International Business Strategy

Globalization Theory A summary from course text

Prepared by: Ban Sun,Low

Globalization Theory

Overview

1.

Globalization – spread of world wide practice, relations, consciousness and organization of social life. Robinson, 2007: - Development internal to social theory, a reaction to modernization theory that is: a. western bias b. pre-eminence accord to west c. The rest of the world increasingly becoming like west.

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3. Can be analyze culturally, economically, politically and institutionally.

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Globalization Theory

Major Contemporary Theorist

A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Anthony Giddens – “Runaway World” (beyond our control) Close link between globalization and risk (manufactured risk). Emphasize role of the West (US particular), to influence. Increasingly de-centered as non west plays larger role. Globalization undermined local cultures and serves to revive them. Globalization “Squeeze sideways” – produce new area that may cut across nation . (Barcelona in northern Spain, extends into France) Sees the emergence of “Global Cosmopolitan society” Thinks fundamentalist is problematic – against cosmopolitan. └ linked to violence.
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6. 7.

Globalization Theory

Major Contemporary Theorist

B.

Ulrich Beck – Politics of Globalization & cosmopolitan Critic of globalization Distinction between globalism and globality. Globalism : a. World dominated by economics. b. hegemony of capitalist world market & neo-liberal ideology underpins it. Beck : (Involves mono-causal & linear thinking), wrong to assume global developments reduce to single economic dimension.

1. 2.

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Sees the world more multi-dimensional & multidirectional .
Problems in the capitalist world market – all sorts of trade barriers. Winners and losers in the market
4.

Globality: .nothing is any longer limited to local. . 5. First modernity – decline of power of nation and the nation border. Globality & “second modernity” = denationalization. 8. .local incidences affect entire world (ie: Anwar Ibrahim trial case) 7. associated with “second modernity”. Globality (immobility to reverse it). Ulrich Beck – Politics of Globalization & cosmopolitan Critic of globalization 6.Globalization Theory Major Contemporary Theorist B.

c. b. e. g. Growing awareness of global ecological dangers and of actions to be taken to deal with them. Everyday life and interaction across national borders are profoundly affected. 6. Global culture industries circulate at unprecedented levels. d.Globalization Theory Major Contemporary Theorist 9. . Community. labour & capital are increasingly placeless. Distinctive features of globality: a. Self-perception of transnationality in mass media. f. and instituitions. Increasing perception of transcultural others in our lives. actors. Increase in number & strength of transnational agreements. consumption and tourism realms.

Territories become “ battle-field” Winners live in time (span space quickly) Losers live in space which ties them down.Globalization Theory Major Contemporary Theorist C. 5. “Loser” – confined to isolated territories denuded of meaning. ( . It is important to distinguish who have at least some degree of mobility: a. Mobility is a differentiating factor in social stratification – important factor. “Tourist” – on the move because they want to be.ve) 7. . Zygamut Bauman – Human consequences of globalization 1. 2. Globalization = “space war” where the winner has more mobility and create meaning for themselves. ( + ve) b. “vagabonds” . 4. 3.move because they find their environment unbearable.

Unending string of choice. c. b. Impossible to slow down.Globalization Theory Major Contemporary Theorist C. “Tourist” have burdens: a. Each choice have a series of risk and danger. . Zygamut Bauman – Human consequences of globalization 6. 8.

└ billiard ball game – potential catastrophic collisions among world cultures. 2. The core culture remain the same. Sept 11. └ globalization occurs on the surface. In spite of globalization . This paradigm attract recent attention because: Set 1 a. there are lasting differences in cultures and civilizations. Cultural Differentiation 1. . 1999 . Afghanistan and Iraq war ( clash between western and Islamic culture and eternal cultural differences within them.terrorist attack b.) 9.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. 3. Cultures closed to globalization and influence of other culture.

Orthodox (centered in Russia) c. emergence of fault lines among many civilizations – historic enmities among these civilization.all the above differs greatly on philosophical assumptions. North America (Aussie. islam e. value. 3. Huntington : civilization = culture. . Cultural Differentiation Set 2 1. Huntington differentiated a number of world civilization to: a. NZ close align to US) g. 10. Increasing multiculturism of both US (↑ Hispanic) and Western Europe (↑ muslim). 4. customs and outlook of life. Hindu d. Western Europe f. adversaries and enemies since the past 20 years. 2. resurfacing ancient identities. Africa . Sinic (Chinese) b.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. .Samuel Huntington’s clash of civilization and remake of World Order (1996). social relations.

are among the most enduring of human associations 2. . 11. are closely aligned with both religion and race. are a totality.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. Cultural Differentiation There are SIX (6) features of civilizations. Civilizations are: 1. 6. ususally span more than one state. 5. are the broadest source of subjective self-identification 4. are the broadest level of cultural identity 3.

