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Contents:

Number Number

System Types of number system Non-positional number system Draw Backs Solution

Cont..

Positional

number system

Case Study

Binary Number System Octal Number System Hexadecimal Number System

Cont..

Conversion

to some other base Some other base to decimal Converting from base X to base Y where X and Y are not decimal Fraction Number

Decimal

Number:

“Number

is an idea of quantity and name that allow us to speak out value.”

Cont..

Origination

of number traced back to stone age where people use to equalize different shapes with different quantities. Shapes are termed as digit. Digits are like character of language.

Numbering System:

“Formal

and systematic way of representing larger values with the help of some basic digits.”

Cont..

Number

a

**system begins with defining the digits by
**

value with symbol

Name: selected for digit Rules: specified to form and represent larger values.

Cont..

Larger

values are named as well , we should have a nomenclature of numbering system.

**Types Of Numbering System:
**

There are two types of numbering system.

Numbering system Positional Numbering system

Non-positional

**Non-Positional Numbering System:
**

Each

symbol represents some value regardless of its position in Numbering system. Symbols are simply added to find out values of particular numbers.

Cont..

First V VI IX X

**known system is Roman Number System.
**

= = = = 5 6 9 10

Draw Backs:

Representing

ambiguity

For

larger values prone to

example XIIV can be interpreted as (11+4) or (12 + 5) Depending upon how we group.

Cont..

More

than one symbol can be used to form digit. V + I = 6 Same symbol can be used in forming more than one digit I + V = 4

Solution:

Problem

is solved by putting bars over digits.

**Positional Numbering System:
**

Each symbol represent different values depend upon position they occupy in numbering system.

Cont..

Value

determine by three consideration. Digit itself Position of digit in numbering system Base of numbering system

Case Study :

Start

with Base 10 as we are familiar with it. let us take it as case study. History came with idea to give weight to position along with symbol.

Cont..

Suppose

**X and Y are digits of numbering system. Numbers can be formed and represented as follows.
**

C1 X C0 Y

Cont..

Digit

Y in column ‘C0’ has its original value due to occurrence in 1st position. let Y = 2 base is 10 then =2X100 =2X1 =2 So original value of Y = 2 and result is also 2.

Cont..

Digit

X in column C1 represent value and determine by Multiplying weight with original value of X.

Cont..

Let weight =W1 = 1 X=3 base = 10 =3X101 =30

Cont..

Now add in Y so General Form: W1 * X + Y Weight : Power of base Base : Total number of digits available in Number system.

Cont..

Weight in term of base

103

102 100 C2 3 3*100

101 10 C1 4 4*10

100 1 C0 1 1*1

Weight 1000 age Columns C3 Numbers 1 values 1*1000

Cont..

Total

number of digits in an alphabet is called base of numbering system. In our case study base=10 As second column was required when we were count ten.

Cont..

It

implies that weight age of second column in decimal is 10. So W1=10

Cont..

Weight

age of subsequent column are also in magnitude of base of numbering system

**Binary Number System
**

It

is base two numbering system ,it must have two digits. Alphabet = {0,1}

**Octal Number System
**

Octal

means 8 As it is base 8 numbering system it must have 8 digits. Alphabet = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7}

**Hexadecimal Number System
**

It

is base 16 numbering system ,it must have 16 digits. Alphabet = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E ,F}

**Converting values To/from Decimal System
**

Decimal

to some other base Some other base to decimal Converting from base X to base Y where X and Y are not decimal

**Decimal to some other base:
**

What What What

we have : A number in decimal we we

system. want : To find out an equivalent number in another base. do : Divide decimal number repeatedly with base value of required numbering system.

**From Some Other Base To Decimal:
**

What

**we have: A number in base X. What we want: To find out an
**

What

we do:

equivalent number in base ten. Multiply unit value of digit in each column with weight age assigned to that column.

**Converting from base X to base Y where X and Y are not decimal:
**

There is no direct method ,what we do is that we use transition. First we convert base X -> base 10 Then convert base 10 -> base Y

Fractional Numbers:

In

binary number system , fractional numbers are formed in decimal number system.

Cont..

position 4 3 2 1 0 . -1 -2 -3 -4

Position value

24

23 22 21 20

2-1 1/2

2-2

2-3 2-4

Quantity 16 8 4 2 1 Represente d

1/4 1/8 1/16

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