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Managing Change

There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Management" versus Leadership

'Leadership' a road, a way, the path of a ship at sea - a sense of direction. 'Management' (Latin manus) - a hand, handling a sword, a ship, a horse. 19thC corporatism and industrialisation - managerial agents

Chris Jarvis

What do managers and leaders do? (Zaleznik 1977) Managers focus attention & energy on how things get done their role in events that occur or in a decision-making process. Leaders more concerned with ideas relating to others in more intuitive, empathetic ways what events and decisions mean to people

Managing Change

Classical management

Managers plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives. follow formal policies, rules &procedural regulations of their employing organisation (administration > management?) handle and physically direct resources:

money, materials, machinery, equipment, space, facilities, information and technology use of time people

Telling people what to do and how to do it more than vision and giving a sense of direction?

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Leadership 'messages'

Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate enable others to understand information, instructions or ideas seek order and control Leaders have followers. They envision, influence, inspire. tolerate, promote creativity and imagination Bring order from chaos influence people towards objectives and desire to achieve gain voluntary commitment over compliance win hearts and minds

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Bennis (1989)
Managers Leaders

Administer and copy Maintain Focus on systems & structure Rely on control Short-range view - bottom line Ask how and when Accept the status quo Classic good soldier Do things right

Innovation and originality Develop Focus on people Inspire trust Long-range view - the horizon Ask what and why Challenge the status quo Own person Do the right things

'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'. (Peters & Austin, 1985).
Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Leadership & organisational effectiveness

Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate performance. belief that business success has much to do with 'leadership'. management development programmes emphasise manager and leadership style. Can leadership and problem-solving skills really be developed

simulated experienced in a field (outward bound approach)? assessment centre activity (workshop-like selection & development)? coaching and mentoring going on a leadership course? Reading a book, watching the TV? Playing rugby or football?

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Practitioners, academia and recipes

a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches few analytical studies of leadership offer much to the practical manager (Adair) academic doubts textbooks tend to An industry selling

Report 'theories' Some query the validity of particular approaches Imply prescriptions prescriptive 'leadership development' and interpersonal skills packages: motivating, listening, participative problem solving, assertiveness and transforming skills

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Leadership behaviour & effect on performance.

Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership What competencies can be meaningfully described as 'leadership'? Managers & politicians generalise - 'we know it when we see it'. Correlate the skills and success of particular personalities.
Mayo and Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939) 'permissive' leadership behaviour leads to greater output

Kurt Lewin (1939) Autocratic, Laissez faire, Democratic leader styles & the behaviour/performance of youth groups language & 'model' linking styles --> subordinate performance

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference


One set of values, beliefs, commitments Shared understanding & commitment to objectives One source of leadership Team members - All pulling in the same direction Potential for harmony is assumed if leader communicates well Disagreements the result of misunderstanding Dissidents "rabble" hypothesis

Alan Fox Research Paper to Donovan Commission 1968

Chris Jarvis

Managing Change

Change the people in post

Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational

effectiveness. Peters and Waterman (1982)

' Hewlett-Packard Way' & 'MbWA (Management by walk about)

Pascale & Athos (1982) compare 'styles' and effect

compared the styles and management practices of founder of Matsushita (National Panasonic) American CEOs 'good' and 'bad' leadership styles Konosuke Matsushita & E. Carlson - United Airlines ('good') Harold Geneen at ITT (short-term effective, long-term bad). Margaret Thatcher vs. Tony Blair?

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

How do different 'styles' affect an organisation?

wide ranging question open to question difficult to research - what are the variables? difficult to

gap between perception of practitioners and behavioural


separate fact from fiction attribute cause and effect in different contexts and organisational settings over time ambiguity of measures of organisational performance

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Typology of leadership theory

Focus Behaviour The Person centred

Sometimes misleading Yet three variables to

leadership situations : to group as 'schools'. Nuances in original works

trait theory variable of leader

contingency theory situation & L-F relationship group dynamics + VDL the followers
specific to situation

leader followers context/situation in

which L/F find themselves

style theory variable of leader


Breadth of application
Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Leadership traits approach

everyday wisdom on common traits. can anyone agree? do some 'qualities' indicate potential & differentiate the 'effective from the ineffective' Wide range of trait descriptors & variety of 'leaders'
(heroes and villains) - difficult to agree on one list

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Cartwright and Zander (1968)

Effective leaders are often Nature over nurture

more intelligent, dependable, responsible, active and participative socially with higher socioecon. status act more often in different ways, or the same way to different degrees in some activities? give out & ask for more information make more frequent interpretations of events psychometric tests for assessment and selection.

