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‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬

INTRODUCTION TO
BIOSTATISTICS
Dr. Aesha Farheen
Department of Community
and Family Medicine,
Medical College(Girls center)
King Khaled University,
Abha
• The word 'Statistics' is derived from the
Latin word 'Statis' which means a
"political state." Clearly, statistics is
closely linked with the administrative
affairs of a state such as facts and figures
regarding defense force, population,
housing, food, financial resources etc.
• What is Statistics?
• aggregate of facts affected to a marked extent
by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed,
enumerated or estimated according to
reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a
systematic manner for a predetermined purpose
and placed in relation to each other."
• IN SIMPLE WORDS:
• Methods for organizing, summarizing,
presenting, & interpreting information (data).
WHY WE NEED STATISTICS
• To present the data in a concise and
definite form : Statistics helps in
classifying and tabulating raw data for
processing and further tabulation for end
users.
• To make it easy to understand complex
and large data : This is done by
presenting the data in the form of tables,
graphs, diagrams etc., or by condensing
the data with the help of means,
dispersion etc.
• For comparison : Tables, measures of
means and dispersion can help in
comparing different sets of data..

• In measuring the magnitude of a


phenomenon:- Statistics has made it
possible to count the population of a
country, the industrial growth, the
agricultural growth, the educational level
(of course in numbers(
QUANTITATIVE MEDICINE

• Everything in medicine, be it research,


diagnosis or treatment depends on
counting/measurement.
• High/ Low B.P??
• Pulse rate.
• Incidence of disease.
• Death rate.
• Enlargement of liver/ spleen
Statistics and Health
• BIOSTATISTICS
• HEALTH STATISTICS
• MEDICAL STATISTICS
• VITAL STATISTICS
NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE
TERMS
Examples of uses of biostatistics
• To define what is normal/ healthy in a
population (Setting limits of normality).
• To compare drug action –potency/efficacy
• Confirm association between two
attributes:Cancer and smoking or
Socioeconomic status and malnutrition
• Usefulness of vaccines
Uses in Public Health Planning
• Recording of vital events
• Incidence/prevalence of disease.
• Leading causes of death/ morbidity in the
community
• Demographic characteristics of a
community.
• Health system research.
Statistical presentation
• Two ways of representing statistics : Numerical
and Pictorial.
• Numerical statistics are numbers. But some
numbers are more meaningful such as mean,
standard deviation etc.
• When the numerical data is presented in the
form of pictures (diagrams) and graphs, it is
called the Pictorial statistics. This statistics
makes confusing and complex data or
information, easy, simple and straightforward, so
that even the layman can understand it without
much difficulty.
Types of statistics
• The branch of statistics wherein we record
and analyze observations for all the
individuals of a group or population and
draw inferences about the same is called
"Descriptive statistics" or "Deductive
statistics".
• On the other hand, if we choose a sample
and by statistical treatment of this, draw
inferences about the population, then this
branch of statistics is known as Statical
Inference or Inductive Statistic or
Inferential statistics.
• Tools for generalizing beyond actual
observations

• Generalize from a sample to a


population
COMMON TERMS
• DATA:
• Collection of information, comprised of 2
parts
• (1) Individuals (also called cases or
observation units)
• Individuals are ANY OBJECTS described
by data
• Do NOT have to be people
• (2)Variables are characteristics recorded
on/from the individuals
• A variable is something that varies—has
at least 2 values
• Something that changes over time OR
• Something that varies across individuals.
• Pick out the individuals and variables in
these examples:
• 100 business executives were asked their
age
• 8 farmers obtained the weight of 25 pigs
• 4 technicians measured the sound quality
of 10 stereos
Types of Data
• Categorical /(QUALITATIVE):
• records which group or category an
individual/observation belongs in;
• it classifies;
• doesn’t make sense to perform arithmetic
on this type of variable
• E.g., gender (Female or Male)
Quantitative
• a true numerical value;
• it indicates an amount;
• often obtained from a measuring
instrument;
• it makes sense to perform arithmetic on
these types of variables
• E.g., Weight in pounds
:Variables can also be divided into

• Discrete
• (a) Indivisible units
• (b) Restricted to whole numbers
• (c) Can be counted
• e.g. # of children in a family
• # of houses in a neighborhood
• Continuous:
• (a) Unlimited number of possible values
• (b) Infinite number of values can fall b/n
any 2 observed values
• (c) No gaps between units
• e.g. time taken to solve a problem
height or weight
• Variables can be measured on four different
types of scales:
• 1.Nominal: (a) Consists of a set of
categories or labels
• (b) The ‘score’ does NOT indicate an amount
• (c) The ‘score’ is arbitrary
• (d) Example: Color of cars: 1=red, 2=blue,
3=green

