NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COMBINED CONVECTION AND

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER FROM
SINGLE CYLINDER & TUBE BANKS
Presented by
SHARAD PACHPUTE
June 2011
Major Project Part –II Presentation
Department of Mechanical Engg.
IIT Delhi
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Objective
4. Problem statement
5. Governing equation
6. Numerical Simulation
7. Heat transfer form single cylinder
8. Heat transfer from in-line tube bank
9. Heat transfer from staggered tube bank
10. Comparison between in-line and staggered tube banks
11. Conclusion and future scope.
Keys word: cross flow, convection &
radiation, participating media , DO-model.
1. INTRODUCTION
Background:

• Industrial applications -Thermal power plant boilers, small industrial boilers , heat recovery
system and chemical plant etc.
• Flow past tube bank
- complexity in the flow due to radiatively participating gases
- Radiation become significant from flue gases at high temperatures
- The effect of participating gases like CO
2
, H
2
O is considerable








Q
Total
= Q
convection
+ Q
radiation
4 4
( ) ( )
fluid wall
total s fluid wall s
Q hA T T A T T o
÷
= + ÷
2.LITERATURE REVIEW
Re Pr
m n
D
hD
Nu C
k
= =
The cross flow over cylinder in forced convection Nu depend on Re and Pr


Zukauskas(1986) and Churchill given correllation for different Re and Pr range
Research work carried out for unsteady case and turbulence flow.
2.3 Heat transfer from cylinder with participating medium:
2.2 Convective heat transfer from cylinder :
2.1 Flow past cylinder:
 Model used for Fundamental studies of fluid mechanics
D.A. Kaminski et.al(1994) studied flow and heat transfer of participating medium
at Re=500.
 In this numerical model, they did not consider unsteady effects occur due to
vortex shedding and considered only half top portion of cylinder .
U
T
2.4 Convective heat transfer from tube banks

 Nusselt number correlation
Zukauskas(1983) : Re
Dmax
=1000-2x10
5
=> C ,m depends on maximum velocity
Grimison (1937) :Re
Dmax
=2000-40000 => C, m depends on tube spacing
 No correlation is available at low Reynolds number
 Turbulence effect is not considered on convective Nu in correlation



2.5 Radiative heat transfer from tube bank
 P. Stehlik (1999) evaluated radiative component and combined heat transfer in the
thermal calculation of finned tube banks mathematically.

2.6 Conclusion from literature review
Both experimental and numerical results are available for convective heat transfer
only .

 However, convective and radiative heat transfer from single cylinder and tube still
not explored well.
3 .OBJECTIVE
•To carry out numerical study on flow past a single cylinder and tube
banks and heat transfer characteristics considering radiatively
participating gases.

• To get heat transfer correlations for single cylinder and tube banks
Fig3.1 ,Flow over single cylinder
Fig3.2 ,Flow over tube bank
4.Problem Statement
Fig.4.1 Computational domain for single cylinder
 Numerical simulation of flow ,convection and combined heat transfer at different Re for
• Single cylinder
• In-line tube bank - four different tube spacing (3x3,2x2, 1.5x1.5 ,1.25,1.25)
• Staggered tube bank – four different tube spacing (2x2x,1.5x1.5,3x1,1.3x3)

 To carry out detail studies of radiation properties ,inlet and wall temperature for single
cylinder and tube banks

 To Develop correlation for single cylinder and tube banks





Fig.4 .1 Flow past in-line tube bank
Fig.4.2 Flow past staggered tube bank
Computational domain for flow past tube bank
5. GOVERNING EQUATION AND MATHEMATICAL
MODELING
5.1 Governing Equation:
Two dimensional incompressible viscous fluid flow in two-dimensions in the
absence of body forces and viscous dissipation
Continuity equation :



Momentum equation :




Energy equation:


