Ground Effect Vehicles: Mass Transport Solution for Indian Coastal Logistics and Coastal Defense


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HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT . “Pelican” Container Cargo Aircraft BOEING PHANTOM WORKS. Rostislav Evgenievich Alexeyev Alexander Martin Lippisch Ekranoplans and the transport industry EFFECT OF ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY MILITARY APPLICATION TECHNO-ECONOMIC FESIBILITY. CONCLUSION

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called ground effect . it is floating on a cushion of relatively high-pressure air between its wing and the water surface.    For many centuries man has been travelling over the worlds seas at ever increasing speeds. It is very unlikely that any "conventional" marine craft will be able to operate at much higher speeds with acceptable fuel efficiency. New generations of ships are often faster than the ones they replace. A WIG boat is a boat with wings that cruises just above the water surface. This cushion is created by the aerodynamic interaction between the wing and the surface. well over 50% of the drag is caused by water friction. The excessive power requirement of high speed marine craft is mainly caused by viscous drag.

It is the ultimate low-drag marine craft. . Is also known as a WIGE (Wing-in-Ground Effect). but inefficiently as compared to aircraft. Some WIG vehicles have the ability to fly without ground effect as well.     A Wing-in-Ground effect craft (WIG) is a vessel with wings that cruises just above the water surface. it is floating on a cushion of relatively high-pressure air between its wing and the water surface. or a Wingship. sea-based platform. It is a very high-speed.

A WIG boat can be seen as a crossover between a hovercraft and an aircraft. plan = plane). . forming an air cushion. It just wants to go on and on due to the air that is trapped between the wing and the runway. This phenomenon is called (aerodynamic) ground effect.  WIG is an abbreviation of Wing In Ground-effect. It flies just above the surface. Ever since the beginning of manned flight pilots have experienced something strange when landing an aircraft. therefore others use the term WISE or WISES (Wing In Surface Effect Ship). The Russians use the word Ekranoplan (Ekran = screen. Just before touchdown it suddenly feels like the aircraft just does not want to go lower. which is also commonly used in other languages nowadays. The air cushion is best felt in low wing aircraft with large wing areas. usually the water surface.

     Lift induced drag is due to the generation of lift. Span dominated ground effect. The amount of induced drag is dependent on the spanwise lift distribution and the aspect ratio of the wing A high aspect ratio wing has lower induced drag than a low aspect ratio wing since its wingtip vortices are weaker. in free air the vortices around the wing tips have more space to develop than when they are bounded by the ground . The wingtip vortex causes The energy that is stored in those vortices to be lost and is experienced by the aircraft as drag. The average pressure difference times the surface area of the wing is equal to the lift force.

When the ground distance becomes very small the air can even stagnate under the wing. This has been confirmed by wind tunnel tests. in that case a venturi is created between the foil and the ground where high-speed low-pressure air sucks the airfoil down . giving the highest possible pressure. The nose suction peek is also somewhat more pronounced in ground effect.   The air cushion is created by high pressure that builds up under the wing when the ground is approached. It is possible under certain conditions that lift reduces when an airfoil approaches the ground. which indicates that separation is likely to occur at the nose. pressure coefficient unity. This is sometimes reffered to as ram effect or ram pressure. Ground effect not always increases lift. This is the case when the bottom of the foil is convex and the angle of incidence is low.

• The higher this ratio. but even a slight increase still leads to an increased L/D ratio. Different vehicles have been indicated in the diagram ranging from a bicycle to the The Von Karman . • The L/D ration is commonly used to express the efficiency of a vehicle. the higher its efficiency and the lower its fuel consumption (for a given weight).Gabrielli diagram concorde . In this diagram the L/D is given as a function of the speed. As the L/D of a wing increases with decreasing ground clearance the craft becomes more efficient in ground effect • Different transport vehicles can be compared with the Von Karman-Gabrielli diagram.L/D RATIO AND VARIOUS TYPES OF CURVES • The lift increases when the ground is approached and because of the increasing lift the induced drag may not even decrease in absolute numbers.

