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Acid is a chemical substance which Ionizes/dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+ (H3O+) HCl H+ + Cl-

Basicity of acid- the number of H+ per acid molecules Acid can be divided into;
Monoprotic acid Diprotic acid Triprotic acid

An acid which produced 1 hydrogen ion when 1 molecule of acid ionises in water NO3-

HNO3

H+

An acid which produced 2 hydrogen ions when 1 molecule of acid ionises in water SO4-2

H2SO4

2H+

An acid which produced 3 hydrogen ions when 1 molecule of acid ionises in water PO43-

H3PO4

3H+

A base is a chemical substance which ionises in water to produce free mobile OH-

OHOH-

Chemical substance which can react with an acid to form salt & water

Example of bases : All metal oxides & metal hydroxides

Copper (II) oxide


Iron (III) oxide Magnesium hydroxide

Bases which are soluble in water are called alkalis. Potassium hydroxide

ammonia

Alkalis are bases which are soluble in water All alkalis are bases but not all bases are alkalis

Substance (acids) Uses -Detergents, paints, Sulphuric acid


fertilizers -As electrolyte in leadacid accumulator

Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Ethanoic acid Methanoic acid Carbonic acid

Clean metals before electroplating in industry Fertilizer, plastics, explosives

Vinegar
To coagulate latex in the rubber industry Fizzy drinks

Substance (bases Uses & alkalis)


Ammonia (aqueous)
Magnesium hydroxide
-Fertilizers, cleaning agents -to manufacture nitric acid -to keep latex in liquid form

-gas mixtures & gastric tablets & toothpaste


-To make cement, limewater -To neutralize acidity of soil -detergent, soap, fertilizer, bleaching agents

Calcium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide

An acid only shows its acidic properties when water is present. Without water, pure acid (dry state) does not exhibit its acidic properties.

Because the dry acid consists of covalent molecules only. Dry acid also do not dissociate to form hydrogen ions. Thus, hydrogen ions are not present.

Dry CO2 Dry SO2 Dry HCl

Do not change the colour of dry blue litmus paper

Dry CO2 Dry SO2 Dry HCl

The dry gas consist of covalent molecules & do not have hydrogen ions

Dry CO2 Dry SO2 Dry HCl

These dry gases do not exhibit acidic properties

Dry CO2 Dry SO2 Dry HCl

But they turn moist blue litmus paper to red

Dry citric acid

Dry hydrogen Dry acetic chloride acid acid

Because the presence of water in moist blue litmus enables these gas to react with + Water & produce H

glacial ethanoic acid


glacial ethanoic acid

No changes
Dry blue litmus paper

moist blue litmus paper

red

Aim : To investigate the role of water in showing the properties of acids. Hypothesis : An acid will only show its acidic properties when it is dissolved in water.

Variables : Manipulated: presence of water Responding : change colour of blue litmus paper. Fixed : types of acid and types of litmus paper.

Liquid glacial Ethanoic acid

aqueous Ethanoic acid

Ethanoic acid in dry propanone

Exist as covalent compound that are neutral

Water ionise to produce H+

Exist as covalent compound that are neutral

An alkali only shows its alkaline properties when water is present. Without water, pure alkali (dry state) does not exhibit its alkaline properties.

When water is present, alkali will dissociate to produce free mobile OH-

discussion
In pure dry powder state, the hydroxide ions in barium hydroxide powder are arrange orderly at fixed positions. Thus dry barium hydroxide does not exhibit alkaline properties. In aqueous state or when water is present ,barium dissolves and ionises to produce hydroxide ions Thus barium hydroxide solution will exhibit alkaline properties

SOLUTION OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN WATER

SOLUTION OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE IN METHYLBENZENE

Hydrogen chloride molecules Hydrogen chloride molecules ionises. cannot ionises. Hydrogen and chloride ions Only hydrogen chloride are present. molecules are present. Mobile ions conduct electricity. There are no ions to conduct electricity

Dry ammonia
Dry red litmus paper

No changes

Dry ammonia
moist red litmus paper

blue

Have a sour taste. Give a pH value of less than 7. Chemical properties of acids;
They react with active metals to produce salt & hydrogen Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2 They release CO2 from carbonates CuCO3 + H2SO4 CuSO4

H2O + CO2

They react with bases & alkalis to form salt & water H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2H2O

Have a bitter taste & soapy to touch pH value is greater than 7.


With acids, alkalis form a salt & water; NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 NH4OH + HCl NH4Cl +

+ H 2O

H 2O

When an alkali is heated with an ammonium salt, Ammonia gas is produced. (NH4)2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + H2O + NH3

The presence of an acid is tested by using;


indicator

Colour of indicator

Litmus paper Methyl orange Phenolphthalein Universal indicator

neutral purple
orange colourless green

acidic
Red Red Colourless red

The presence of an alkalis is tested by using;


indicator

Colour of indicator

Litmus paper Methyl orange Phenolphthalein Universal indicator

neutral purple
orange colourless green

acidic
blue yellow pink blue

Shows whether an aqueous solution is acidic, neutral or alkaline.

pH is defines as the concentration of H+ ions in solution. pH = -log10 (H+)

The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 The higher concentration of H+ ions, The lower is the pH value.

The higher the pH value, the higher concentration of OH- ions


A solution with a pH value that is less than 7 is acidic because it has a higher concentration of H+ ions than OH- ions.

At pH=7, concentration of H+ = concentration of OHThe stronger an acid, the lower is its pH value. The stronger an alkali, the higher is its pH value

The pH value may be measured by using: a) Universal indicator b) pH meter

Degree of dissociation/ ionization determines the strength of acid and alkali Acid that ionizes /dissociate completely in water to form high concentration of H+ ions. Degree of dissociation is 100%

Alkali that ionizes /dissociate completely in water to form high concentration of OH- ions. Degree of dissociation is 100%

Alkali that ionizes /dissociate partially in water to form low concentration of OH- ions. Degree of dissociation is below 100%

STRONG ACID

WEAK ACID

DISSOCIATE COMPLETELY

HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN IONS

DISSOCIATE PARTIALLY

HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN IONS

LOWER pH VALUE

HIGHER pH VALUE

STRONG ALKALI

WEAK ALKALI

DISSOCIATE COMPLETELY

HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HYDROXIDE IONS

DISSOCIATE PARTIALLY

HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HYDROXIDE IONS

HIGHER pH VALUE

LOWER pH VALUE