Where, = divergence of radiative heat flux calculated from solving RTE

0
u v
x y
c c
+ =
c c
2 2
2 2
1 u u u p u u
u v
t x y x x y
v
µ
| | c c c c c c
+ + = ÷ + +
|
c c c c c c
\ .
2 2
2 2
1 v v v p v v
u v
t x y y x y
v
µ
| | c c c c c c
+ + = ÷ + +
|
c c c c c c
\ .
2 2
2 2
.
r
p
T T T K T T
u v q
t x y c x y µ
| | c c c c c
+ + = ÷ + ÷V
|
c c c c c
\ . r
.q V
5.2 Radiation Modeling for DO Method:
 Radiative transpose equation(RTE) in discrete ordinate at S(x,y,z) along
in a gray medium



b
4
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) ( . )
4
m
m m m
s
s i i
I
I I I I s s s d
S
t
o
k k o
t
c
= ÷ + ÷ + u O
c
}
b
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
I I
z
I
y
I
x
I
k k ç q µ + ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
In Cartesian coordinate the discrete equation
( , ) u ¢ O
When the surface bounding the medium is gray and emits and reflects diffusely
then radiative boundary condition in x plane
at x=0 ;

at x=L,

similarly for y and z plane
0 ˆ . ˆ ; ˆ . ˆ
) 1 (
0 ˆ . ˆ
>
÷
+ =
¿
<
i
s n
j j j b
s n s n I w I I
j
t
c
c
0 ˆ . ˆ ; ˆ . ˆ
) 1 (
0 ˆ . ˆ
<
÷
+ =
¿
>
i
s n
j j j b
s n s n I w I I
j
t
c
c
 Incident radiation(G):
, , 0
4 m m m
m m m
m
G I d w I
µ q ,
t
µ
<
= O=
¿
}
( ) ( ) G T d I T q ÷ = O ÷ = V
}
4
4
4
4 4 . o k o k
t
Divergence of radiative heat flux
6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION
Numerical simulation is carried out using FLUENT a commercial CFD solver.
6.1 Initial and Boundary condition:
 In the beginning of solution process flow domain defined as u= u

, V=0, T= T
in


 Inlet- velocity inlet , Outlet- outflow ,top and bottom – farfield/symmetry
 Uniform Inlet temperature and constant cylinder wall temperature



6.2 Numerical Method :
FLUENT uses FVM to solve governing equation sequentially.
 Laminar flow -
• Pressure discretization utilized the standard method with PISO coupling
• The second order Upwind discretization for Momentum ,energy equation

Turbulent flow –
• SST k-ω turbulence model
• Pressure discretization utilized the standard method with SIMPLEC coupling
• QUICK discretization scheme for momentum-ω equation and energy equations

The gray radiation model- second order upwind discretization for RTE and DO intensity



6.3 Computational Mesh
Fig.6.1 Mesh for single cylinder Fig.6.2 Details of mesh close to cylinder
Fig.6.3 Mesh for in-tube bank
7 Result of flow over cylinder
7.1 Flow Past a Single cylinder:

7.1.1 -Stream lines at four different instants of time in one shedding cycle
Re=100 (Present stream lines ) Re=100 (B.N. Rajani et al. stream lines)
Re=500
Re=50350 (turbulent flow)
7.1.2 Stream lines for turbulent flow in one shedding cycle
Re=7190 (turbulent flow)
Re=21580 (turbulent flow)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
100 1000 10000
C
d

Re
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
C
d

Flow time(s)
7.1.2 Coefficient of drag for cylinder
Re=100
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
C
d

Flow time (s)
Re=7190
Re=21580
300k
400K
400K
7.2.1 Convective heat transfer in Laminar flow
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
N
u
θ

θ,angle(deg)
convective Nu (numerical)
Schmidt and Wenner (experimental)
Fig.7.2.1 Time averaged local Nu at Re=100
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
22.5
25
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
T
i
m
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

