+ +
=
2 2
log log ) , (
18
Information Gain in Decision Tree
Induction
Assume that using attribute A a set S will be
partitioned into sets {S1, S2 , , Sv}
If Si contains pi examples of P and ni examples of N,
the entropy, or the expected information needed to
classify objects in all subtrees Si is
The encoding information that would be
gained by branching on A
=
+
+
=
v
1
) , ( ) (
i
i i
i i
n p I
n p
n p
A E
) ( ) , ( ) ( A E n p I A Gain =
19
Attribute Selection by Information Gain
Computation
Class P: buys_computer
= yes
Class N: buys_computer
= no
I(p, n) = I(9, 5) =0.940
Compute the entropy for
age:
Hence
Similarly
age p
i
n
i
I(p
i
, n
i
)
<=30 2 3 0.971
3040 4 0 0
>40 3 2 0.971
971 . 0 ) 2 , 3 (
14
5
) 0 , 4 (
14
4
) 3 , 2 (
14
5
) (
= +
+ =
I
I I age E
048 . 0 ) _ (
151 . 0 ) (
029 . 0 ) (
=
=
=
rating credit Gain
student Gain
income Gain
) ( ) , ( ) ( age E n p I age Gain =
20
Gini Index (IBM IntelligentMiner)
If a data set T contains examples from n classes, gini index,
gini(T) is defined as
where p
j
is the relative frequency of class j in T.
If a data set T is split into two subsets T
1
and T
2
with sizes N
1
and N
2
respectively, the gini index of the split data contains
examples from n classes, the gini index gini(T) is defined as
The attribute provides the smallest gini
split
(T) is chosen to split
the node (need to enumerate all possible splitting points for
each attribute).
=
=
n
j
p
j
T gini
1
2
1 ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
1
1
T
gini
N
N
T
gini
N
N
T
gini
split
+ =
21
Extracting Classification Rules from
Trees
Represent the knowledge in the form of IFTHEN rules
One rule is created for each path from the root to a leaf
Each attributevalue pair along a path forms a
conjunction
The leaf node holds the class prediction
Rules are easier for humans to understand
Example
IF age = <=30 AND student = no THEN
buys_computer = no
IF age = <=30 AND student = yes THEN
buys_computer = yes
IF age = 3140 THEN buys_computer = yes
IF age = >40 AND credit_rating = excellent THEN
buys_computer = yes
IF age = <=30 AND credit_rating = fair THEN
buys_computer = no
22
Avoid Overfitting in Classification
The generated tree may overfit the training
data
Too many branches, some may reflect anomalies due
to noise or outliers
Result is in poor accuracy for unseen samples
Two approaches to avoid overfitting
Prepruning: Halt tree construction earlydo not split
a node if this would result in the goodness measure
falling below a threshold
Difficult to choose an appropriate threshold
Postpruning: Remove branches from a fully grown
treeget a sequence of progressively pruned trees
Use a set of data different from the training data to decide
which is the best pruned tree
23
Approaches to Determine the Final Tree
Size
Separate training (2/3) and testing (1/3) sets
Use cross validation, e.g., 10fold cross
validation
Use all the data for training
but apply a statistical test (e.g., chisquare) to
estimate whether expanding or pruning a node may
improve the entire distribution
Use minimum description length (MDL)
principle:
halting growth of the tree when the encoding is
minimized
24
Enhancements to basic decision tree
induction
Allow for continuousvalued attributes
Dynamically define new discretevalued attributes
that partition the continuous attribute value into a
discrete set of intervals
Handle missing attribute values
Assign the most common value of the attribute
Assign probability to each of the possible values
Attribute construction
Create new attributes based on existing ones that
are sparsely represented
This reduces fragmentation, repetition, and
replication
25
Classification in Large Databases
Classificationa classical problem extensively
studied by statisticians and machine learning
researchers
Scalability: Classifying data sets with millions
of examples and hundreds of attributes with
reasonable speed
Why decision tree induction in data mining?
relatively faster learning speed (than other
classification methods)
convertible to simple and easy to understand
classification rules
can use SQL queries for accessing databases
comparable classification accuracy with other
methods
26
Scalable Decision Tree Induction
Methods in Data Mining Studies
SLIQ (EDBT96 Mehta et al.)
builds an index for each attribute and only class list
and the current attribute list reside in memory
SPRINT (VLDB96 J. Shafer et al.)
constructs an attribute list data structure
PUBLIC (VLDB98 Rastogi & Shim)
integrates tree splitting and tree pruning: stop
growing the tree earlier
RainForest (VLDB98 Gehrke,
Ramakrishnan & Ganti)
separates the scalability aspects from the criteria
that determine the quality of the tree
builds an AVClist (attribute, value, class label)
27
Data CubeBased DecisionTree
Induction
Integration of generalization with decisiontree
induction (Kamber et al97).