500 – WWII .500 : . overpowering and unidirectional impact of western civilization on all other civilization.sustained. . one civilization – western civilization.civilization separated by time and space.West excel in organized violence. 1. 1. weaponry . Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations. .Huntington’s view: 1910 – one world. 1. └ Immediate cause: .500 BC – AD 1. 2. . military .contact likely to be non –existent. state bureaucracy and emergence of national consciousness. likely to be limited and intense.if have.technology . 12. . └ due to rise of cities.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. ocean navigation.

military and economic growth) .Now: religion. . Resurgence of Asian society.end of the expansion of the west.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. culture and ultimately civilization. Multi-civilizational system . Resurgence of Islam 13.WWI -1990: clash of ideas (capitalist vs communist) .Huntington foresee: “ A slow decline in the west dominance” ( A decrease in population. ii. . 3. .due to revival of 2 important civilization i. Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations. Revolt against it.

. China and India) . . Cont: i. Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations.refers to growth of economic power which will surpass the west.economic ascendancy traceable to superior aspect of its culture especially in its collectivism in contrast to individuality that dominates the west.Common culture among Asian region : Confucianism 14.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. Resurgence of Asian society (Sinic) . └ increasing power to East. ( growth in Japan.

Islam (intolerance) and Sinic (assertiveness) . Resurgence of Islam (controversial argument) . 15. which Islam sees as Imperialism.Clash between the west (arrogance).Sinic rooted in economy while Islamic growth is rooted in dramatic population growth and mobilization of the population. ( i.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A.West view itself “Universal vulture” (democracy) and desire to export to the rest of the world. Cont: ii.e: 8% Muslims in France) . Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations. .

Cont: ii.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations.West wants to limit weapon proliferation while others want them especially “ Weapons of mass destructions” .West seek to control and limit immigration (especially from Islamic civilization) which leads to development of cleft societies within Europe and US. . 16. Resurgence of Islam (controversial argument) .

└ Islam spread by sword. . Example: . Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. 17.Whenever Muslim and non Muslim live in close proximity . Huntington’s criticism: 1. Controversial about Muslim and Islamic civilization. history of Islamic conquest. glorified military values. there is a tendency for Muslim to be more violent.

Demise of US. reaffirm and reassert its role of western civilization around the globe. 2. Huntington’s concern: 1. 18. US threatened by multic-ivilizational or multicultural character. Decline in the west especially US.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) A. US must do 2 things: a. reaffirm identity as a western nation. 4. b. demise of western civilization. Cultural Differentiation Relationship among Civilizations. 3. .

Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. Cultural Convergence 1. 4. Global processes that are bringing the same or similar phenomena. “McDonaldlization” e. 3. westernization c. 19. Cultural imperialism b. World culture 5. Global assimilation to the dominant group. 2005) focus on: a. . Those who operate on this perspective (Bali & Lechner. Globalization leads to sameness throughout the world. Cultures of the world grows increasingly similar to some degree. Americanization d. 2.

. . Cultural Convergence “ McDonald-lization “ .a process which the principles of “fast-food-restaurant” are coming to dominate more and more sectors in US and the world. .ensure customer and employee act in efficient manner.Consist of 5 basic dimensions: 1.consume more efficiently ( ie: drive through) 20.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B.best possible means to achieve what ever end is desired. Efficiency . .

3. Predictability . Calculability .various aspect of work are timed.employees (scripted speech) and customers (know what they want) expected to respond with predictable behaviour.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. .emphasis on predictability .quantity (speed) opposed to quality (↓ quality of cooking) . 21. Cultural Convergence “ McDonald-lization “ 2.

.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. Cultural Convergence “ McDonald-lization “ 4.both customer and employees suffer .great technology control system. replaced by inefficiency of long lines of queue.example: efficiency of speed. Control by means of technology . 5.offer standard food which customer cannot alter. 22. . Irrationality of rationality . which will replace employees.

resounding success outside of US. Cultural Convergence “ McDonald-lization “. Spurs nations to develop their own version of McD. 22. expansion & globalization 1. . 2. McDonalization . coming to one full circle. indicator of globalization. Now other nations export own version back to US.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. McDonaldlization exports to the wrold at the beginning. 3.

. Easier to export empty “forms” throughout the globe. 2. Cultural Convergence Globalization of nothing – Ritzer (2004) 1.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. cost advantage and inexpensive to reproduce 22. “nothing”. forms devoid of distinctive content. Less likely to come into conflict with the local (civilizations) └ Easy to replicate . 3.

indication of increasing homogenization. “Non place” – largely empty of content (shopping mall) 2. Four subtypes of “nothing” 1. . same everywhere (tele-markerters) 4. “Non service” – Service provided are identical (ATM) Global proliferation of 1-4. Cultural Convergence Globalization of nothing – Ritzer (2004) 4. “Non people” – how they work. “Non things” – works exactly the same way worldwide (credit card) 3.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. 25.

