Introduction to Computers and IT

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Overview

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Overview

Basic Computer System 4/22/12

Overview
Computer (Def.): It is an electronic device that processes data and converts it into useful information. Computer Categorization for Individual User 1. Desktops – For general everyday use 2. Workstations – For those seeking high-performance systems 3. Laptops (or Notebooks) – For mobile individuals 4. Tablets – For mobile individuals who prefer a stylus 5. Handhelds (or PDAs) – For mobile individuals who seek a device small enough to fit in your hand 6. Smart Phones – For those who want their cell phones to do a PC’s job

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Overview
Computers for Organizations These are popularly known as servers. They may be one of the below types:
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Network Servers: This is a centralized computer to which other computers on a network are connected to for various reasons such as login authentication, processing, server applications, etc… When servers are set up in groups they are called clusters or server farms Mainframe Computers: This is a large, powerful system that can handle the processing needs of thousands of users at a time Users access mainframes through one of 2 types of terminals § Dumb Terminals– These are incapable of processing or storing data § Intelligent Terminals – These are capable of some processing only 4/22/12

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Hardware & Software

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Hardware & Software
Hardware: Refers to the physical components of a computer system. Software: Refers to the set of instructions that makes the computer perform tasks.

Information Processing Flow

Input

Process

Output

Storage

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Hardware & Software – Hardware Components
1.

2.

Motherboard • Main circuit board • All internal components are attached or connected in some way to it • Holds the processor, bus, memory sockets, expansion slots, and more • Acts as a conduit for power, and makes sure components can communicate Processor - Intel® Desktop Board DQ57TML • Example • Computer's brain that controls each program's functionality and speed • Processor speed is directly related to PC's overall performance • Faster processors enhance user's ability to run creative, entertainment, communication and productivity applications • Example - Intel® Core™ i7 Processor

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Hardware & Software – Hardware Components
3.

Memory • Random Access Memory (RAM) o Stores data temporarily o Example - Dell™ 1 GB Memory Module • ROM (Read Only Memory or firmware) o Stores data permanently o Is an integrated circuit programmed with specific data when it is manufactured o Example - Microchip™ EEPROM Memory Input Devices • Are devices that accept data and instructions from user / another system • Examples:o Logitech® diNovo Edge™ Keyboard o Logitech® Wireless Mouse M305 o Canon® CanoScan LiDE100 Scanner 4/22/12

4.

Hardware & Software – Hardware Components
5.

Output Devices • Are devices that present processed data to the user • Examples:o ViewSonic® VX2268wm LCD Monitor o HP® PSC 500 All-in-One Printer Storage Devices • Are devices that store data permanently even after the computer is switched off • Have high capacity • Can be classified as o Magnetic Storage – on magnetic disks o Examples:o Seagate® Barracuda® XT 2TB Desktop Hard Drive o Iomega® 250MB Zip Drive OR o Optical Storage – on optical discs o Examples – Imation Blu-ray 25GB BD-R Disc 4/22/12

6.

Types of Software: • Operating Systems • Application Software • Programming Software
1.

Hardware & Software – Software

Operating Systems •. Is a set of programs that regulate the ways o Application software uses computer hardware o Users control the computer •. Examples:o Microsoft ®Windows o Macintosh® OS o Unix o Linux

The link

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Hardware & Software – Software
2.

Application Software • Are programs that tell the computer how to perform specific tasks • Examples:o MS Office Package containing software like § Word Processor – MS Word § Spreadsheet – MS Excel § Database – MS Access § Presentation – MS PowerPoint o Image Editing – Adobe Photoshop o Games – MS Age of Empires o And many more software in various fields like educational, military, medical, simulation, business, etc…

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Hardware & Software – Software
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Programming Software • Are tools that assist a programmer in writing computer programs • Examples:o MS Visual Studio o Sun Java

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Networking

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Networking
Network: Refers to a set of technologies - including hardware, software and media – that can be used to connect computers together, enabling them to communicate, exchange information and share resources in realtime.