Leadership is learned, although I cannot explain entirely how ... The ability to lead and inspire others is .. more instinctual than premeditated and acquired somehow through the experiences of one's everyday life . the nature & quality of that leadership comes out of innate character & personality
Harold Geneen ITT

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change


Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities

of those you rate as being more effective managers

Do a separate list for three less effective ones. What factors, or qualities, recur on each list? Select four leaders from national or organisational life and
list their qualities. Which ones keep recurring?

What factors match those for your effective managers?

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Limitations of 'traits' approach

when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much is cause, how much is effect? non-leaders often possess the same traits as leaders. Impossible to compile a list of universal traits.
Bird 1940 identified 79 different traits from 'the literature'.
Only 5% common to => 4 studies

Conclusion? Consider the situation that leadership occurs in.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

The group dynamics (group process) approach

leadership as a function of organisation not the individual. small task groups not whole organisation three common functional behaviours: failure in one affects the other two (performance & satisfaction). Leader contributions?

accomplish the task social & emotional needs of group social & emotional needs of individual members.

But one 'leader' may not necessarily perform all roles from 'trouble-shooters' to 'counsellors' - Belbin roles 'Cometh the hour, cometh the man'.
Chris Jarvis

Structuring - integrating Calming, supporting Controlling


Managing Change

Adair: Action-centred leadership

functional emphasis based on task situation and socio-emotional needs Task functions

Aware of group
processes, people in group, nuances of behaviour, interpersonal skills

Group maintenance

Individual needs

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975)

Leader may use different style for member (idiosyncrasies) Social exchange - leader-member relationships (dyads) Group = a set of vertical linkages Two sub-groups of relationships In-group members For the leader - reliable, effort, initiative, open, trust and confidence, autonomy Out-group members Calculative, do contract only, distant, tension dyad Leadership - a negotiated VDL role
Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions

Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit (a 'ten

group') achieve more than individuals in isolation. Based on

Leadership is not a personal quality. Some have innate tendency and drive for high-status
dominance but this is one factor only

Anecdotal, experiential evidence analogy with primitive tribes & animal behaviour Morris (1967, 1969), Ardrey (1961, 1967, 1970). Share common patterns with baboons, chickens, lions?

become leader only in relation to specific group & task group leader emerges because the group thinks that he/she can best help the group

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Critique of Group Dynamics approach

If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what happens when the situation or group changes? Does the organisation function sub-optimally? But we comprehend how leaders may relate to followers & situations ignores wider organisational demands on leader and group.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

The leadership style approach

Hawthorne experiments origin

Leader 'style' affects morale and output. Relay Assembly room - increased output caused by 'permissive' management of researchers Bank Wiring room - links management style and employee attitudes and behaviour Autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leaders and follower behaviour Democratic style reflects dominant social values Impetus for further study - Michigan and Ohio State

Kurt Lewin et al 1939 - adult leaders in boys' hobby club

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Ohio State studies (two factor-theory)

two (independent) L-dimensions

Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948, 1956)

"measure" perceptions & style preferences in various settings ---> inventories & development prescriptions effectiveness reflects High task supervisors - productive but high turnover, lower morale High consideration supervisors - high morale, low productivity Over-generalised conclusions
ideal leader = high on initiation + consideration. participative styles preferred
Chris Jarvis

initiating structure (task centred) consideration (interpersonal relationships)

task completion member satisfaction


Managing Change

Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration

crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders by:

Crews & senior officers differed in perception of commander

styles & effectiveness Superiors judge leader competence in terms of formal & traditional standards high initiating & low or indifferent consideration. Subordinates give less significance to initiating. High satisfaction under 'considerate' commanders (seen as more competent).

technical competence effectiveness in working with other crew members performance under stress conformity to standard operating procedures overall effectiveness as crew members

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Linking Pin (Likert)

Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation Frustration, low productivity, absentees &

o o o o o o o o

turnover if formal-L cant perform all these. Formal tasks. instrumental competencies & motives technical know-how, innovation, sense of achievement, concern for quality & customer care Affiliation interaction, support & expressive needs Weak formal-L. Informal alternative emerges If L-behaviour best fits group situation, what if this changes? Can formal leader adapt? will group, dept, nation (led by alternative) perform optimally?
Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Critique of Ohio State Studies

Did not use peer group evaluation by

commanders or non-evaluative measures of performance. output measures can often be favourably affected in the short term by authoritarian leadership. Usual problems of social research

Hawthorne effect Abstracted empiricism likelihood that a change in performance is related to

more than one variable

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Michigan Leadership Studies

Concern for people

programmes for changing style & org. culture 'proprietary' approaches to assessment & training Diagnosis and treatment Blake - Mouton Managerial Grid (1968) Extended with contingency

Managerial Grid High


9.9. the ideal one-best style


Tannenbaum 1958 Reddin (1970) Hersey &Blanchard (1977)



