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Chapter 4

DIGITAL TRANSMISSION

Kashif Bashir

1 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
A computer network is designed to send information from one point to another. This information needs to be converted to either a digital signal or an analog signal for Transmission. Topics discussed in this section:
Line Coding Line Coding Schemes Block Coding 4.2

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Figure 4.1 Line coding and decoding

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Note

The data rate defines the number of data elements (bits) sent in 1 s. The unit is bits per second (bps). The data rate is sometimes called the bit rate;

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Note

The signal rate is the number of signal elements sent in Is. The unit is the baud. The signal rate is sometimes called the pulse rate, the modulation rate, or the baud rate.

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Note

One goal in data communications is to increase the data rate while decreasing the signal rate. Increasing the data rate increases the speed of transmission; decreasing the signal rate decreases the bandwidth requirement.
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Note
Self-synchronization To correctly interpret the signals received from the sender, the receiver's bit intervals must correspond exactly to the sender's bit intervals. If the receiver clock is faster or slower, the bit intervals are not matched and the receiver might misinterpret the signals.

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Figure 4.3 Effect of lack of synchronization

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Example 4.2
In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps? Solution At 1 kbps, the receiver receives 1001 bps instead of 1000 bps. At 1 Mbps, the receiver receives 1,001,000 bps instead of 1,000,000 bps.

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Different Conversion Schemes

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Digital to Digital Encoding

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Types of Digital to Digital Encoding

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Note: Unipolar encoding uses only one voltage level.

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Unipolar Encoding

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Note: Polar encoding uses two voltage levels (positive and negative).

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Types of Polar Encoding

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Note: In NRZ-L the level of the signal is dependent upon the state of the bit.

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Note: In NRZ-I the signal is inverted if a 1 is encountered.

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NRZ-L and NRZ-I Encoding

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RZ Encoding

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Note: A good encoded digital signal must contain a provision for synchronization.

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Note: In Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used for both synchronization and bit representation.

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Note: In differential Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used only for synchronization. The bit representation is defined by the inversion or noninversion at the beginning of the bit.
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Manchester and Diff. Manchester Encoding

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Note: In Manchester Scheme the only drawback is the signal rate. The signal rate for Manchester and differential Manchester is double that for NRZ.

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Note:
A long sequence of Os upsets the synchronization. If we can find a way to avoid a long sequence of Os in the original stream, we can use bipolar AMI for long distances.

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Note: In bipolar encoding, we use three levels: positive, zero, and negative.

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Types of Bipolar Encoding

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Bipolar AMI Encoding

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Note:
Bipolar with 8-zero substitution (B8ZS) is commonly used in North America. In this technique, eight consecutive zero-level voltages are replaced by the sequence 000VBOVB. The V in the sequence denotes violation; this is a nonzero voltage that breaks an AMI rule of encoding. The B in the sequence denotes bipolar, which means a nonzero level voltage in accordance with the AMI rule

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B8ZS Encoding

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Figure 4.19 Two cases of B8ZS scrambling technique

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Solution to Example 3

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Note:
High density bipolar 3 zero (HDB3) is commonly used outside of north America. In this technique, four consecutive zero-level voltages are replaced with a sequenced with of 000V or B000V.

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HDB3 Encoding

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High density bipolar 3 zero (HDB3)


The two rules can be stated as follows: 1. If the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution is odd, the substitution pattern will be 000V, which makes the total number of nonzero pulses even. 2. If the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution is even, the substitution pattern will be B00V, which makes the total number of nonzero pulses even.

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Figure 4.20 Different situations in HDB3 scrambling technique

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Solution to Example 4

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2 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
We have seen in Chapter 3 that a digital signal is superior to an analog signal. The tendency today is to change an analog signal to digital data. In this section we describe two techniques, pulse code modulation and delta modulation. Topics discussed in this section:
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Delta Modulation (DM)

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Figure 4.21 Components of PCM encoder

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PAM

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Quantized PAM Signal

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Quantizing Using Sign and Magnitude

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PCM

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From Analog to PCM

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Figure 4.22 Three different sampling methods for PCM

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Note

According to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must be at least 2 times the highest frequency contained in the signal.

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Figure 4.23 Nyquist sampling rate for low-pass and bandpass signals

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Example
What sampling rate is needed for a signal with a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz)?

Solution
The sampling rate must be twice the highest frequency in the signal: Sampling rate = 2 x (11,000) = 22,000 samples/s

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Example
A signal is sampled. Each sample requires at least 12 levels of precision (+0 to +5 and -0 to -5). How many bits should be sent for each sample?

Solution
We need 4 bits; 1 bit for the sign and 3 bits for the value. A 3-bit value can represent 23 = 8 levels (000 to 111), which is more than what we need. A 2-bit value is not enough since 22 = 4. A 4-bit value is too much because 24 = 16.
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Example
We want to digitize the human voice. What is the bit rate, assuming 8 bits per sample?

Solution
The human voice normally contains frequencies from 0 to 4000 Hz. Sampling rate = 4000 x 2 = 8000 samples/s Bit rate = sampling rate x number of bits per sample = 8000 x 8 = 64,000 bps = 64 Kbps
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Note

PCM is a very complex technique. Other techniques have been developed to reduce the complexity of PCM. The simplest is delta modulation. DM finds the change from the previous sample, used for transmission of voice information where quality is not of primary importance.
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Figure 4.28 The process of delta modulation

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Figure 4.29 Delta modulation components

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Figure 4.30 Delta demodulation components

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3 TRANSMISSION MODES
The transmission of binary data across a link can be accomplished in either parallel or serial mode. In parallel mode, multiple bits are sent with each clock tick. In serial mode, 1 bit is sent with each clock tick. While there is only one way to send parallel data, there are three subclasses of serial transmission: asynchronous, synchronous, and isochronous. Topics discussed in this section:
Parallel Transmission Serial Transmission

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Figure 4.31 Data transmission and modes

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Figure 4.32 Parallel transmission

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Figure 4.33 Serial transmission

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Note

In asynchronous transmission, we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte. There may be a gap between each byte.

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Note

Asynchronous here means asynchronous at the byte level, but the bits are still synchronized; their durations are the same.

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Figure 4.34 Asynchronous transmission

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Note

In synchronous transmission, we send bits one after another without start or stop bits or gaps. It is the responsibility of the receiver to group the bits.

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Figure 4.35 Synchronous transmission

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Isochronous

In real-time audio and video, in which uneven delays between frames are not acceptable, synchronous transmission fails. For example, TV images are broadcast at the rate of 30 images per second; they must be viewed at the same rate. If each image is sent by using one or more flames, there should be no delays between frames. For this type of application, synchronization between characters is not enough; the entire stream of bits must be synchronized. The isochronous transmission guarantees that the data arrive at a fixed rate.

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