a parameter. For instance,
in evaluating whether or not an investment manager has had
a statistically significant record of consecutive successes, the
nonparametric runs test might be employed. Another
example: if you want to test whether a sample is randomly
selected, a nonparametric test should be used.
Multivariate Analysis
Many statistical techniques focus on just
one or two variables
Multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques
allow more than two variables to be
analysed at once
Multiple regression is not typically included
under this heading, but can be thought of as a
multivariate analysis
Multivariate Analysis Methods

Two general types of MVA technique
Analysis of dependence
Where one (or more) variables are dependent
variables, to be explained or predicted by others
E.g. Multiple regression, PLS, MDA
Analysis of interdependence
No variables thought of as dependent
Look at the relationships among variables, objects
or cases
E.g. cluster analysis, factor analysis
Types of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

When two or more means are compared on a single
variable using-ANOVA, this is called a one-way ANOVA.
For example, if the absentee rate of salaried workers in
three different manufacturing plants is compared and
the average (mean) number of days missed for the
month of January for the samples for each plant are:
Plant 1: X1 = 1.78
Plant 2: X2 = 3.98
Plant 3: X3 = 6.12
This involves one variable, absentee rate, and calls for a
one-way ANOVA

Two-Way ANOVA:
In a two-way ANOVA (sometimes called a two-factor ANOVA)
subjects are classified in two ways.
For example, if the absentee rates from above are
broken out by gender, i.e., male and female, for plant
1 and 2, there would be four mean scores. For
example
Row Means
Male-------- X = 1.63--- X = 3.01 X = 2.82
Fmale------- X = 1.89----X = 4.21 X = 3.09
---------------------------------------
Column X = 1.98 ------X = 3.98
Means

This involves two variables, absentee rates and
gender, and calls for a
two-way ANOVA.

Multivariate Analysisof Variance(MANOVA):
The extension of ANOVA techniques to
studies with three or more variables classified
in two or more ways is called multivariate
analysis of variance. Such statistics require
the gathering and analyses of complex sets
of data, and it is suggested that a statistical
consultant be used.
The mean scores for such a study might look
like the following:
Shift Plant #1 Plant #2 Plant #3
1
st
X = 1.50 X = 2.01 X = 1.80
2nd X = 2.98 X = 3.01 X = 4.89
3ed X = 4.98 X = 6.87 X = 7.09
F = MSB/MSw
MSB = SSB/df B, MSw = SSw/df w
SSB = between group sum of squares and
mean square
SSw = SST SSB
dfT = number of individual scores 1
dfB = number of groups 1
dfw = number of individual scores
number of groups

ANOVA.
By calculating the variability in data and
producing an F- Test, the ratio of the
variances provide an estimate of the
statistical difference between the means.
If the value of F is greater than the
critical value of the F distribution at the
chosen level of significance, then the null
hypothesis is rejected.
It can be concluded that there are
statistically significant differences
between at least some of the means
Regression Analysis

Regression is a generic term for all methods attempting to fit a model to observed
data in order to quantify the relationship between two groups of variables. The
fitted model may then be used either to merely describe the relationship between
the two groups of variables, or to predict new values.
The two data matrices involved in regression are usually denoted X and Y, and the
purpose of regression is to build a model Y = f(X). Such a model tries to explain, or
predict, the variations in the Y-variable(s) from the variations in the X-variable(s).
The link between X and Y is achieved through a common set of samples for which
both X- and Y-values have been collected.
Context X Y
General Predictors Responses
Multiple Linear
Regression (MLR)
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Designed Data Factors, Design Variables Responses
Spectroscopy Spectra Constituents
Usual names for X- and Y-variables
The Basic Regression Model
Simple Linear Regression
Y = a + bX
Y = Dependent variable
a = intercept
b = slope/regression coefficient (change in Y with a one unit
change in X)
X = predictor value

Multiple Linear Regression
Y = a + b
1
X
1
+ b
2
X
2
+b
3
X
3 +

The Regression Line
Y
X
Y=a+bX
a
b

Univariate regression uses a single predictor, which is
often not sufficient to model a property precisely.
Multivariate regression takes into account several
predictive variables simultaneously, thus modeling
the property of interest with more accuracy.
How and why to use Regression?
Building a regression model involves collecting
predictor and response values for common samples,
and then fitting a predefined mathematical
relationship to the collected data.

Once you have built a regression model, you can
predict the unknown concentration for new
samples, using the spectroscopic measurements
as predictors. The advantage is obvious if the
concentration is difficult or expensive to measure
directly

Multiple Linear Regression (MLR)
MLR is a method for relating the variations in a
response variable (Y-variable) to the variations of
several predictors (X-variables), with explanatory
or predictive purposes.

Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is a well-known
statistical method based on ordinary least
squares regression.