9.1. High Concern for production


Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum
Boss-centred Follower-centred

use of authority by leader decision making & action freedom for followers
Tells Sells Suggests Consults Joins Delegates Abdicates

Continuum based on situational factors: value system, wants, confidence, willingness.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change


Review your experiences of working under

different leadership styles. Advantages & disadvantages of a shift to a more 'participative' style? What departments in your organisation appear to operate with different 'leadership cultures'? Account for the differences.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Critique of style theories

Universality of the style approach? Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of ' style' theories Style changes often assoc. with changes in org. structure + other mgt competencies . Fiedler (1967) questions whether participative,
Chris Jarvis

considerate styles are better than trad. authoritarian or directive. Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of behaviour change from directive to participative. Organisational & work pressures - own & other people's expectations.

Managing Change

Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967)

Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that ---> high task performance by group. Depends on

Respected leaders have

personal power. No need to use position power (authority) High structure? noncompliance? Easy intervention. Unstructured, hard measure? Cannot easily enforce. Less power extent of formal authority over rewards and sanctions Power is not just dependent leader-follower relationships.

preferred style of leader group situation as much as leader contextual variables

1. Quality of L-member relations 2. Work structure (high to low) 3. Leader position power

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Fielder development prescription

Measure preferred style

least preferred co-worker LPC


8 scales e.g. cooperativeuncooperative, friendly-unfriendly, supportive-hostile

High LPC - relationships oriented Low LPC - task oriented

- External circumstances affect L ability to influence - Change leader (personality?) to fit situation or restructure to reflect strengths?

Re-structure the work - How? position power - depending on L. assessment, give subordinates nearequal 'rank' (experts) or assign several ranks below Loosen or tighten communication and decision-making leader-member relations - leader can be similar or dissimilar to members (social, educational or ethnic background, values or attitudes) A history of harmony or conflict? Assign a leader whose style fits group

Fiedler and Garcia 1987 pp 49-55 See Chapter 13 Rollinson

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Fiedler: leader-members, task structures, position power

Leadermember Relations 1 Good 2 Good 3 Good 4 Good 5 Poor 6 Poor 7 Poor 8 Poor

Task structure

Position power Strong Weak Weak Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak

More effective leadership style Task centred Task centred Task centred Relationship-oriented Relationship-oriented Relationship-oriented Relationship-oriented Task centred


Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured

Good Good Good Moderate Moderate Moderate Weak Weak

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Implications and critique of Fielder

If Fielder is right

dont try to change people arrange task & power to fit situation

select leaders & identify preferred styles. Diagnose situation and change it for - best fit leader-match concept

But can a manager really choose a style, change 'personality' and a virtuoso with different styles? Leadership training targets this. Are they training pigs to fly? LPC scores may indicate attitudes or personality but not actual behaviour Task performance is sole criterion for evaluating effectiveness (neglects follower satisfaction) L-processes are more sophisticated than this theory. Mixed evidence on validity - other variables ignored However a deeper study which breaks the 'one-best-style' view and addresses contextual variables

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Exam Questions

Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering'

approach to the development of thinking on leadership and manager development practice. Evaluate how the Fiedler 'contingency and social engineering approach' to leadership could work in any organisation known to you.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach)

High Effectiveness Developer

Manager executive

Relationships Low High




Bureaucrat Benevolent autocrat

Missionary Compromiser






Is Blake - Mouton (1968) 9.9 style ideal? style is more/less effective in situation
Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982)

A contingency approach with

follower maturity as critical situational variable for Leffectiveness. two major dimensions

Four styles

Chris Jarvis

task style relationship style

Theoretically weak no proper rationale for the

Maturity - an over-simplified
factor - lacks empirical support (Yukl, 1981; Graeff, 1983; Blank et al, 1990).

hypothesised relationships

follower maturity

telling, selling, participating, delegating.

degree of achievement motivation willingness to take on responsibility education or experience


Managing Change

Path-goal theory (contingency approach)

Main idea Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using appropriate style, contingent on situational variables differs from Fiedler various styles - directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented - can be used by the same leader in different situations to

Chris Jarvis

influence subordinates' perceptions of the situational factors motivate by focusing on payoffs coaching and direction clarifying goals and expectancies House & Mitchell 1974 reducing frustrations/barriers. Based on expectancy the research is not conclusive theory of motivation


Managing Change

Problems with contingency theories

what causes what in real life? As with style theories, it is difficult to understand why there
should be a favourable climate towards the leader in some groups. It could be argued that 'permissive' leadership is the result, rather than the cause, of group effectiveness.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Social learning theory and leadership

a model for continuous interaction between the environment

(macro variables + subordinates and the leader's behaviour, perceptions and cognitions. leader & subordinates/followers have negotiable, interactive relationship They learn how they can modify or influence each other's behaviour by giving or holding back desired rewards