N
u

θ,angle(deg)
present Nu (numerical)
Chuns Nu (experimental)
Eskerts Nu (experimental)
Fig.7.2.2 Time averaged local Nu Re=500
Authors Nu
m
at Re=100 Nu
m
at Re=500
McAdams correlation [28]
5.23 -
Kramers correlation [29]
5.49 -
Eskert et.al (expimental)[25]
5.38 12.591
Zaukaus correlation [16]
5.10 10.778
Churchill et al.[11]
5.16 12.456
P.C.Jain et. al (numerical )[13]
5.632 -
N. Mahir et. al [30](numerical
5.179 ± 0.003 -
Knudsen correlation [27]
5.19 -
Present value (numerical)
5.183 12.169
7.2 Convective Heat transfer from single cylinder

To tal number of grids
Nu
48671 74944 209396
12.1695 12.1713 12.1738
Grid test at Re=500
7.2.2 Convective heat transfer in turbulent flow
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
T
i
m
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

N
u

Θ,Angle
present convective Nu (numerical)
Scholten et.al. Nu ( experimental),1997
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

C
o
n
v
e
c
t
i
v
e

N
u

θ,angle (deg)
Nu for Re=7190
Nu for Re=21580
Nu for Re=50350
65.5
66
66.5
67
67.5
68
68.5
69
1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.4 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

N
u

Time(s)
convective Nu (numerical)
Fig. Validation with experimental Nu at Re=7190 Fig. Local Nu distribution
111.25
111.3
111.35
111.4
111.45
111.5
111.55
0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

N
u

Flow time (s)
convective Nu at Re=21580
171.27
171.275
171.28
171.285
171.29
171.295
171.3
171.305
171.31
0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

N
u

Flow time (s)
convective Nu at Re=50350
Re
Tu
%
Circumferentially and time averaged Nu
conv
(Nux,t)
% difference from
experimental
Value of Scholton et
al
Present
numerical
value
K. Szczepanik et. al
numerical value [15]
Experimenta
l value of
Scholton
et.al.
Zukau
skas
7190 1.6 67.22 67.3 (steady k-e model ) 51 47.3 31.8%
21580 0.46 111.45 148 (unsteady k-e model ) 103.4 91.3 7.78 %
35950 0.34 142.86 - 127.5 124 12.04 %
50350 0.36 171.28 191.1 (steady k-e model ) 155.1 151.7 10.56 %
Table 6.3: Comparison of present Nu for convection with experimental result
7.3 Combined convective and radiative heat transfer from cylinder
7.3.1 Combined heat transfer for purely absorbing medium
Temperature distribution at Re=100
(a) Convective heat transfer (b) combined heat transfer, κ=1(1/m) , σs=0(1/m)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
T
i
m
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

l
o
c
a
l

N
u
θ

θ,angle(deg)
convective Nu (numerical)
Nu with radiation (numerical)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
T
i
m
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

N
u

θ,angle(deg)

combined Nu (numerical)
convective Nu (numerical)
Re
D
83
Combined
Nu
Radiative Nu
100 5.183 11.8723 6.691
500 12.169 19.77 7.592
7190 67.22 74.967 7.67
21580 111.45 118.98 7.74
50350 171.28 179.91 8.62
7.3.1 Combined heat transfer for purely absorbing medium (k=1 (1/m),σ=0 )
7.4 Effect of absorption and scattering coefficients on total Nu
(b) Re
D
=500 , κ=1 (1/m) and σ
s
=0 (1/m)
7.4.1 Temperature contour (in Kelvin) for combined heat transfer
(a)Re
D
=500 , κ=0 (1/m) and σ
s
=0 (1/m)
Re
D
=500, κ =0 (1/m) and σ
s
=30 (1/m)
(a)Re
D
=500 , κ=0 (1/m) and σ
s
=0 (1/m)
7.4.2 Temperature contour for convection and combined heat transfer
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
T
o
t
a
l

