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The Microscope:

Parts of, Use of, Care for and Workings of

High School Biology Class

The Compound Microscope
Is used to make the small, fine
details of objects visible to the
human eye.
The First Microscope
Was made by Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
The First Compound Microscope
Was made by Robert Hooke.
The Basic H.S. Microscope
Used the reflection of light off mirrors
as a light source.
The Modern Day Microscope
Has come a long way in the last
300 years with new technology.
I. The Parts of a Microscope

“Learning the parts of a microscope

is like learning about the parts of a
 Eyepiece
 Body Tube
 Arm
 Nosepiece
 Stage Clips
 Objectives
 Stage Stop
 Aperture
 Stage
 Coarse Adjustment Knob
 Diaphragm
 Light Source
 Fine Adjustment Knob
 Power Switch
 Base
II. The Use of a Microscope

“Learning how to use a microscope is

like learning how to drive a car.”
Proper Use of Microscope
1. When moving your microscope, always
carry it with two hands. Grasp the arm with
one hand and place your other hand under
the base for support.

2. Turn the nosepiece so that the lowest

power objective lens is "clicked" into
position and make sure stage is lowered.
3. Place a microscope slide onto the
stage and fasten it with the stage clips.
Carefully move the specimen to the
center of the stage (above the

4. Look through the eyepiece and adjust

the light intensity by turning the
diaphragm to allow the greatest amount
of light to shine through.
5. Looking from the side slowly turn the
coarse adjustment knob so that the
stage comes up almost to the lens.

6. Use the coarse adjustment knob to

focus the image as you move the stage
down and away from the lens. Stop
when the image is clear.
7. Readjust the microscope slide so that
the image is in the center of the
aperture and readjust the diaphragm for
the clearest image.

8. Change to the next objective lens by

“clicking” it into position. Use ONLY the
fine adjustment knob to bring it back
into focus.
9. Switch to the next objective lens by
“clicking” it into position. Again ONLY
use the fine adjustment knob to focus.

10. When finished, lower the stage, “click”

the lowest objective lens into position,
remove the slide, wrap up the power
cord, and carry it safely to the shelf.
III. The Care for a Microscope

.”“You Break It, You Buy It!”

(These are expensive tools.)
Microscope Rules
 Set the microscope at least 4 inches from the
edge of the desk or table.

 Check over the microscope before you start

to use it (report any problems to the teacher).

 Plug-in the cord and keep it out of your way.

Microscope Rules
 Do not lean on the desk or table and do not
make any sudden movements.

 Be careful with all microscope slides, they

are made of glass and can harm you.

 Let me know if something happens.

IV. The Workings of a Microscope

“Some helpful and interesting tips.”

The Lenses
Are used for
(enlargement of
the object) and
(making the
object clearer).
Magnification of Objects
To determine how much larger an object appears:

(Multiply the eyepiece lens times objective lens.)

Eyepiece x Objective = Total Magnification

Magnification of Objects
1. Eyepiece = 10X

3. Objectives:
Low power = 4X
Medium power = 10X
High power = 40X
Sample Problem

 If
the ocular is 10X and the objective is 43X,
what is the total magnification?

(Eyepiece 10X) X (Objective 43X) = ______
Resolution of Objects

1. Objects always appear inverted and reversed.

(upside down and backwards)

* If an “e” is placed in the stage in its normal

position it will appear…

2. Only a thin layer of the object can be in

focus at one time. (depth of focus)
Resolution of Objects
Non-Living Specimens
Low power  medium power  high power

d. Size of the field of view decreases

e. Field of view is darker
f. Size of the image increases
g. Resolution increases
h. Working distance decreases
Resolution of Objects
Living Specimens

♦ Actual movement is opposite to appeared

direction of movement. (If it looks like its
going to the Right it’s really going to the Left.

♦ Similarly if it appears to move Up it’s actually

moving Down.
Any Questions?

 “Ilike a teacher who gives you something to

take home to think about besides
homework.” --Lily Tomlin

 “Hardwork, dedication and desire don’t

guarantee you a thing, but without them
you don’t stand a chance.” --Pat Riley