THE EFFECTS OF PROCESSING AND COLLABORATIVE RECALL ON FALSE MEMORY

A Presentation Proposal February 14, 2008 PHAN 313

RESEARCH PROBLEM:

Does pairing superficial level processing with collaborative efforts would lead to a higher rate of falsely recalling not listed words?

HYPOTHESIS:

Pairing superficial level processing with collaborative efforts would lead to a higher rate of false recalling not listed words

VARIABLES

Levels of Processing – the encoding strategy process that is either deep of shallow that will be use by the participants

Deep level processing – the participants will be ask to remember all the words in the list by thinking the definition of the word Superficial – the participants will be ask to remember all the words in the list by counting the number of syllables of each word No instruction – the participants will not be ask to use any encoding strategy

VARIABLES
Collaboration

Alone – the participant alone will try to remember all the words in the list presented Pair – the participant, together with a pair must collaborate to remember all the words in the list presented

RELATED LITERATURE

On False Memories (General)  Deese (1959) due to his interest in the false recall of a non-listed word from a list of words that are related to this critical word, developed 36 lists containing 12 words per list.

Deese showed Subjects were lured to falsely recalling the non-listed word due to the backward association of the subjects with the listed words and the non-listed words

ON FALSE MEMORIES

Roediger and McDermott (1995) adapted Deese’s paradigm (1959). They added additional words on each list making it a 15-word list, instead of a 12word list that It was found out that that a list of 15 words was able to produce more instances to recall the not presented words than a list of 12 words that Deese have developed. Results also show that the level of confidence that the word was presented was high Through the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) Paradigm, false memories were able to be essentially quantified.

LEVELS OF PROCESSING

Craik and Lockhart (1972) explains the occurrence of false memories using the levelsof-processing model. The premise of this model is that “deep”-level process (e.g. thinking about meanings of the word) would produce more accurate recollection and in turn would produce less false memories. Whereas, “superficial”-level processing (e.g. counting the vowels of the word) would lead to poor memory performance.

LEVELS OF PROCESSING

Rhodes and Anastasi’s (2000) findings were parallel, as well as, contrary to the levels-ofprocessing model that suggests that deeperlevel processing would yield a more accurate recalls. It is parallel because through the deeper-level processing, participants were able to recall more words listed, but on the contrary, they also were able to falsely recall the critical not-listed word

COLLABORATION

Takahashi (2007) used collaborative inhibition to try to prove that nominal recall (a pair working individually) yields better memory results than collaborative recall (a pair working together). It is an adoption of Basden, Basden, Thomas, Sophasith’s (1998) findings that collaborative recall, when compared to nominal recall, yields fewer presented words but gave more not presented words.

COLLABORATION

Basden et al mentioned that social loafing within the group have caused more false recalls among each group. Collaboration increases errors in recall when strong retrieval cues are present, so that cue-to-instance associative errors are likely, and there is group pressure to output items Takahashi (2007) found out that collaboratively recalling produced less correct and false answers throughout the experimental groups, but it was inconsistent with what Basden et al (1998) has proposed

METHOD

Subject:
 One

hundred fifty-three Introductory

Psychology Students from University of the Philippines – Diliman will be participating in this study in partial fulfillment of course requirements.
 17

-18 participants for Alone Conditions pairs for the Pair Conditions

 17-18

MATERIALS

Eight word list adapted from the Roediger and McDermott (1995) study.

 

Audio Tape Player Writing materials such as pens and sheet of paper.

Fish bowl containing the names of the participants that will be use to determine the pairing of the participants.

PROCEDURE

PROCEDURE: IN ALL CONDITIONS

Participants will be presented with eight list of 15 words in a consistent order through the use of a previously recorded tape

After each list is presented, there will be a oneminute pause followed by the word “recall”.

Upon hearing the word “recall”, the participants would be asked to recall words on the list as much as they can

They have to write the words they remember on the sheet of paper provided

PROCEDURE EACH CONDITION

In Alone-No instruction condition, the participant will be asked to recall as much words as they can using no encoding strategy. In Pair- No Instruction Condition, together with their pair, the participants must collaborate in recalling as much word as they can using no encoding strategy. .

PROCEDURE EACH CONDITION

In Alone-Superficial Condition, the participant will be given a strategic cognitive process by asking them to count the number of syllables of the words presented that would help them remember the words in the list In Pair-Superficial Condition, the pairs will be given a strategic cognitive process by asking them to count the number of syllables of the words presented that would help them remember the words in the list. Together with the pair, they must collaborate to recall the words on the list.

PROCEDURE EACH CONDITION

In Alone-Deep Level Condition, the participant swill be given a strategic cognitive process by asking them to think the definition of the presented word.

In Pair-Deep Level Condition, same procedure applies. However, they will be randomly assigned to a pair whom they will collaborate with in recalling the words.

Thank

you for listening and Happy Valentines to all!

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