N
u

θ,Angle( deg)
Total Nu at κ=0 (1/m)
Total Nu at κ=1 (1/m)
Total Nu at κ=10 (1/m)
Total Nu at κ=60 (1/m)
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
T
o
t
a
l


N
u

absporption coefficient (1/m)
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
T
o
t
a
l

N
u

Scattering coefficient (1/m)

Total Nu at κ=1(1/m)
Total Nu at κ=10 (1/m)
Total Nu at κ=0 (1/m)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
100 20100 40100
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

N
u

Re
D
convective heat transfer
Effect of radiation absrobtivity without scattering on combined Nu at Re
D
= 500
7.4 Effect of absorption and scattering coefficients on total Nu
7.5 Effect of inlet and wall temperature on heat transfer
Re T
wall

Convectiv
e Nu
Total Nu

κ

=1
(1/m)
κ

=10
(1/m)
Re
D
=500
850 12.169 19.77 16.252
900 12.205 20.702 17.151
1000 12.285 22.356 17.675
Re T
in
(K)
Convective
Nu
Total Nu
κ

=1
(1/m)
κ

=10
(1/m)
Re
D
=500
850 12.180 19.75 16.0157
900 12.203 20.47 16.985
1000 12.287 22.456 17.675
Constant inlet temperature condition Constant inlet temperature condition
Case-I: Tw >Tin
Case-II: Tin > Tw
Temperature contours
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 200 400 600 800 1000
N
u

Re
Nu by present correlation
Nu by Zukauskas correlation
Nu by Knudsen correlation
5 2
1.2 10 Re 0.024Re 0.282 Nu
÷
= ÷ × + +
0.5
0.51Re Nu =
0.466 1/3
0.6831Re Pr Nu =

Zukauskas correlation
Knudsen correlation
Present correlation
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
5000 25000 45000 65000 85000 105000 125000
N
u

Re
Nu by present corrrelation
Nu by Zukauskas correlation
0.6
0.26Re Nu =
5 2
1 10 Re 0.0032Re 46.63 Nu
÷
= ÷ × + +
Correlation for Combined Nu (k=1, σs=0)
5 2
2 10 Re 0.003294Re 53.8 Nu
÷
= ÷ × + +
(100<Re<1000)
5 2
2 10 Re 0.003294Re 53.8 Nu
÷
= ÷ × + +
(100<Re<1000)
(1000< Re <12500)
(1000<Re<125000)
(100<Re<1000)
(100<Re<1000)
Development of correlation for single cylinder
8.Heat transfer from in-line tube bank
8.1.1 Flow features of tube bank (axb)
In-line 1.5x1.5
In-line 2x2
In-line 3x3
In-line 1.25x1.25
a=S
T
/D , b= S
L
/D
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-10
-5
0
5
10
Y
velocity (m/s)
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
-10
-5
0
5
10
Y
velocity (m/s)
Y
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n O r i g i n P r o 8 E v a l u a t i o n
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Y

Velocity (m/s)
velocity profile at X=-1.5
velocity profile at X=0
velocity profile at X=3
8.1.3 velocity distribution
Re=500 for Inline 2x2 at X=-1.5 Re=500 ,Inline 1.5x1.5 at X=-1.25
Re=500 for Inline 2x2
X=-1.5
X=0
X=3
8.2 Temperature distribution within in-line bundle for convection only
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
C
d

Flow time(S)

Cd for cylinder 41
Cd for cylinder 42
Cd for cylinder 43
Cd for cylinder44
(a x b)
Re
D

(based on inlet
velocity)
Coefficient of drag for
first cylinder 11
3 x 3 500 1.462
2 x 2 500 1.588
1.5 x 1.5 500 2.346
1.25 x 1.25 500 2.495
8.1.3 Coefficient of drag
Re=500 , In-line2x2 Re=500 ,In-line 1.5x1.5
8.4 Local Heat transfer from tube within inline tube bank
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
N
u
θ

θ,angle(deg)