Classification at primitive concept levels
E.g., precise temperature, humidity, outlook, etc.
Lowlevel concepts, scattered classes, bushy
classificationtrees
Semantic interpretation problems.
Cubebased multilevel classification
Relevance analysis at multilevels.
Informationgain analysis with dimension + level.
28
Presentation of Classification Results
29
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
30
Bayesian Classification: Why?
Probabilistic learning: Calculate explicit probabilities for
hypothesis, among the most practical approaches to
certain types of learning problems
Incremental: Each training example can incrementally
increase/decrease the probability that a hypothesis is
correct. Prior knowledge can be combined with
observed data.
Probabilistic prediction: Predict multiple hypotheses,
weighted by their probabilities
Standard: Even when Bayesian methods are
computationally intractable, they can provide a standard
of optimal decision making against which other methods
can be measured
31
Bayesian Theorem
Given training data D, posteriori probability of
a hypothesis h, P(hD) follows the Bayes
theorem
MAP (maximum posteriori) hypothesis
Practical difficulty: require initial knowledge of
many probabilities, significant computational
cost
) (
) ( )  (
)  (
D P
h P h D P
D h P =
. ) ( )  ( max arg )  ( max arg h P h D P
H h
D h P
H h
MAP
h
e
=
e
34
Bayesian classification
The classification problem may be formalized using
aposteriori probabilities:
P(CX) = prob. that the sample tuple
X=<x
1
,,x
k
> is of class C.
E.g. P(class=N  outlook=sunny,windy=true,)
Idea: assign to sample X the class label C such
that P(CX) is maximal
35
Estimating aposteriori probabilities
Bayes theorem:
P(CX) = P(XC)P(C) / P(X)
P(X) is constant for all classes
P(C) = relative freq of class C samples
C such that P(CX) is maximum =
C such that P(XC)P(C) is maximum
Problem: computing P(XC) is unfeasible!
36
Nave Bayesian Classification
Nave assumption: attribute independence
P(x
1
,,x
k
C) = P(x
1
C)P(x
k
C)
If ith attribute is categorical:
P(x
i
C) is estimated as the relative freq of
samples having value x
i
as ith attribute in class
C
If ith attribute is continuous:
P(x
i
C) is estimated thru a Gaussian density
function
Computationally easy in both cases
37
Playtennis example: estimating P(x
i
C)
Outlook Temperature Humidity Windy Class
sunny hot high false N
sunny hot high true N
overcast hot high false P
rain mild high false P
rain cool normal false P
rain cool normal true N
overcast cool normal true P
sunny mild high false N
sunny cool normal false P
rain mild normal false P
sunny mild normal true P
overcast mild high true P
overcast hot normal false P
rain mild high true N
outlook
P(sunnyp) = 2/9 P(sunnyn) = 3/5
P(overcastp) =
4/9
P(overcastn) = 0
P(rainp) = 3/9 P(rainn) = 2/5
temperature
P(hotp) = 2/9 P(hotn) = 2/5
P(mildp) = 4/9 P(mildn) = 2/5
P(coolp) = 3/9 P(cooln) = 1/5
humidity
P(highp) = 3/9 P(highn) = 4/5
P(normalp) =
6/9
P(normaln) =
2/5
windy
P(truep) = 3/9 P(truen) = 3/5
P(falsep) = 6/9 P(falsen) = 2/5
P(p) = 9/14
P(n) = 5/14
38
Playtennis example: classifying X
An unseen sample X = <rain, hot, high, false>
P(Xp)P(p) =
P(rainp)P(hotp)P(highp)P(falsep)P(p) =
3/92/93/96/99/14 = 0.010582
P(Xn)P(n) =
P(rainn)P(hotn)P(highn)P(falsen)P(n) =
2/52/54/52/55/14 = 0.018286
Sample X is classified in class n (dont play)
39
The independence hypothesis
makes computation possible
yields optimal classifiers when satisfied
but is seldom satisfied in practice, as
attributes (variables) are often correlated.