• Fuel efficiency. is proportional to the inverse of the transport efficiency. which is a measure for the efficiency that is especially suitable for comparing different types of transport vehicles operating at different speeds. EFFICIENCY COMPARISION WITH DIFFERENT MODES . expressed as the P/W ratio is very low for WIG boats as compared to other forms of transport as explained in the graph below. • The cruise power per unit weight. the amount of fuel used per passenger per km. Full advantage of this very low power requirement in cruise flight can only be obtained when the installed power comes down towards the cruise power so that the engines run at their optimum rating at cruise setting.

which was assumed to be good in ground effect. A concave bottomed wing section leads to very poor longitudinal stability: it further exaggerates the abovementioned pitch up tendency . • A very popular wing section used to be the Clark Y section. • Section is defined in terms of a camber line and a thickness distribution • In ground effect the shape of the lower side of the wing is very important.WING STRUCTURE • The commonly known wing sections for aircraft the NACA sections. • More recent and advanced WIG designs always have wing sections that have been optimized for that specific craft. either hydrodynamic or aerodynamic. because of its flat bottom. In many cases designers opt for a flat lower side because a convex lower side may in certain situations lead to suction at the lower side.

by their nature. the most significant of which are the hydrodynamic contributions due to viscous and wave pattern drag. since WIG boats. • The extra power cannot be used for increasing the cruise speed. It may be clear that the power mismatch can be solved by minimizing take-off drag. This maximum is sometimes referred to as the hump drag and the associated speed as the hump speed . This means that the engines must be sized for take-off and only run on very low power in cruise.DRAG HUMP DIAGRAM • For WIG boats the drag in the take-off run is much higher than the drag at cruise speed. For most WIG boats there is a maximum safe speed above which they become unstable. As a result the wave drag has a maximum somewhere before take-off. The drag during take-off consists of several contributions. Although this is an illustration of the efficiency of flying in ground effect. sometimes as low as 30-40%. it is not very desirable because of the weight and cost penalty. This wave becomes higher as the speed increases and lower as the displacement decreases. have a very limited speed range.

This air cushion supports 80% of the weight even when stationary. recreates a lift that decreases the displacement of the craft.3 times more power than necessary for ground effect cruise. • The hydrodynamic regime has four different phases. • The Russian ekranoplans have been successfully using the power augmentation as a take off aid. which raises the weight and the operating expenses. jet blowing under the bow engines is deflected under the wing. • Flugmechanik designers who deflected a small portion of the propeller stream is deflected and guided between the catamaran hull where a static air cushion is built up. thus requirement power for a short time only. It causes the transition from the hydrodynamic to the aerodynamic regime. • To overcome the hump-drag even the best surfaces require approximately 2. • • • • Displacement regime Transition regime Pure planing And planing by dynamic support of the power augmentation or air cushion. .TAKE – OFF • Takeoff is a very critical regime for the WIG craft.

. but this severely limits the maximum speed. This way the lift coefficient at take-off may be 10 times higher than in cruise flight. & TAKE – OFF DRAG • Many regular seaplanes have a sophisticated wing and flap design for creating as much lift as possible at take-off in order to reduce the take-off speed and thus the hydrodynamic loads and drag. • The maximum contribution is from pressure under the wing rather than suction over the wings.TAKE –OFF SPEED. • A seaplane can rotate so that the angle of attack at take-off is much higher than that in cruise flight. • The easiest way to minimize the take-off speed is to design for a low wing loading.

• The take-off power is determined by the take-off drag. • Hydrodynamic lift can be generated by the hull. • Some of the more recent Russian craft like the Volga-2 and the Amphistar have inflatable cushions under the hull and endplates. These cushions are powered by a separate fan and not only alleviate loads but also ensure good sealing of the endplates in wavy conditions. The two main ways. Since drag increases with the speed squared the take-off speed should be minimized. so the drag must be minimized. .MINIMISING TAKE OFF POWER. • The drag can only be decreased by optimizing the way the hull generates its lift or introducing other lift sources. a hydroski or a hydrofoil and aerostatic lift by air injection (PAR) or a static air cushion. to carry loads are hydrodynamic lift and aerostatic lift. other than aerodynamics.

so that the air is trapped under the wing. • The cavity under the wing is bounded by endplates and flaps. . • Hydrodynamic friction drag is therefore theoretically eliminated and consequently the hump drag is reduced.POWER AUGMENTATION • Power Augmentation (PAR) or air injection is the principle of a jet or propeller in front of the wing that blows under the wing at takeoff. This way the full weight of the WIG boat can even be lifted at zero forward speed.

such as the Volga-2 and the Amphistar show that using propellers a more efficient PAR system may be possible. the power augmentation is possibility the only way to secure the take off of the WIG craft (weight > 100 tonne) in rough sea conditions. • Russian ekranoplans. • The efficiency of the power augmentation is different for the wings with different aspect ratio. POWER AUGMENTATION . The smaller the aspect ratio more effective the power augmentation.• Almost all Russian WIG boats employ this principle and it is very effective. • In spite of many disadvantages. although not very efficient.