Nu for cylinder 11
Nu for cylinder 12
Nu for cylinder 13
Nu for cylinder 14
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
N
u
θ

θ,angle (deg)
Nu for cylinder 21
Nu for cylinder 22
Nu for cylinder 23
Nu for cylinder 24
Local Nu distribution for in-line tube bank 2x2 at Re
D
=21580
8.5 Mean convective heat transfer from inline bundle
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
100 5100 10100 15100 20100
C
o
n
v
e
c
t
i
v
e

N
u

Re
D
convective Nu for inline 3x3
Convective Nu for inline 2 x2
Convective Nu for inline 1.5x1.5
Convective Nu for inline 1.25x1.25
Re
For (3x3)

Re
Dmax

Convective Nu
%
difference
from
Zukauskas
Grimison
correlation
Zukauskas
correlation
Present Nu
6000 9000 71.9295 66.09 56.5967 14.36%
14000 21000 122.166 112.88 84.5938 24.8%
20000 30000 148.531 141.11 104.28 26.04%
8.6 Combined heat transfer from in-line tube bank
Re=21580 inline 1.5x1.5
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
N
u

Re
D
convective Nu
combined Nu
Convective and combined (κ = 1(1/m, σs=0 (1/m)) Nu for inline 2×2
8.7 Development of correlation for inline tube bank
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 50000 100000 150000 200000
N
u

Re
Dmax

Convective Nu by present correlation
Convective Nu by Zukauskas correlation
0.501
0.595Re Nu =
Validation of present convective Nu with Zukauskas correlation for inline bank (a/b>0.7)
Present correlation
9. HEAT TRANSFER FROM STAGGERED TUBE BUNDLE
9.1 Flow features of staggered tube bank
Streamlines for 2x2
Streamlines 1.3x3 Streamlines 3x1
Flow features of inner cylinders
9.2 Drag of staggered tube bundles
Staggered tube
arrangement
(axb)
Re
D

Coefficient of drag (C
D
)
for first cylinder -11
2 x 2
7190 1.1656
21580 0.9283
1.5 x 1.5
7190 1.1824
21580 0.8657
3 x 1
7190 1.2404
21580 0.8892
1.3 x 3
7190 1.623
21580 1.3189
50350 0.9798
9.3 Temperature distribution within staggered tube bundle for convection
Re
D
=500,2x2
Re
D
=7190 ,1.25x1.25
Re
D
=21580, 3x1 Re
D
=21580, 1.3 x 3
9.4 Local Heat transfer from tube within staggered bundle
0
40
80
120
160
200
240
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
N
u
θ

θ,angle (deg)
Convective Nu for cylinder 11
Convective Nu for cylinder 12
Convective Nu for cylinder 21
Convective Nu for cylinder 22
0
40
80
120
160
200
240
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
N
u
θ

θ,angle (deg)
Convective Nu for cylinder 11''
Convective Nu for cylinder 12''
Convective Nu for cylinder 21''
Convective Nu for cylinder22''
Local Nu distribution for tube bank 2x2 at Re
D
=21580
9.5 Mean convective heat transfer from staggered bundle
60
75
90
105
120
135
150
1 2 3 4
C
o
n
v
e
c
t
i
v
e

N
u

Row number
Nu for staggered 2x2
Nu for staggered 1.3x3
Nu for staggered 3x1
Re
D

Re
Dma
x

Convective Nu
%
differenc
e from
Grimison
%
difference
from
Zukauska
s
Grimison
correlatio
n
Zukauska
s
correlatio
n
Present
Nu
500 1000 NA NA - - -
7190 14380 88.2341 85.407 65.07 26.2 23.8
21580 42530 NA 165.154 116.22 28.5 29.5
50350
10070
0
NA 274.57 200.4 23.03 27.01
50
100
150
200
250
5000 15000 25000 35000 45000 55000
C
o
n
v
e
c
t
i
v
e