Attempts to overcome this limitation:
Bayesian networks, that combine Bayesian reasoning
with causal relationships between attributes
Decision trees, that reason on one attribute at the
time, considering most important attributes first
40
Bayesian Belief Networks (I)
Family
History
LungCancer
PositiveXRay
Smoker
Emphysema
Dyspnea
LC
~LC
(FH, S) (FH, ~S) (~FH, S) (~FH, ~S)
0.8
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.9
Bayesian Belief Networks
The conditional probability table
for the variable LungCancer
41
Bayesian Belief Networks (II)
Bayesian belief network allows a subset of the
variables conditionally independent
A graphical model of causal relationships
Several cases of learning Bayesian belief
networks
Given both network structure and all the variables:
easy
Given network structure but only some variables
When the network structure is not known in advance
42
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
43
Neural Networks
Advantages
prediction accuracy is generally high
robust, works when training examples contain errors
output may be discrete, realvalued, or a vector of
several discrete or realvalued attributes
fast evaluation of the learned target function
Criticism
long training time
difficult to understand the learned function (weights)
not easy to incorporate domain knowledge
44
A Neuron
The ndimensional input vector x is mapped into variable y by
means of the scalar product and a nonlinear function mapping
In hidden or output layer, the net input Ij to the unit j is
k

f
weighted
sum
Input
vector x
output y
Activation
function
weight
vector w
w
0
w
1
w
n
x
0
x
1
x
n
+ =
i
j i ij j
O w I u
Network Training
The ultimate objective of training
obtain a set of weights that makes almost all the
tuples in the training data classified correctly
Steps
Initialize weights with random values
Feed the input tuples into the network one by one
For each unit
Compute the net input to the unit as a linear combination of
all the inputs to the unit
Compute the output value using the activation function
Compute the error
Update the weights and the bias
MultiLayer Perceptron
Output nodes
Input nodes
Hidden nodes
Output vector
Input vector: x
i
w
ij
+ =
i
j i ij j
O w I u
j
I
j
e
O
+
=
1
1
) )( 1 (
j j j j j
O T O O Err =
jk
k
k j j j
w Err O O Err
= ) 1 (
i j ij ij
O Err l w w ) ( + =
j j j
Err l) ( + =u u
Oj(1Oj): derivative
of the sig. function
Ij: the net input
to the unit j
Oj: the output of
unit j
sigmoid function:
map Ij to [0..1]
Error of hid
den layer
Error of
output layer
l: learning
rate [0..1]
l: too small learning pace is too slow
too large oscillation between wrong solutions
Heuristic: l=1/t (t: # iterations through training set so far)
47
MultiLayer Perceptron
Case updating vs. epoch updating
Weights and biases are updated after presentation of
each sample vs.
Deltas are accumulated into variables throughout the
whole training examples and then update
Case updating is more common (more accurate)
Termination condition
Delta is too small (converge)
Accuracy of the current epoch is high enough
Prespecified number of epochs
In practice, hundreds of thousands of epochs
48
Example
Class label = 1
49
Example
) )( 1 (
j j j j j
O T O O Err =
+ =
i
j i ij j
O w I u
j
I
j
e
O
+
=
1
1
jk
k
k j j j
w Err O O Err
= ) 1 (
O=0.332
0.332
O=0.525
O=0.474
50
Example
i j ij ij
O Err l w w ) ( + =
j j j
Err l) ( + =u u
E=0.1311
O=0.332
E=0.0087
O=0.525
E=0.0065
52
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
53
AssociationBased Classification
Several methods for associationbased
classification
ARCS: Quantitative association mining and clustering
of association rules (Lent et al97)
Associative classification: (Liu et al98)
CAEP (Classification by aggregating emerging
patterns) (Dong et al99)
54
ARCS: Quantitative Association Rules
Revisited
age(X,3034) . income(X,24K 
48K)
buys(X,high resolution TV)
Numeric attributes are dynamically discretized
Such that the confidence or compactness of the rules mined is
maximized.
2D quantitative association rules: A
quan1
. A
quan2
A
cat
Cluster adjacent
association rules
to form general
rules using a 2D
grid.