Discriminant Analysis
Discriminant analysis also refers to a
wider family of techniques
Still for discrete response, continuous
predictors
Produces discriminant functions that classify
observations into groups
These can be linear or quadratic functions
Can also be based on non-parametric techniques
Often train on one dataset, then test on
another
Cluster Analysis
Techniques for identifying separate groups of similar cases

Similarity of cases is either specified directly in a distance
matrix, or defined in terms of some distance function

Also used to summarise data by defining segments of similar
cases in the data.This use of cluster analysis is known as
dissection
Clustering Techniques; Two main types of cluster analysis
methods
a. Hierarchical cluster analysis
Each cluster (starting with the whole dataset) is divided into two,
then divided again, and so on
b. Iterative methods
k-means clustering (PROC FASTCLUS)
Analogous non-parametric density estimation method
c. Also other methods
Overlapping clusters
Fuzzy clusters

Starting SPSS for Windows
SPSS Editor
DATA VIEW & VARIABLE VIEW
Variable view is below: It contains the following items
(magnified)
1Name:
The collection of responses on an entity, whose information is
obtained from the respondents or otherwise, will be referred
to by a Name which is selected by the investigator in a
survey.

2.Type:
The data obtained may be recorded in different formats,
called Type. The following types are available.

Data View
Variable
View
Variable
View
Data View
Starting SPSS for Windows
3. Width:
This refers to width of a field.
4.Decimals:
This refers to the number of decimals.
5. Label:
Generally the names selected to represent a collection of
responses will be in abbreviations. In order to make clarity
to output, explanatory information may be provided in
Label.

6.Values:
It is a practice to represent nominal information by integers
or other discreet items, e.g., 1 to mean Chennai, 2 to
mean Trichy etc. This facility provides a convenience to rep
resent such information with ease; so that when outputs
are generated there will be no difficulty to understand the
content.

Starting SPSS for Windows
7. Missing:
While collecting data and recording, there are occasions when
they may be lost. This facility provides information on codes used
for missing data, so that they will be omitted in a particular
analysis, if the missed item is required.

8.Column:
This facility is used to design the width of column, which otherwise
can be achieved by click and drag.

9.Align:
This facility makes the entry in a cell to appear in a certain way,
left, right or centred.
10Measure:
Generally the variables are measured in one of the three (four)
scales, nominal, ordinal or interval (ratio). This facility may be
used to record the scale for any variable.

performance in MBA topics.
Name Value Label
FA 1 Financial Accounting
MA 2 Managerial Accounting
FIN 3 Finance
MAR 4 Marketing
HB 5 Human Behaviour
OD 6 Organization Design

PR 7 Production
PB 8 Probability
SI 9 Statistical Inference
QA 10 Quantitative Analysis


MODULE-V
The research report
The research report research proposal
characteristics of well written reports - contents
integral part of a report oral presentation
handling questions report format.
Research Report, Presentation, Follow-Up
The research report is the crucial means for communicating the whole
project to those individuals or entities who or which commissioned the
research

A research report may be in writing, verbal, or a combination of both

It is essential that great effort is put into writing a good research report
because it is often the only part of the research cycle that end users get to
see!

A great research based on a well-conceived approach will go to waste if
the research report leaves a bad impression on the end users of that
research

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Communicating the Research Report
The business researcher should carefully consider
how he or she is going to communicate the
information to the end user

The business researcher should take pains to ensure
that he/she and the research end-user are at the
same communicational level, i.e., that the
terminology used in the report is understandable
and that the end-user is presented with all the
information neded to make an informed decision
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Research Report Design
Template
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Research Report
Prefatory
Parts
Main
Body
Appended
Parts
Research Report Components
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PREFATORY PARTS
Title Page
Research
proposel
Letter of
Authorization
Table of
Contents
Objectives
Results
Conclusions
Recommendations
Summary
Research Report Components
(2)
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MAIN BODY
Introduction
Methodology
Limitations
Conclusions
and
Recommen-
dations
Area 1
Area 2
Final Area
Results
Research Report Components
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APPENDED PARTS
Data Collection
Forms
Detailed
Calculations
General Tables
Bibliography
The Research Proposal
The research proposal is:

A written statement of the research design
Includes an explanation of the research studys purpose and
the problem definition
Outlines the research methodology and procedures that will be
utilized throughout the research study
Includes information on cost and deadlines

Research proposals must be as specific and clear as possible
about
what is to be achieved and how it is to be achieved.
Questionnaires
and other supporting documents should be attached for
reference
Prepare a research proposal for The feasibility study about
the implementation of canteen facility in your campus

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Oral Presentations (1)
Oral presentations are a useful supplement to written
research reports because they enable the salient
findings of the research to be presented at any time,
and they give listeners the opportunity to raise
questions and clarify any ambiguous issues or points

The researcher giving the oral presentation must be
very well prepared to defend the results of his or her
written report in a confident and competent manner
so that the individuals who will be making decisions
on the basis of the report are convinced of its
importance and accuracy


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Oral Presentations (2)
The researcher should try to maintain good
communication with the listeners by avoiding
excessive technical jargon if and when dealing
with persons from other disciplines

The researcher should avoid simply reading out
text, maintain eye contact with his or her
listeners, and gesture occasionaly

Multimedia aids can be considered as can posters
or handouts
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