N
u

Re
D
Convective Nu for staggered 2x2
Convective Nu at staggered1.5 x1.5
Convective Nu for staggered 3 x1
Convective Nu for stagered 1.3x3
9.6 Combined heat transfer within staggered tube bundle
Temperature contour for combined heat transfer, bank 2x2 at Re
D
=21580
For (a) κ=0 (1/m) (b) κ=1 (1/m)
staggered
arrangement
Re
D
Nu
conv
Nu
Total
Nu
rad

2 x2
7190 65.07 70.894 (κ=1) 5.824
21580 116.22 120.83115 (κ=1) 4.6115
50350 200.4 203.6548 (κ=1) 3.2548
1.5 x1.5
7190 63.376 67.66(k=1) 4.291
21580 112.828 116.793 (κ=0) 3.9653
21580 112.828 118.817(κ=1) 5.989
21580 112.828 119.3614(k=10) 6.533
50
70
90
110
130
150
170
190
210
230
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000
N
u

Re
Dmax
Convective Nu
Combined Nu
Combined heat transfer within staggered tube bundle
9.6 Development of correlation for staggered tube bundle
For staggered tube bank 2x2 (a/b <2) 0.576
0.25Re Nu =
For staggered tube bank 2x2 (a/b > 2)
0.565
0.308Re Nu =
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000
N
u

Re
Dmax
Nu by present correlation
Nu by Zukauskas correlation
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
1000 51000 101000 151000 201000
N
u

Re
Dmax

Nu by present correlation
Nu by Zukauskas
correlation
(a>b)
(a<b)
0
50
100
150
200
250
5000 25000 45000 65000 85000 105000
N
u

Re
Dmax

Nu at staggered tube bank 2x2
Nu staggered tube bank 3x1
Convective Nu for case (a/b<2) and (a/b>2)
10 COMPARISONS BETWEEN INLINE AND STAGGERED BUNDLES
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
73
75
1 2 3 4
C
o
n
v
e
c
t
i
v
e

N
u


Tube bank row
Convective Nu for staggered bank 2X2
Convective Nu for inline bank 2x2
10.1 Mean convective heat transfer from tube bank
0
50
100
150
200
250
5000 25000 45000 65000 85000 105000
N
u

Re
Dmax
Convective Nu for inline 2x2
Convective Nu for staggered 2x2
10.1 Combined heat transfer from tube bank
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10000 30000 50000 70000 90000 110000
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
v
e

N
u

Re
Dmax
Radiative Nu for inline 2x2
Radiative Nu for staggered 2x2
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000
T
o
t
a
l

N
u

ReDmax
Total Nu for inline 2x2
Total Nu for staggered
2x2

 As expected, the Nu increases with the increase of Re
 The effect of temperature difference on convective and radiative heat transfer
is very small
 The total Nu of non-participating medium is higher than that of participating
medium cases.
 The radiative heat transfer increases with increasing temperature but it
decreases with α and ρ.
11 .Conclusion and future scope
Single cylinder
In-line tube bank
 With decrease in tube spacing C
D
increases and wake behind cylinder increases.
 The convective Nu may depends on recirculation intensity and turbulence intensity
in inter- tubular spacing,
 It increases with increasing Reynolds number for given in-line tube configuration.
 Radiative Nu increases with increases of Re number for low and medium tube
spacings.
 Total Nu decreases slightly with absorption coefficient of participating medium

11.3 Staggered tube bank
With decreasing longitudinal pitch C
D
increases as well wake behind tube
bank.
The convective Nu is higher in case of tube spacing (a>b) than (a< b).
Total Nu increases with absorption coefficient of participating medium
 For Staggered tube a banks, with increase in Re total Nu decreases
11.4 FUTURE SCOPE
• Present numerical studies carried out considering smooth surfaces.
• The scattering effects can be studied in detail for tube banks
• In finned heat exchanger accurate correlations are not available, hence
there is scope for both convective and combined heat transfer

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