2. Indicate heterogenization than homogenization ( globalization of nothing) 3. └ resulting in global & local. Glocalization – concept that gets to the heart of culture hybrid. 4. Examples of hybridization: (heterogenization & glocalization) . 26. . Cultural Hybridization 1. new and unique cultures created which is neither local or global culture. . ( think global.Argentineans watching Asian rap performers performed by a South American band at London club owned by a Saudi Arabian.Americans eating Chinese tacos. Mixing of cultures as a result of globalization & production.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. act local) example: Use internet to provide service to local people. kosher pizza.

5. innovate and maneuver within a glocalized world. b. Examples of hybridization: (Creolization – Hannerz. .1987) -people of mixed race. 27. Glocalization elements: a. Individuals and local groups have great power to adapt. Local individuals & groups as important and creative agents. Cultural Hybridization 4.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. This theory is exceptionally alert to differences within and between areas of the world. combination of language and culture.

Social processes are relational and contingent. Cultural Hybridization c. Grobalization provokes a variety of reactions – ranging from nationalist entrenchment to cosmopolitan embrace – that feed back on and transform it. . Commodities and the media are seen not as coercive but rather as providing material to be used in individual and group creation throughout the glocalized areas of the world. d. that produce glocalization. 28.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B.

Scapes operate independently of one another and conflicting with other scapes. Technoscapes: .involve mobile groups and individuals who play an important role .information technology move fluidly around and across the globe.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B.involves actual movement and the fantasies about moving. 2. Ethnoscapes: . . Emphasis on global flows and disjuncture's among them. 1. . 29. 2. Cultural Hybridization “Appadurai’s landscape” 1.

currency. Ideoscapes: . fil makers and distributors.electronic capabilities to produce and transmit information around the globe and the images of the world that these media create and disseminate. Mediascapes: .process of movement of money.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. Financescapes: . 30 . Cultural Hybridization “Appadurai’s landscape” 3. Involved here are bloggers. newspapers and magazines. stock exchange moving at great speed.like mediascapes are set of images – restricted to political images produced by states inline with their ideology or counter ideologies. 5. 4.

└ due to differences between culture 31. . Territories going to be affected by the 5 landscapes and their disjunctures. II. III. Cultural Hybridization “Appadurai’s landscape” 3. Important notings: Global processes that are partly/independent of any given nation state.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. I. Global flows occur not only through landscapes but also through disjunctures.

. Focus on landscape inline with: a. Cultural Hybridization “Appadurai’s landscape” 4.Globalization Theory Cultural Theory (Jan Naderveen Pieterse – 2004) B. . Grobalization = imperialistic ambitions of nations.globalization associated with glocalization than grobalization.globalization associated with heterogenization than homogenization. 5. corporations to impose themselves on various geographic areas. 32. .

Have 3 important elements: 1. Transnational corporations . Capitalist (pre-dominant now) b. .Focus on transnational practices └ cut across boundaries. Socialist (anti – globalization movement) . territorial boundaries are of declining importance.Globalization Theory Economic Theory Leslie Sklair (2002): 2 system of globalization a. international system to globalization system (No geographic territory or state) 33. (capitalist) .dominate Capitalist move away fro.

.globalizing professionals d. Technical fraction .globalizing state & interstate bureaucrats and politicians. Consumerist fraction .does not necessarily own means of production. b.merchant & media executives 34. c. Corporate fraction . There are 4 fractions: a.Globalization Theory Economic Theory 2.Executives of transnational corporations and other local affiliates. Transnational Capitalist Class . State fraction .

Share similar lifestyle in terms of goods and services they consume.Globalization Theory Economic Theory 2. Global > local perspective on a wide range of issues. political.are transnational in various ways: a. b. . Seek to assert various types of control across nations. see themselves as citizen of the world. culture & ideological) c. (economical. d. 35. e. “member” share global interest. Transnational Capitalist Class .

. Culture – ideology of consumption a. 36. transnational corporation utilize transnational capitalist to develop and solidify culture and ideology ➠ feed the demand of the capitalist system of production. (increase dramatically with ↑ sophistication of advertising & media.) b.Globalization Theory Economic Theory 3. └ defines global capitalism today. Ultimately . ability to exert ideological control over people and array of consumer goods marketed by or through them. create a global mood to consume which creates benefits to transnational corporation.

. sustainable environment.Transnational corporation abuses. Green movement. exploitation leads to signs of protectionism of some countries. 36. anti-globalism and human rights movement ➠ seeds to socialist globalization.Globalization Theory Economic Theory Leslie Sklair (2002) Socialist globalization .