Example:
55
ARCS
The clustered association rules were applied to
the classification
Accuracy were compared to C4.5
ARCS were slightly better than C4.5
Scalability
ARCS requires constant amount of memory
regardless of database size
C4.5 has exponentially higher execution times
56
AssociationBased Classification
Associative classification: (Liu et al98)
It mines high support and high confidence rules in the
form of cond_set => y
where y is a class label
Cond_set is a set of items
Regard y as one item in association rule mining
Support s%: if s% samples contain cond_set and y
Rules are accurate if
c% of samples that contain cond_set belong to y
Possible rule (PR)
If multiple rules have the same cond_set, choose the one with highest
confidence
Two steps
Step 1: find PRs
Step 2: construct a classifier: sort the rules based on confidence and
support
Classifying new sample: use the first rule matched
Default rule: for the new sample with no matched rule
Empirical study: more accurate than C4.5
57
AssociationBased Classification
CAEP (Classification by aggregating emerging patterns)
(Dong et al99)
Emerging patterns (EPs): the itemsets whose support
increases significantly from one class to another
C1: buys_computer = yes
C2: buys_computer = no
EP: {age <= 30, student = no}
Support on C1 = 0.2%
Support on C2 = 57.6%
Growth rate (GR) = 57.6% / 0.2% = 288
How to build a classifier
For each class C, find EPs satisfying support s and GR
GR: support on samples with C class vs. samples with nonC classes
Classifying a new sample X
For each class, calculate the score for C using EPs
Choose a class with the highest score
Empirical study: more accurate than C4.5
58
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
59
Other Classification Methods
knearest neighbor classifier
Casebased reasoning
Genetic algorithm
Rough set approach
Fuzzy set approaches
60
InstanceBased Methods
Instancebased learning:
Store training examples and delay the processing
(lazy evaluation) until a new instance must be
classified
Typical approaches
knearest neighbor approach
Instances represented as points in a Euclidean space.
Locally weighted regression
Constructs local approximation
Casebased reasoning
Uses symbolic representations and knowledgebased inference
61
The kNearest Neighbor Algorithm
All instances correspond to points in the nD space.
The nearest neighbor are defined in terms of Euclidean
distance.
The target function could be discrete or real valued.
For discretevalued, the kNN returns the most common
value among the k training examples nearest to xq.
Vonoroi diagram: the decision surface induced by 1NN
for a typical set of training examples.
.
_
+
_
xq
+
_
_
+
_
_
+
.
.
.
.
.
62
Discussion on the kNN Algorithm
The kNN algorithm for continuousvalued target
functions
Calculate the mean values of the k nearest neighbors
Distanceweighted nearest neighbor algorithm
Weight the contribution of each of the k neighbors
according to their distance to the query point xq
giving greater weight to closer neighbors
Similarly, for realvalued target functions
Robust to noisy data by averaging knearest neighbors
Curse of dimensionality: distance between neighbors
could be dominated by irrelevant attributes.
Assigning equal weight is a problem (vs. decision tree)
To overcome it, axes stretch or elimination of the least
relevant attributes.
w
d x
q
x
i
1
2
( , )
63
CaseBased Reasoning
Also uses: lazy evaluation + analyze similar instances
Difference: Instances are not points in a Euclidean
space
Example: Water faucet problem in CADET (Sycara et
al92)
Methodology
Instances represented by rich symbolic descriptions (e.g.,
function graphs)
Multiple retrieved cases may be combined
Tight coupling between case retrieval, knowledgebased
reasoning, and problem solving
Research issues
Indexing based on syntactic similarity measure, and when
failure, backtracking, and adapting to additional cases
64
Remarks on Lazy vs. Eager Learning
Instancebased learning: lazy evaluation
Decisiontree and Bayesian classification: eager
evaluation
Key differences
Lazy method may consider query instance xq when
deciding how to generalize beyond the training data D
Eager method cannot since they have already chosen
global approximation when seeing the query
Efficiency: Lazy  less time training but more time
predicting
Accuracy
Lazy method effectively uses a richer hypothesis space
since it uses many local linear functions to form its implicit
global approximation to the target function
Eager: must commit to a single hypothesis that covers the
entire instance space
65
Genetic Algorithms
GA: based on an analogy to biological evolution
Each rule is represented by a string of bits
An initial population is created consisting of randomly
generated rules
e.g., IF A1 and Not A2 then C2 can be encoded as 100
Based on the notion of survival of the fittest, a new
population is formed to consists of the fittest rules and
their offsprings
The fitness of a rule is represented by its classification
accuracy on a set of training examples
Offsprings are generated by crossover and mutation
66
Rough Set Approach
Rough sets are used to approximately or roughly
define equivalent classes
A rough set for a given class C is approximated by two
sets: a lower approximation (certain to be in C) and an
upper approximation (cannot be described as not
belonging to C)
Finding the minimal subsets (reducts) of attributes (for
feature reduction) is NPhard but a discernibility matrix
is used to reduce the computation intensity
67
Fuzzy Set Approaches
Fuzzy logic uses truth values between 0.0 and 1.0 to
represent the degree of membership (such as using
fuzzy membership graph)
Attribute values are converted to fuzzy values
e.g., income is mapped into the discrete categories {low,
medium, high} with fuzzy values calculated
For a given new sample, more than one fuzzy value
may apply
Each applicable rule contributes a vote for membership
in the categories
Typically, the truth values for each predicted category
are summed
68
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
69
What Is Prediction?
