Section 1 – The First Israelites Section 2 – The Kingdom of Israel Section 3 – The Growth of Judaism

Wednesday, October 5, 2011
Today I will learn about the Israelites who believed in one God who set down moral laws for his people. They recorded their history in the Hebrew bible. I will learn how they had to fight the Canaanites to return to their promised land.

Location

Israelites
 Came from Mesopotamia & settled in Canaan  Language = Hebrew  Descended from Abraham

Judaism 
 Monotheism = belief in one god  Israelites faith became known as Judaism (Jews).  Their written history is the Hebrew Bible which is the Old Testament

Abraham 
God tells Abraham to leave Mesopotamia & go to Canaan & to worship 1 god. Those that followed him to Canaan became known as Israelites.

Abraham 
 Abraham had a grandson named Jacob.  Jacob was called Israel (the one who struggles with God).  Jacob had 12 sons.  12 sons each led a tribe which became known as the 12 Tribes of Israel.

Drought… 
 The Israelites lived in Canaan for 100 years until a long drought began…  Crops withered & livestock died  To survive, some Israelites went to Egypt

 Each civilization we have talked about has relied on a river for so many things to survive.  Imagine you are an Israelite during the drought. What would life be like with the lack of water?  What would you choose for your family: to leave your homeland & go to Egypt or to stay in Canaan and try to survive?

Moral Dilemma… 

Zoom forward in time… 
 To the U.S in the 1930s  Remember learning about this in 5th grade?  Where did these people go?

Zoom to 2011 in the Horn of Africa… 
 UNICEF Website  Satellite Animation of the worsening drought  Make a mind map of the things you can’t have without water  Discussion: To help or not to help?

Drought seems awful…what did some Israelites do? 
Drought in Canaan
Israelites had to move to Egypt
Pharaohs made them slaves to build the pyramids


 The pharaoh was afraid of an Israelite rebellion, so he ordered all Israelite baby boys to be thrown in the Nile River to drown.  One mother wanted to save her baby, Moses, so she hid him in a basket & hid it on the riverbank.

Moses 
 Found & adopted by the pharaoh’s daughter…that’s ironic.  Tended sheep  ~1290 B.C.E says God gave him a message  Moses said god told him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt

Exodus – Israelites escape from slavery
 God sent 10 plagues to trouble Egypt to convince the pharaoh to release the Israelites from slavery
 He let them go, but changed his mind & sent his army after them.  Parting of the Red Sea explained scientifically. Everyone be openminded, no matter what your personal beliefs!  Jews remember this event by celebrating Passover

 Traveled through the Sinai Desert  Moses went to the top of Mt. Sinai where he received the laws from God.  Torah = the laws given to Moses  In the Torah, God promised to return the Israelites to Canaan if they followed his laws.

The Torah 

 Covenant = agreement

10 Commandments 
 Part of the Torah  Helped shape the basic moral laws of many nations  If the commandments were written on clay tablets, what region were they in?

The Journey Continues… 
 Took the Israelites over 40 years to reach Canaan

Whaaaaat? It should have only taken 11 days!
Historians provide multiple reasons for this: They were led around the wilderness to avoid war in Philistine lands. Another reason is that God was morally cleansing them in a way…multiple references to how much they Israelites complained and were ungrateful. They wandered until some practices (idolatry) died out with an entire generation.

 Moses died before they got there  Joshua took over for Moses

Umm…there are other people in Canaan 
 When the Israelites arrived, they found the Canaanites living in Canaan.  Joshua led them into battle to Jericho  They fought 4 wars until the land was taken from the Canaanites & divided up among the 12 tribes.

Moral Dilemma:  How do you feel about the Israelites taking the land from the Canaanites?

Judges 
 In charge of the Israelites  Usually a military leader  2 Judges (Barak, military leader & Deborah, a prophetess) defeated the people living in the hilly region in Canaan.  The Canaanites were moved to the flat coastal areas.

Phoenicians 
 A group of Canaanites who lived in cities along the Mediterranean Sea  Skilled sailors & traders

Phoenician Alphabet 
 Alphabet that stood for sounds…thanks, Phoenicians!  Why does trade lead to the development of a written language?

The Kingdom of Israel 
 King David created an empire  Made his slaves pay him tribute & everyone pay him heavy taxes  King Solomon took over for his father when he died  High taxes, made people work in mines  People were not happy = a rebellion

The 12 Tribes Divide 
 Kingdom of Israel = 10 tribes  Kingdom of Judah = 2 tribes

 Scared of the Assyrians & Chaldeans

Diaspora 
 722 B.C.E Assyrians conquered Israel & scattered the 10 tribes across their empire  The word Diaspora means “scattered”

Let’s Think about it… 
 Why would a powerful empire like the Assyrians do this to the Jews?  Imagine the people in your life, your friends & family, the people who share the same heritage as you being separated…your temples being destroyed, and then you are moved to an unfamiliar place…Ms. Gascon thinks it sounds just terrible… 

Exile 
 Around 586 B.C.E the Chaldeans took over and moved 1000s of Jews to Babylon.
 Exile = when someone is forced to leave their home; the time the Jews were in Babylon

Jewish Temple 
 Built in 957 B.C.E  Destroyed by an Egyptian pharaoh, then by the King of Judah, then by an Assyrian king, then totally destroyed by Babylonians in 586 B.C.E

 2nd temple built in 538 B.C.E…took 23 years to build
 Destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E

Jerusalem today… 
Temple Mount – the most important religious site in Judaism

 Western Wall – what remains of the 1st & 2nd Temples

Judaism 
 Sabbath – weekly day of worship & rest  Synagogues – Jewish houses of worship  Hanukkah – holiday remembering when the Jews got rid of all Greek deities & rededicated it to the worship of God  Yarmulkes – head covering  Kosher – food prepared to Jewish dietary laws (must be killed in a special way; inspected, salted, & soaked)  Rabbis – Jewish leaders who taught the Torah

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