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Buena, April Elazegui, Eugene Familara, Khei Suguitan, Monique Villanueva, Betina Yu, Carl

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The male reproductive system comprises the:

Testes Excretory ducts Accessory glands Penis

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The genital duct system includes the:

Tibuli recti Rete testis Ductuli efferentes Ductus epididymis Ductus vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Auxillary glands: Seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands


Auxillary glands
Seminal fluids with spermatozoa

gland with double function (both exocrine and endocrine) ovoid in shape

pendulous bag of skin with an incomplete layer of smooth muscle a small amount of loose, subcutaneous areolar connective tissue without fat cells

suspended within the scrotum surrounded by 3 layers:


Tunica vaginalis
single layer of attenuated mesothelial cells


Tunica albuginea
middle and most prominent layer


Tunica vasculosa
network of blood vessels

Testicular lobule
thin fibrous partitions radiate from mediastinum testis to the capsule

Seminiferous tubules
embedded in a loose connective tissue stroma containing vessels, nerves and several types of cells principally the interstitial cells of Leydig constitute the exocrine or cytogenic portion of the gland

Tubuli recti
Straight tubule, first part of a system of excretory ducts

In the wall of the tubule: Germinal or Seminiferous epithelium

lining of a complex stratified epithelium

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Thin basal lamina Tunica propia

Seminiferous epithelium
Adult: lined by a complex stratified epithelium composed of two distinctc categories of cells:


Supporting cells or Sustentacular cells of Sertoli

few in number spaced along the tubule at fairly regular intervals crowded between the spermatogenic cells tall, basically columnar, pillar like cells

Sertoli cells

receptor sites for FSH increased synthesis and secretion of androgen-binding

Spermatogenic cells
interspersed between the Sertoli cells lie in an orderly manner with four to eight layers occupying the space between the basal lamina and the lumen


comprises the entire sequency of events by which spermatogonia are transformed into spermatozoa


the most primitive spermatogonia proliferate by mitotic division to replace themselves and to give rise to several successive generations of spermatogonia, each being more differentiated than the preceeding last generation of spermatogonia yield spermatocyte

2 major types of spermatogonia: 1. Type A spermatogonia:

spherical or ovoid nuclei possessing either a dark or pale nucleoplasm

subdivided by nuclear characteristics:

Type A dark and Type A pale varieties:

reservoir of stem cells and by mitotic activity. give rise to Type B


Type B spermatogonia
more spherical nuclei

produce daughter cells -> primary spermatocytes when they divide by mitosis primary spermatocytes largest germ cells nucleus is usually in some stage of karyokinesis

cytological transformations leading to the formation of spermatozoa

refers to differentiation of spermatozoa from spermatids whereas spermatogenesis refers to the entire process of forming spermatozoa from spermatogonia

The Mature Spermatozoa Spaertozoa

slender, motile flagellate bodies total length of 55 to 56 um formed in enormous numbers

in single ejaculation, 200 to 600 million sperms may be present. Mature human spermatozoon
actively motile, free swimming cell Head Tail is composed of the following parts in sequence:
1. 2. 3. Neck or connecting piece Middle piece End piece


flattened, oval body with a length of 4 to 5 um and a maximal width of about 3 um nucleus is usually dense
Neck short region Connects the head of the sperm with the middle piece

B. Tail
has a core with the typical structure of a flagellum or elongated cilium the principal end is a relatively short and slender terminal segment having the typical appearance of a flagellum with 2 single microtubules surrounded by nine doublets principal piece is the longest portion of the tail.

Interstitial Tissue
spaces between the seminiferous tubules in the testis filled with accumulations of connective tissue, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels irregularly polyhedral, closely packed and occuring in clusters

The principal endocrine secretion of the testis is testosterone produced by interstitial cells of Leydig. The principal exocrine function of the testis, the production of male sex cells, is dependent upon numerous factors.

Semen (Seminal Fluid) is a whitish opaque fluid containing about 100 million spermatozoa in 1 ml seminal plasma, spermatozoa and some cells cast off from the lining of the reproductive ducts and glands

average volume of the ejaculate in man is about 3.5 ml

Semen (Seminal Fluid)

degenerated and columnar epithelial cells and wandering cells of connective tissue
round hyaline bodies, lipid granules, prostatic concretions, fat, protein and pigment granules are also found


recti Rete testis Ductuli efferentes Epididymis Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct

short straight continuation of the seminiferous tubules at the apex of testicular lobule spermatogenic cells disappear and Sertoli cells remain numerous fat droplets

rests upon a basal lamina and the surrounding loose connective tissue is devoid of smooth muscle cells

Network of anastomosing channels Lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium that varies in height No definite lamina propria Myoid cells: straight tubules, but no smooth muscles Some scattered bundles of smooth muscles between the rete channel

Arise from the rete and emerge on the surface of the testis Tortuously convoluted into an equal number of vascular cones (coni vasculosi) surrounded by a thicker muscle layer Possess the only motile cilia in the entire duct system