Prediction is similar to classification
First, construct a model
Second, use model to predict unknown value
Major method for prediction is regression
Linear and multiple regression
Nonlinear regression
Prediction is different from classification
Classification refers to predict categorical class label
Prediction models continuousvalued functions
70
Predictive Modeling in Databases
Predictive modeling: Predict data values or construct
generalized linear models based on the database data.
One can only predict value ranges or category
distributions
Method outline:
Minimal generalization
Attribute relevance analysis
Generalized linear model construction
Prediction
Determine the major factors which influence the
prediction
Data relevance analysis: uncertainty measurement,
entropy analysis, expert judgement, etc.
Multilevel prediction: drilldown and rollup analysis
71
Linear regression: Y = o +  X
Two parameters , o and  specify the line and are to be
estimated by using the data at hand.
using the least squares criterion to the known values of
Y1, Y2, , X1, X2, .
Multiple regression: Y = b0 + b1 X1 + b2 X2.
Many nonlinear functions can be transformed into the
above.
e.g., X1 = X, X2 = X
2
Regress Analysis and LogLinear
Models in Prediction
72
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
73
Classification Accuracy: Estimating
Error Rates
Partition: Trainingandtesting
use two independent data sets, e.g., training set (2/3),
test set(1/3)
used for data set with large number of samples
Crossvalidation
divide the data set into k subsamples S
1
, S
2
, , S
k
use k1 subsamples as training data and one subsample
as test data  kfold crossvalidation
1
st
iteration: S
2
, , S
k
for training, S
1
for test
2
nd
iteration: S
1
, S
3
, , S
k
for training, S
2
for test
Accuracy
= correct classifications from k iterations / # samples
for data set with moderate size
Stratified crossvalidation
Class distribution in each fold is similar with that of the total samples
Bootstrapping (leaveoneout)
for small size data
74
Bagging and Boosting
Bagging (Fig. 7.17)
Sample S
t
from S with replacement, then build
classifier C
t
Given symptom (test data), ask multiple doctors
(classifiers)
Voting
75
Bagging and Boosting
Boosting (Fig. 7.17)
Combining with weights instead of voting
Boosting increases classification accuracy
Applicable to decision trees or Bayesian classifier
Learn a series of classifiers, where each classifier in
the series pays more attention to the examples
misclassified by its predecessor
Boosting requires only linear time and constant
space
76
Boosting Technique (II) Algorithm
Assign every example an equal weight 1/N
For t = 1, 2, , T do
1. Obtain a hypothesis (classifier) h(t) under w(t)
2. Calculate the error of h(t) and reweight the
examples based on the error
3. Normalize w(t+1) to sum to 1
Output a weighted sum of all the hypothesis,
with each hypothesis weighted according to
its accuracy on the training set
Weight of classifiers, not that of examples
77
Chapter 7. Classification and Prediction
What is classification? What is prediction?
Issues regarding classification and prediction
Classification by decision tree induction
Bayesian Classification
Classification by backpropagation
Classification based on concepts from
association rule mining
Other Classification Methods
Prediction
Classification accuracy
Summary
78
Summary
Classification is an extensively studied
problem (mainly in statistics, machine learning
& neural networks)
Classification is probably one of the most
widely used data mining techniques with a lot
of extensions
Scalability is still an important issue for
database applications: thus combining
classification with database techniques should
be a promising topic
Research directions: classification of non
relational data, e.g., text, spatial, multimedia,
etc..