Antonio Negri (2000). Expand down to social world. Governs the world with single logic of rule. Power is dispersed throughout the society and globe.Globalization Theory Economic Theory EMPIRE (Post modern Marxian perspective of globalization) Michael Hardt. 3. . └ exist in the realm of ideas(media) & omnipresent (like god) Is not fully exist yet. Associate modernity with imperialism. 4. 38. Formation at the moment. 5. a showcase of such dominance but no single nation at center . Lacks geographical / territorial boundaries. no single power. 2. Multitude (2004) 1. where one or more nation at center that control or exploit especially economically. “empire”.

engage “just wars” └ “enemy” = threat to ethical order of the world. ethical truths. set aside juridically. resistance & conflict. 7. c. (US invade Iraq) 8. Eliminate all differences. common notion what is right) └ what is “right” – intervene in “humanitarian “ problems.Globalization Theory Economic Theory EMPIRE 6. Incorporate all it can. . Based on triple imperatives (requirements) a. └ celebrate different cultures. Seek to control entirety of life down to most basic level. empire differentiates and affirm differences. Source of power = juridical power (order. embed differences into hierarchy and manage it ➠ real power 39. b. norms.

Globalization Theory Economic Theory Multitude (Opposing of empire force) . – pre-requisite to global liberalization └ Social revolution. Globalization leads to deterritorialization where Multitude is a force behind this. Potential to overthrow empire. counter – empire.consume Empire’s culture-ideology Empire a parasitic on Multitude creativity and productivity.real productive force of Empire. . 40. .

“barbarism” involving the body (less likely to submit to external control – create new life) 2.Globalization Theory Economic Theory Hardt & Negeri (see a utopian potential in globalization) 1. . Control multitude via “police power”. b. Control over multitude which produce intellectual. work in which are immaterial are important ➠ however are control by global communication and ideology (media) – but can use back to counter. “Problem” is imperialism and empire. 41. 3. prevent us from falling back into particularism and isolation. Pros of globalization: a. communicative.

Globalization outcome of power relations among nation states .Pursue own interest at global stage.Transnational focus is misguided . focal concern with capitalism from Marxian perspective. sole super-power – major user and abuser of power) International Relations Justin Rosernberg (2005) .Globalization Theory Political Theory Liberal theory: . └ in long run bring advantage to everyone Realist View : (Sholte. use power to advantage. Spegle. 42.Nation-state interrelationship . operate free from nation state/ political entities.Importance of free market. 2005. 1996) . . (US.

Various sources of fragmentation in the world today: 1.those who don’t have. Development of new micro-electronic technologies . . 43. .rendered territorial boundaries less important.analytical skill to relate their own situation to global situations. retreat into local concern. The skill revolution . those who don’t get separated.Globalization Theory Political Theory International Relations James Rosenau (2003) . . internet & email shrink the world.Distant proximities (what seems remote is close at hand) └ linked to concept “fragmentation” – world is both fragmenting and integrating at the same time.cell phone. 2.integrate those who have them. . └ able to cross state borders easily and minimal political attachments. .

fragmentation to those who are not.Globalization Theory Political Theory 3. . The organization EXPLOSION .variety of organizations and states.Politically ↑ NGO contribute to the declining of state and confidence to accomplish various things.Serve to integrate individuals involve in them. Bifurcation of structure . .state centrism vs multi-centrism (fragmentation between them is increasing) 43. . 4.Proliferation of voluntary organization – NGO .

The decentralization of government (political implications) .increasing vast movement of people ( tourist. . drugs. illegal immigrants.decline of state importance because of their inability to stem a variety of global process (less loyalty from the people) └ (ideas. The mobility upheal .terrorism : disintegrative and integrative .travel & tourism: integrative effect . jobs.migrants can come together create own local institutions such as church and schools. money.Globalization Theory Political Theory 5. terrorist) . 43.political entities threaten by movement they cannot control └ illegal immigrants / terrorist 6.terrorist) .

. fragmentive process . └ cannot perform .inability to handle many traditional responsibilities ➠ government crises 43.magnify by government disintegration – centered as profit making org (what used to be made by federal government – now at government agencies at various level . how well state perform. . Authority crises bought on by increasing subgroupism & decentalization .loyalty based on criteria.organization and corporations) └ can integrate by micro-electronic technology .Globalization Theory Political Theory 7. .disintegration caused by erosion of its authority. stale-mate └ citizen focus on self-interest.

in a globalizing and increasingly fragmentizing world. consortium of European aircraft manufacturer) Conclusion: Political challenge to the state is to find new ways of governing.Globalization Theory Political Theory 8. 43.State no longer control transnational economic flow . . The globalization of national economies .create greater centralization and integration among these transnational economic entities (European Union. perhaps at reduced level.

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