• 2.Ordinal: (a) Score indicates rank order along
some continuum
• (b) It is a relative score, not an absolute score
• Might have the highest score on the exam, but
we still don’t know how well you did
• (c) There is NOT an equal distance between
scores
• Finish 1st,2nd, or 3rd in a race; could be a
difference of 2 seconds b/n 1st & 2nd but a
difference of 10 minutes b/n 2nd & 3rd
• 3.Interval: (a) Score indicates an actual amount
• (b) There is an equal distance between each unit
• (c) Can include the number 0, but it is not a ‘true’
0
• (d) Zero on this scale does not mean an
absence of the variable; thus cannot speak to
ratios
• (e) Example: temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit
:80 degrees is not twice as hot as 40°
• 4.Ratio: (a) Score indicates an actual
amount
• (b) There is an equal distance between
each unit
• (c) It includes a ‘true’ zero point; thus
ratios are valid
• (d) Example: # of friends you have
.COMMON TERMS CONTD
• VARIABLE
• A characteristic that takes on different values in
different persons/ places/tjhings.
• Eg. Height, Weight,B.P, Age etc.
• CONSTANT:
• Quantities that do not vary eg in biostatistics, for
a particular population;mean, SD, SE,Correlation
coeff.,and proportion are considered as
constants
• OBSERVATION:
• An event and its measurement eg
B.P=120 mm Hg
• OBSERVATION UNIT
• The source of observation, often called the
individual or subject.
Population and sample
Population
• The entire collection of events of interest eg.,
collection of people you want to study about.

• The total number of objects (individuals) in a


population is known as the size of the
population. This may be finite or infinite.

• Doesn’t necessarily mean “big” but often is.


• SAMPLING UNIT:
• Each member of a population.
• SAMPLE:
• Part of population
• Subset of events selected from a
population
• Intended to represent the population
• PARAMETER:
• It is a summary value or constant of a variable
that describes the population such as the
mean,variance, correlation coefficient,etc.
• (Against which we measure a statistic of a
sample)
• STATISTIC: is a summary value that describes
the sample:eg mean SD, SE, Correlation coeff.
etc.
• PARAMETRIC TEST;
• It is one in which population constants
such as that described above are used
and data tend to follow one assumed or
established distribution such as Poisson,
normal, binomial etc.
NONPARAMETRIC TEST
• Tests such as Chi square in which no
constant of a population is used. Data do
not follow any specific distribution and no
assumptions are made in these tests.
Symbols and Notations
• For Parameter i.e Values describing
POPULATIONS
• Greek letters eg.,
• µ =Mean
∀ σ2 =Variance
∀ σ =SD
∀ ρ =Proportion
• For Statistics i.e Values describing
SAMPLES
• Roman letters,eg.
X =Mean
s2=Variance
s =Standard Deviation
p =Proportion
methods of research
1.Correlational :(non-experimental)
2.Experimental:Begin with an hypothesis,
a hunch/guess/belief about how variables
might be related or influence each other:
• Meditation can reduce stress
Co relational Research
Measure variables as they occur naturally
• Questionnaires, interviews, observational
or archival research
• Test hypotheses about association
between 2 or more variables
• Theory may be causal, but conclusions
cannot be.
:Example
• Survey 100 people
• Measure how often (if ever) they meditate
• Measure their level of life stress
• Look at association between meditation
and stress
• Can we draw a causal inference?
Experimental Research
• Manipulate one variable; examine its
effect on an outcome variable
• Independent Variable (IV) Dependent
Variable (DV)
• Goal is to draw causal inferences
• Cause - Effect
• The IV presumed to cause changes in DV
• IV DV
Example
• Recruit 100 people
• Randomly assign 50 to a meditation task
& 50 to a neutral task
• Measure stress after task
• Look at group differences in stress
• Can we draw a causal inference?
Two key elements of an
:experiment
• 1.IV with at least two “levels”
• treatment group = meditation
• control group = no meditation

• 2.Random assignment to
groups/conditions
• Assignment of participants to groups is
based on a random process
LIMITATIONS WITH STATISTICS
• Statistics does not deal with individual measurements.
Since statistics deals with aggregates of facts, it can
not be used to study the changes that have taken
place in individual cases.
• Statistics cannot be used to study qualitative
phenomenon like morality, intelligence, beauty etc. as
these can not be quantified. However, it may be
possible to analyze such problems statistically by
expressing them numerically.
• Statistical results are true only on an average- The
conclusions obtained statistically are not universal
truths. They are true only under certain conditions.
This is because statistics as a science is less exact as
compared to the natural science.