Davis and Luthans, 1980 Sims and Lorenzi, The New Leadership Paradigm, Sage, 1992

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Why the persistent search ?

exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult

Many skills and techniques of today's senior executives are being superseded. Competition & changing markets, products, technologies
and expectations dictate adaptability and innovation in strategic decision making, marketing, organisation - and leadership

economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc. political change South Africa, Soviet Union, Italy, Japan and Europe less natural goodwill and traditional deference towards leaders

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Are successful leaders redefining their role?

projecting a particular ethos and culture powerful vision of where their companies or their societies are heading. E.g. Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamed's vision of Malaysia in the year 2020 former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's vision of Singapore as The Switzerland of the East by 1999. What does this imply for leadership behaviour? Managers and senior executives who are successful leaders will
not only respond to change positively but also actively create change. Leaders with a particular drive, a desire to bring order out of chaos, or, if something is too cosy, to create chaos in order to bring change.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Transformational leadership theory

fresh thinking? transformational leader

bridges small group studies
creates conditions for followers to want to achieve results and to fulfil themselves. & leadership by movers and shakers who transform organisations

Context? late-20 C national & global pol-econ. change Contributors: Downton


(1973), Burns (1978), Bass (1985), Bennis & Nanus (1985), Tichy & Devanna (1986) Bass surveyed 70 execs "In your careers, who transformed you in Burns' terms (raised awareness, move up Maslow hierarchy . to transcend self-interest). Answer: usually an organisational superior.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

From Laissez faire to Transactional

Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak follow up, passivity, potential for confusion Transactional leaders

Management by exception Passive: set standards/objectives, wait for, react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo Active: standards/objectives, monitor, correct, look for error, enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative and risk-taking constructive transactions, contingent rewards agree standards/objectives, feedback, rewards for achievement. outcome: performance that meets expectations. simplified in One-Minute Manager (Blanchard & Johnson 1982) Airport business library

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Transactional leadership in perspective

Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP laissez-faire and transactional in directive, consultative,
participative & delegative styles

directive + Mgt by Exception

'These are the rules and this is how you've broken them'. participative + Mgt by exception 'Let's work out together the rules to identify mistakes'


Chris Jarvis

Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets,

systems, controls management > leadership fails to develop, motivate, bring to full potential (Bass)

Managing Change

The transformational leader (Basss four 'I's)

promotes follower desire for achievement & self-development. teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy, belief, value

Four 'I's. lndividualised consideration (IC)

Intellectual stimulation (IS) Inspirational motivation (IM) ldealised influence (charisma) (II)
Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation


identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to

learn, delegating, coaching and giving developmental feedback. Spend time with individuals e.g. mentoring. IS

question status quo, encourage imagination, creativity, logical thinking and intuition. unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation. Compare UK motorcycles & Swiss watch market to Sony

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence

Inspirational motivation clear vision, problems as opportunities, language & symbols I had a dream ... Ask not what America can do for you. Ask what you can do.. go the extra mile. Iacocca at Chrysler. ldealised influence Confident in communicating a virtuous vision the buck stops here'. Purpose, persistence, trust, accomplishment over failure. Respected for personal ability

Leadership .. the priceless

gift you earn from those who work for you. I have to earn the right to that gift, and continuously re-earn (it).
John Harvey-Jones (ICI)

Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair Hitler, Jim Jones

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Bass's model

Learn TL!! Avolio-Bass training

package CR MbEx-A passive LF


Encouraging TL will project confidence, commitment & competence attract quality staff to the mission & challenge develop people more fully to respond better to competition & change



Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Motorola's six-sigma programme.

Transformational leadership application defect-free parts within six standard deviations concepts, symbols and vision for world-class quality IS, IM, IC in promoting awareness, responsibility and self-monitoring.

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Is transformational leadership cross-cultural?

exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA

to authoritarian cultures is like 'preaching Jeffersonian democracy to managers who believe in the divine right of kings'.
Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966

Leadership - a universal phenomenon?

context and culture influences Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan and Singapore suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning across cultures

Chris Jarvis


Managing Change

Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em?

1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory and research in

explaining effect on motivation &performance 'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr & Jermier 1978) Are there substitutes for leadership making L-behaviour unnecessary e.g.

Replace/counteract leader behaviour in determining

member performance and satisfaction.
Chris Jarvis

'Professional', competent people do not need 'leadership' to perform well and to be motivated. Depends on the individuals, the work, the organisation and its structure, feedback, intrinsic job satisfaction, group cohesion, weak authority or remoteness of the leader