Medium for sperm Site of resorption of much of the potassium-bicarbonate rich fluid

groups of high columnar cells alternating with groups of low columnar cells Rests on a distinct basal lamina surrounded by a lamina propria of connective tissue Some are ciliated

Ciliated and non ciliated often contain lipid droplets and pigment granules Tall columnar cells have a dense acidophil cytoplasm and many are ciliated Non ciliated columnar cells have a more complex cytoplasm and more electron dense-covered with microvilli coated with glycocalyx (to absorb fluids)


irregular contour with low cells lining crypt-like depressions or pockets.

a relatively smooth contour and is not affected by the alternating height of the cells

surface of the tubule


border of the tubules

Formed by the fusion of convoluted tubules or coni-vasculosi Surrounded by connective tissue Single elongated storage duct

Tall epididymis is the principal storage of sperm where they acquire motility and optimal fertilizability

Lined with pseudo stratified columnar epithelium:


Tall but gradually becoming lower Cauda epididymis are low columnar or cuboidal Free surface tuft of very long branching non motile cilia (stereocilia) abundant in microvilli but lack microtubules and basal bodies of cilia Cuboidal

Nurture and maturation of the spermatozoa Head: active in fluid resorption Tail: forms a storage compartment that contracts vigorously during ejaculation


Small round or pyramidal cells Cytoplasm has little affinity for stains Few organelles Lipid droplets are common HALO CELLS: Small cells with pale cytoplasm and dark nuclei

Outside the epithelium of the epididymis Exhibits a gradual increase in thickness Three layered coat in the tail Undergoes spontaneous rhythmic peristalsis that transport the sperm cells slowly Less regularly arranged than in the ductus deferens

Straight tube and a direct continuation of the epididymis Coiled then straightens and passes into the abdominal cavity Lies within the spermatic cord



ductus deferens, spermatic artery, pampiniform plexus of veins and nerves of the spermatic plexus enclosed by the crenaster muscle: a discontinuous layer of loose longitudinal strands of striated muscle


spindle-shaped/fusiform enlargement lumen: wider mucosa: more folded epithelial folds branch and fuse with each other producing a number of pocket-like receivers or crypts (extend as tubular structure into the underlying connective tissue) simple epithelium may show evidence of secretion contain yellow pigment granules


a. Mucosa b. Muscularis c. Adventitia/fibrosa



Lined by a pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium Surface cells: lower Stereocilia: variable distribution (sometimes absent, sometimes present) Cytoplasmic granules: fewer Connective tissue: abundant elastic fibers and numerous blood vessels Thrown into several longitudinal folds Lumen shows a highly irregular outline (star shaped)


Thickest coat Consists of 3 smooth muscular layer:

inner longitudinal (relatively thin) middle circular (highly developed) outer longitudinal (highly developed)



Consists of fibro-elastic connective tissue Numerous blood vessels, nerves and scattered bundles of smooth muscle fibers Merges with the surrounding connective tissue without definite demarcation

Short, terminal segment of each genital duct system Formed by the junction of the ampulla and excretory duct of the seminal vesicle penetrates the prostate gland and empty into the urethra on either side of the prostatic utricle have thin mucous membrane thrown into numerous fine folds with glandular recesses


simple columnar or pseudo stratified columnar (capable of secretion) Beneath the epithelium is a rich network of elastic fibers



present only at the beginning disappears and replaced by the fibromuscular tissue of the prostate gland in the prostatic portion


vesicle Prostate gland Bulbo urethral gland

Elongated, convoluted sacs with numerous diverticula or lateral out pocketing that open into the ductus deferens Walls is basically similar to that of the ampulla of the ductus deferens, except it is thinner and its mucosa is thrown into more complicated folds, forming numerous irregular chambers or crypts

Lining epithelium: pseudo stratified columnar non-striated or simple columnar Centrioles are located just beneath the surface giving rise to central flagella Contain numerous granules and clumps of yellow lipochrome pigments Atrophy in the absence of testosterone

a slightly yellow viscous liquid appears in portions as coagulated, netlike, deeply staining masses in the lumen contains globulin and rich in Vitamin C and fructose and metabolites

Tunica Propria
areolar connective tissue sending prolongations to form the corium of the ucosal folds rich in elastic fibers and contains some smooth muscle cells

Muscular Coat
composed of smooth muscle: indistinct inner circular and outer longitudinal layers (both layers are thinner tha the ductus deferns) wall contains a plexus of nerve fibers and a small lymphatic ganglia outer fibrous coat is areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels, nerves and ganglia

Where spermatozoa are often seen (but not a site of storage for spermatozoa) A gland secreting and storing the slightly alkaline viscid component of the seminal fluid

Unpaired gland surrounding the urethra Aggregate of 30 to 50 small compound tubulealveolar glands that drain by small excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra Dependent on the hormonal secretion of the testis for maintenance of its secretory activity Derived from a series of small periurethral glands and a series of lobules Can be separated into a central portion of short glands and a more peripheral portion (tubulealveolar glands)

