Apocynaceae

Active constituents are alkaloids in most of cases Rauwolfia / Rauvolfia Catharanthus

Rauwolfia serpentina .

sarpagandha • Sinsikrit name for Rauwolfia serpentina .

• In very few cases pieces of aerial stems are attached.Macroscopical characters • Cylindrical or slightly tapering pieces (2-10cm long. • Roots are rarely branched with rootlets rare. • Both bark and wood contain abundant starch • The recently dried drug has slight odour. 5-22mm in diameter. • Taste is bitter .

Collection • Roots are dug in autumn from 3-4 years old plants • Washed . boiled . dried and sold in market .

Java • Active constituents: Alkaloids • Collection: Drug is collected from wild plants • Endangered: Since seeds have low viability.• Part used: Dried rhizome and roots • Habit: A small shrub. Thailand. 1m in height. plant is regarded as endangered. light yellow coloured latax when injured • Distribution: India. . Pakistan. pale bark. Burma. cylindrical stem.

• • • • • • • Actions and effects/uses For insomnia Insanity Hypertension / High blood pressure Sedative effects Snakebites Tea is effective for Hysteria and mental disorders .

Mode of action • It causes a fall in blood pressure • It exerts a depressant action upon nervous system (dose 1-2g powder) .

Action of alkaloids • Depletion of neurotransmitters catecholamines and serotonin in brain • Sedative and tranquilizing effects related to deplation of amines in CNS. .

Constituents • • • • • • Resinous matter Alkaloids (1.4%) Phytosterols Fatty acids Sugars Starch .2-1.

Alkaloids • At least 50 alkaloids have been isolated • • • • • Ajmaline (antiarrhythmic) Ajmalinine (Antihypertensive) Ajmalicine Serpentine Serpentinine .

15%) • These are esters derived from methyl reserpate and trimethoxybenzoic acid in case of reserpine and trimethoxycinnamic acid in case of rescinnamine .Therapeutically important alkaloids • Reserpine • Rescinnamine (both 0.

alternate source of reserpine. reserpine) • • • • R.densiflora R.canescens (root darker in colour having more stone cells.Other species of Rauvolfia genus • R.micrantha (reserpine) R. contains more sclereids . .perakensis R.vomotoria It is also known as African rauwolfia.

Reserpine Structure and function • • • • • Isolated in 1952 by Muller Indole alkaloid Antipsychotic and antihypertensive Used for relief of psychotic symptoms Use is limited due to certain side effects .

• Similar to reserpine in properties. • Used for the treatment of mild hypertension .Rescinnamine • Alkaloid isolated from several species of rauvolfia. solubility and appearance.

.Yohimbine • Indole alkaloid • Originally isolated from Pausinystalia yohimbe • Has been found to be effective in the treatment of impotence in males.

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