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Ibrahim F. Benter
Kuwait University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology
Course: Medical Pharmacology Course Coordinator: Dr. Mariam Yousif (Office: Room 60 Tel:6338)
Recommended textbooks • Integrated Pharmacology - Page et al • Pharmacology – Rang et al
READING TEXTBOOKS DAILY IS VERY IMPORTANT
What is Pharmacology?
Pharmacology embraces the knowledge of drug: • History • Source • Physical and chemical properties • Biochemical and physical effects • Mechanisms of action • Absorption • Distribution • Biotransformation • Excretion • Therapeutic and other uses
Although the subject of pharmacology is quite extensive, the clinician is interested primarily in drugs that are useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease.
PHYSIOLOGY Normal PHARMACOLOGY correction PATHOLOGY abnormal
What is a drug? A drug may be defined as a therapeutic substance intended to affect the structure or function of the body in order to restore abnormal function to normal.
Traditionally, most drugs were small chemicals with molecular weights in the hundreds, as well as a few that were natural human or animal hormones.
Recently, through advances in molecular and cellular biology, a number of protein and peptide drugs have been approved for clinical use. These therapies are designed to interact with a particular receptor or enzyme to ameliorate disease.
Today, we now consider the possibility of the drug replacing a diseased receptor (or gene) or of administering agents that allow patients to make their own therapeutic protein through genebased therapy.
Uses of Drugs:
• Curative • Suppressive • Preventive or prophylactic
What is selectivity?
• The aim of all therapy is to use a drug that has only one effect on a particular problem • However, drugs are only relatively selective in their effects. • All drugs are capable of producing adverse effects as well as their beneficial effects, depending on the circumstances of their use.
The objective of drug therapy is to provide the maximum benefit with minimum harm
Properties of an ‘ideal’ drug
• • • • • • • • • Effectiveness Chemical stability Safety Selectivity Reversible action Predictability Ease of administration Freedom from drug interactions Low cost
What is pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics?
• what the body does to the drug (pharmacokinetics) • what the drug does to the body (pharmacodynamics)
How many drugs do you know? Can you explain their mechanism of action? How can you go from knowing a few drugs to HUNDREDS of drugs
• Regular attendance to lectures is very important • Come on time • No talking during lectures
HOW TO STUDY?
• STUDY DAILY • DO NOT LET MATERIAL ACCUMULATE • SUDDENLY YOU MAY HAVE 50 NEW DRUGS TO STUDY • ASK FOR HELP IF HAVING PROBLEMS • PREPARE CARDS FOR SELF REVIEW • ASK FOR HELP BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE
Teaching Assistants Review Sessions
PHARMACOLOGY IS: WHAT YOU WILL BE USING EVERYDAY WHEN YOU ARE TREATING YOUR PATIENTS
THEREFORE: LEARN IT WELL AND PUT IT IN LONG TERM MEMORY
• VERY DIFFICULT • MCQs