Surrounded by a fibro-elastic capsule containing extensive plexus veins Numerous strands of smooth muscle fibers Fibromuscular septa: divides the gland imperfectly into lobes and lobules

Secreting alveoli
Lined by simple columnar epithelium or pseudostraitified columnar non-ciliated No distinct basal lamina and epithelium is very folded Lining epithelium is drawn into irregular projections into the lumen dividing it into compartments hat communicate with each other Cytoplasm contains numerous secretory granules Become smaller and disappears after castration

Tissue secreting large amount of glycoprotein Great abundance of slightly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and a well-developed golgi complex Secretion granules tend to be flocculent

Prostatic calculi (prostatic concretion or corpora amylacea)

Desquamated epithelial cells and spherical ellipsoid concentrically lamellated bodies in the lumen of the alveoli Originate through condensation of the secretion which may become calcified Fresh condition: fairly soft and yellowish brown in color Concentric layers composed of protein and carbohydrates that stain with different intensities

Stroma of the prostate

Abundant Consists of dense connective tissue with collageous fibers, elastic networks and smooth muscle fibers arranged in strands of different thickness Richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves (especially genital corpuscles and ganglia Fibromascular stroma: rich in smooth muscle which separates the alveoli

Duct system
Narrow and smooth lumen and more regular contour Larger ducts: lined by a simple columnar epithelium become lined by transitional epithelium as they open into the urethra

Duct system
Raised central portion where the ejaculatory ducts and ducts of the peripheral prostatic tubules enter the urethra

Duct system
Small vesicle that is the remnant of the Mullerian duct in the prostate


Thin serous milky fluid added to the fluid medium of the spermatozoa Thin opalescent liquid with slightly acid reaction Low protein content, several enzymes and fibrinolysin Main source of citric acid and acid phosphatase of the semen Discharged by the contraction of the smooth muscle during ejaculation but some are discharged with the urine

Prostate gland proper: site of predilection for the occurrence of cancer Secretory cells: dependent on androgen

(Cowpers Gland)
Two small glandular structures close the bulb of the urethra Compound tubule alveolar glands
Tubules and ducts have an irregular diameter

Lined by a simple epithelium (height varies from columnar to low cuboidal or may be even flat in distended alveoli

Nuclei are basally placed Cytoplasm containing mucinogen droplets

Secrete a glairly substance resembling the mucus into the urethra (serves as lubricant for the epithelium) Stain darker with eosin often containing fibrillar or spindle shaped inclusions

Smaller ducts
Lined by a simple epithelium and seen to be secretory in character Unite to form two main ducts that run parallel to the urethra

Main duct: stratified columnar epithelium

Preputial Glantis of Tyson

Constitute a type of sebaceous gland not associated with hair follicle Located on the inner surface of the prepuce Secretory product forms part of the smegma

Consist of 3 cylindrical masses of erectile tissue

Pair of corpora cavernosa Unpaired corpus spongiosum (corpus cavernosum urethra)
Surrounds the urethra Lies ventrally to terminate distally in a conical enlargement (GLANS PENIS)

Cylindrical columns
Enclosed in the fascia of loose elastic fibers (where skin is attached loosely)

Erectile tissue has a dense venous plexus Albuginea is lacking Skin is firmly attached to the underlying erectile tissue

Each corpus is surrounded by a thick fibrous capsule the tunica albuginea Collagenous fibers: outer longitudinal and inner circular layer with some elastic layer

Pectiniform septum
Tunica albuginea is fused forming an incomplete fibrous partition between the corposa cavernosa Pierced by clefts through which there is communication between the cavernose spaces of both sides

Small veins (cavernous veins)

Layer of dense connective tissue that drains the cavernous space on the inner surface of the albuginea

Cavernous spaces
Large but gradually demish in size towrd the periphery Central zone of the cavernous bodies

Partitions consists of dense fibrous tissue containing fibroblasts, collagenous bundles and strands of smooth muscle fibers Lined with endothelium that is continuous with the arteries and veins

Corpus spongiosum (corpus cavernous urethra)

Similar structure Albuginea is thin and contains elastic fibers (not highly resistant on expansion) Inner layer: circularly arranged smooth muscle fibers Trabeculae: thin, more elastic fibers Lacunae: quite uniform in size and a peripheral layer of smaller lacunae is absent Smooth fibers: scarce

Seminal plasma
serves as an energy source and vehicle for spermatozoa
consists of the secretions of the prostate seminal vesicles, bulbo-urethral glands and the epididymis


Seminal components discharged from the urethras sequence:




During erection, bulbourethral glands and the glands of Littre are discharge that their mucous secretion that lubricates the cavernous urethra. During actual ejaculation, prostate discharge first its abundant liquid secretion that reduces acidity of the urethra. Expulsion of the sperm cells from the ductus epididymis and the ductus deferens by the powerful contraction of the muscular wall. Thick secretion of the seminal vesicles which contains fructose and is nutrient to the sperm.