Computer Networks

Introduction A computer can consist of two computer connected together on a desk or it can consist of many Local Area Networks (LANs) connected together to form a Wide Area Network (WANs) across a continent. An arrangement of two or more inter connected computer is called a computer network.

Definition

When two or more autonomous computers are connected logically with the help of data communication devices and transmission media,then it is state of computer network. The basic purpose of making such a network is communication and resource sharing.

Advantages of computer Networks
Resource Sharing  To Reduce Cost or Saving Money  Improving the Performance  Provide Communication Medium

Resource Sharing

Major goal of computer network is Resource Sharing To make all programs,pheripherals and data available to anyone computer on the network to all other computer in the network without regard to the physical locations of them.

The price of small computer is very less as compared to main frames. . One goal of network to do same job in minimum cost in terms of money which is possible on large computers only which are very expensive.To Reduce Cost or Saving Money    Resource sharing automatically reduces cost and hence money can be saved.

The performance can be improved by adding one or more processors to it as the work load on it grows.Improving the Performance   Next goal of cmputer network is to improve accessibility as well as performance of a system. .

It makes speedy co-operation and enhances human-to-human communication. It is easy for two or more people living for apart to work on same project by portioning it using a network. .Provide Communication Medium    Anther goal of computer network is to provide a powerful communication medium among widely separated people.

Network models .

.Local area network (LAN)  A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home. or closely positioned group of buildings. computer laboratory. office building. school.

and air waves. using a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines. country.Wide area network (WAN)  A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city. or spans even intercontinental distances. . cables.

.Metropolitan area network  A Metropolitan area network is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus.

Network Components Networking Media Interconnecting Devices Computers Networking Software Applications .

Networking Media  Networking media can be defined simply as the means by which signals (data) are sent from one computer to another (either by cable or wireless means). .

Wireless Access Points. Switches. . Routers.Interconnecting Devices  HUB. Modems etc.

network services are located in a dedicated computer whose only function is to respond to the requests of clients. and other services in a central computer that is continuously available to respond to client requests.Computers: Clients and Servers In a client/server network arrangement. application. The server contains the file. . security. print.

Computers: Clients and Servers .

Networking Protocol: TCP/IP .

Applications E-mail Searchable Data (Web Sites) E-Commerce News Groups Internet Telephony (VoIP) Video Conferencing Chat Groups Instant Messengers Internet Radio .

 The data rate in LAN is Mbps i. .Local Area Network  LAN’s are networks that connect computers and resources together in a buildings that are close together.  It is made for an organization and most of the times it is within a single building. Mega bits per second.e.

Characteristics     Covers an area of less than 4 or 5 km Provides high speed data communication Physical interconnecting media is privately owned Low error rates or bugs  Uses simple data communication protocols .

Network Interface Card .scanner etc.Components of LAN   Computers Graphic stations     User terminal stations or workstations Cables Peripherals like plotter.printer.

Examples of LAN protocols       Ethernet frame types Media Access Control Layer Token Ring Logical Link Control Layer TCP/IP Asynchronous Transfer Mode .

WIDE AREA NETWORK .

Introduction   A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. a WAN consists of two or more local-area network(LAN) Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks. such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. . Typically. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

like VPN-based extranets. Finally.Definition:   A WAN spans a large geographic area. . such as local area networks (LANs) or metro area networks (MANs). many WANs are corporate or research networks that utilize leased lines. Some segments of the Internet. WANs often connect multiple smaller networks. The world's most popular WAN is the Internet. province or country. are also WANs in themselves. such as a state.

.Conti……  The wide area network. often referred to as a WAN. which provides communication within a restricted geographic area. This is in contrast to both the local area network and the metropolitan area network. is a communications network that makes use of existing technology to connect local computer networks into a larger working network that may cover both national and international locations.

When a dedicated connection is used.WAN links are usually:    Dial up connection Dedicated connection . Switched network .It is a permanent full time connection. the cable is leased rather than a part of the cable bandwidth and the user has exclusive use.Several users share the same line or the bandwidth of the line. .

.. WAN provide the facility to communicate in long distance for the purposes of sharing information.e internet is good example of WAN. i.Advantages of a WAN   According to WAN Network we can communicate with different networks whose "net id" is unique.

It costs a fortune. . these explosions may kill people.Disadvantages of a WAN   The main disadvantage is that too much internet connection at on time will cause the wires to explede.

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK METROPOLITAN (MAN) AREA NETWORK (MAN) .

DEFINITION It is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN) .

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although in some cases MANs may be as small as a group of buildings .Important features which discriminate MANs from LANs or WANs The network size falls intermediate between LANs & WANs A MAN typically covers an area of between 5 to 50 km range Many MANs cover an area of the size of a city.

its communications links and equipment are generally owned by either a consortium of users or by a network service provider who sells the service to the users .A MAN (like a WAN) is not generally owned by a single organisation The MAN.

A MAN often acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of regional resourses It is also frequently used to provide a shared connection to others networks using a link to a WAN .

Implementation of MAN provides transfer rates from 34Mbps to 150Mbps. which is not very slow as compared to LAN The protocols that are used for MANs are quite different from those used for LANs MAN uses dual queue dual bus protocol (DQDB) .

MAN use broad band cables as transmission media. In some cases they also use fiber optical cable as their transmission media .

MAN adopted technologies from both LAN & WAN to serve its purpose Some technologies used for MAN are ATM. DQDB & SMDS . FDDI.

The key MAN protocols & technologies ATM : Asynchronous Transfer Mode DQDB: Distributed Queue Dual Bus FDDI : Fiber Distributed Data Interface SMDS : Switched Multimegabit Data Service .

hence cost effective Can send local emails .ADVANTAGES Sharing of resources such as printers.

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