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Different types of muscles and the relevant contractions

There are three types of muscle contraction




Concentric Contraction- The muscles shortens when it contracts this muscle is the agonist. For example the biceps brachii in the upwards phase of the bicep curl. Eccentric Contraction- The muscle lengthens when It contracts and is acting as a brake. This type of contraction is usually in the antagonist. For example the biceps brachii in the downwards phase of the bicep curl. Isometric Contraction- There is an increase in muscle tension but the length of the muscle stays the same, this type of contraction occurs mainly in fixator muscles. For example the deltoid acting as a fixator during the bicep curl.

Pick someone from the class of similar size to yourself. We are going to have an arm wrestling tournament. During the tournament think about which muscles are the agonists and antagonists and also consider the types of contraction being used whilst winning, losing or drawing.

Complete the following table

Agonist Muscle Winning Losing Drawing Type of contraction

The structure of a muscle

Structures that make up the muscle Epimysium- A thick sheath which covers the whole muscle Fasciculi- A bundle of muscle fibres Perymysium- A sheath covering the fasciculi, this prevent friction within the muscle Muscle fibres- Run the entire length of the muscle contain the muscle cells Endomysium- Surrounds each muscle fibre Myofibril- Contained inside each muscle fibre Sacromere- This is the individual muscle cell, they are lined up side to side and make up the myofibril

How do muscles contract

Sliding Filament Theory Each sacromere is made up of actin and myosin The H zone is the space between the actin filaments When calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum the muscle cells contract and the actin and myosin slide over each other decreasing the size of the H zone. So called cross bridges are formed between the actin and myosin and they are pulled together Hence the muscle shortens

The Three Types of Muscle Fibre

Type 1a- Slow Twitch Fibres Produce a low contractile speed and low force of contraction Works aerobically i.e. it requires oxygen Can work for long periods of time and is resistant to fatigue Has a high level of energy producing mitochondria Have a high level of capillaries surrounding the fibres as they requires lots of oxygen Slow twitch fibres are able to use both fats and carbohydrates to create energy

Type 11a- Fast Oxidative Glycolytic


more quickly and can apply more force than type 1a fibres Can produce energy both aerobically and anaerobically However when working anaerobically lactic acid can build up which causes this muscle type to fatigue more quickly than type 1a fibres

Type 11b- Fast Glycolytic Fibres


quick to contract and produce a large amount of force Works completely anaerobically Build up of lactic acid, lack of capillaries and a low level of mitochondria means this muscle type fatigues quickly This muslce type is connected to more motor neurons (nerves) therefore it can be activated much more quickly

Which types of muscles fibres are being used in the pictures below?

Marathon Running

Playing football

100m Sprinting

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

Greater strength of contraction due to increased muscle elasticity Faster speed of contraction due to increased transmission of the nerve impulse Faster speed of contraction and relaxation due to increased temperature of the muscle fibres Improved co-ordination of antagonistic pairs resulting in increased speed and strength of contraction Increased speed and contractile strength due to increased enzyme action in warm muscles Reduced risk of injury due to increased blood flow to the muscles

The effects of a warm up on Skeletal Muscle

Homework: Answer questions on page 39, answer questions 1, 4, and 5.