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Basic Network

Networking
Networks are needed for: • Storing data centrally • Example – Centralized Report Repository • Enabling access by multiple users • Facilitate running of critical programs for continuous access Network Server: • Is a central computer • Has large storage device • Contains shareable resources for users • Types:• File Server - Stores data files • Application Server - Stores application programs and handles processing Shared Peripheral Devices: Sometimes organizations share peripheral devices (like a laser printer) on a network to minimize cost and increase device utilization. Example: Cisco-Linksys WPS11 Wireless-B Print Server 4/22/12

Networking

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Multi-network Setup

Given below are the various types of networks: • Local Area Networks (LANs) • Wide Area Networks (WANs) • Hybrid Networks o Campus Area Networks (CANs) o Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) o Home Area Networks (HANs)

Networking – Types of networks

Covera ge Area LAN
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MA CAN N HAN

WA N

Data Transfer Rate

Note:

Networking – Types of networks
LAN consists of atleast 2 PCs and can exist in a small space HAN and CAN are variants or hybrids of LAN o HAN connects devices in a home o CAN connects offices and organizations MAN connects multiple corporate LANs together WAN o Consists of 2 or more LANs connected together across a wide geographical area o Is the largest form of network in the hierarchy

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Networking – Intranet
Intranet: • Refers to a company’s internal version of the internet • Uses web server software like the internet • Limits access to employees and select company-related personnel Few Benefits: • Real-time collaboration between departments and individuals • Effective Knowledge Management through participation and tracking • Distribution of company briefings for informational purposes • On-demand generation of various reports • Updating and publishing of corporate handbooks and policies with limited distributive effort • Linkage of press releases for real-time feedback • Publishing of necessary contact information for immediate access

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Networking – Extranet
Extranet: • Refers to a partially accessible company’s website for authorized users physically located outside the organization • Is accessible via logging in with a valid username and password • Provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders Benefits: • Contains the benefits of an intranet – but within a larger scope

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Server-based Network: • Consists of nodes (PCs or any other networked device) linked to a server • Users need to log onto the network • Each user has specific rights/permissions Client-Server Network: • Is a common type of server-based network • Contains individual PCs that share processing and storage workload with a central server • Example: • Database located on central server • Server application program on server PC • Client application programs on client PCs Peer-to-Peer Network: • All nodes have access to resources of other nodes to an extent • Group of nodes is called a workgroup

Networking – Network Structures

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Topology: It is the logical layout of cables and devices that connect nodes on a network Types of Topologies

Networking – Network Topology

Bus Star Ring Mesh

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Networking – Hardware
Network Media: • Wired o Twisted Pair Cable o Coaxial Cable o Fiber-optic Cable • Wireless • Use radio or infrared signals for data transmission

Network Interface Cards (NICs): • Also known as network adapter card or network card • Controls flow of data between the network and the PC • Is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that fits into an expansion slot • Provides port for network cable • View Image

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Hub:

Networking – Linking Devices

Connects PCs on a LAN • Broadcasts data to all other ports resulting in higher broadcast traffic Switch: • Connects PCs on a LAN • Does not broadcast data to all other ports resulting in decreased broadcast traffic • Is more popular than Hub Bridge: • Connects LANs • Directs data by following an older method of data re-direction Router: • Stores routing information for networks so that data can be directed to the correct node Classroom Exercise (5-7 mins): Find a model of a switch on the Amazon website and note down: - Manufacturer, Model, # of ports on the whiteboard 4/22/12

Networking – Technologies & Protocols
Technology Ethernet Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Also known as 10Base-T 100Base-T 1000Base-T Supports speeds upto 10Mbps 100Mbps 1000Mbps or 1 Gbps

Protocols: Describe standards for data exchange over a network • TCP/IP - Stands for o Transmission Control Protocol o Internet Protocol • IPX/SPX - Stands for o Internetwork Packet Exchange o Sequenced Packet Exchange • NetBIOS/NetBEUI - Stands for o Network Basic Input / Output System o NetBIOS Extended User Interface 4/22/12

Backup

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Wide Area Network

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Back

Network Interface Card

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Back

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