STATIC AIR CUSHION . • The Hoverwing uses air from the propeller that is captured by a door in the engine pylon to power up the cushion.• A very recent development is the use of a static air cushion for take-off. • A hovercraft or SES-like static air cushion is sealed all around and air is injected somewhere in the cavity under the wing. • In hover mode the green skirts go down and the blue door behind the propeller opens up. so that air is pushed through the blue channels into the cavity under the body. similar to SES and hovercraft.

• Longitudinal stability of vehicles operating in ground effect is very critical.SAFETY . this very same "runway" also presents some potential problems. dependent on the actual wave height. LONGITUDINAL STABILITY • Although it may be argued that the safety of a WIG is excellent since it is always above the runway. • A WIG must either be allowed to strike a wave every now and then (rigid construction) or fly at a height where it will never meet one and thus be less efficient than it could be. • A WIG needs a certain minimum flying height to be fuel efficient so it will always fly at the lowest possible height. . When not designed properly WIG boats show a potentially dangerous pitch up tendency when leaving (strong) ground effect.

SAFETY . LONGITUDINAL STABILITY . • Some wing planforms are more stable than others. Recent research showed that wing sections with an S-shaped camber line are more stable than conventional wing sections. • A WIG boat cannot be stabilized by c. is very important for achieving acceptable longitudinal stability.g. therefore it has been very popular lately.g. movement alone.• The working line of the lift vector of a wing is located relatively far aft at very small ground clearances and moves forward when climbing out of ground effect. the reversed delta from Lippisch proved to be very good. the location of the c. Many new designs have such an S-foil. The stability problem can be overcome by installing a relatively large horizontal tail.

In this case the craft is statically stable. This principle is called (static) stability. but dynamically unstable .STATIC PITCH STABILITY/ STATIC HEIGHT STABILITY • For a WIG craft in stationary cruise condition there must be equilibrium of forces and moments. so that the craft returns to its original condition. • A craft can still be unstable in the case that the forces are not sufficient or too big. • In order to remain in this stationary condition any disturbance must be counteracted with a force or moment in the opposite direction. In practice this means that the CG must lie on the working line of the resulting vector of the aerodynamic forces.

So after a disturbance not only the pitch angle of the WIG craft.STATIC PITCH STABILITY/ STATIC HEIGHT STABILITY • Two different movements in the longitudinal direction can be recognized: pitch and height. but also the height above the surface must be restored to their initial values. • The choice of airfoil and wing planform have a tremendous effect on the stability margin. • An increased pitch angle should be counteracted with a negative pitching moment. For an aircraft height stability is irrelevant. The so-called Lippisch planform has proven to be more stable than a square wing. A WIG craft must be stable in both height and pitch. but the fact that the moment coefficient also changes due to the height change is not taken into account. The Lippisch planform is a forward swept wing with strong taper and negative dihedral. • Increased height would indeed lead to a decreased lift and apparently a stable condition. Note that a nose-up pitching moment is positive. sometimes also called a reversed delta. .

. 2nd generation Ekanoplan.CLASSIFICATION OF GEV-WIG • The ICAO/IMO classifies the vessel as per the height of detachment from the surface(water): • • • • HSC TYPE A TYPE B TYPE C • The classification of the vessel as per Design feature:• • • • • 1st generation Ekanoplan. Lippish Tandem Special designs.

• The potential benefits of WIG boats are: – WIG boats can fulfill the need for increased speed of marine transport and may thus fill the gap between shipping and aviation. – Low power requirement and Low fuel consumption relative to aircraft.COMMERCIAL VIABILITY OF WIG CRAFTS. – High load . – Immune to sea currents. – No wake . – Due to the marine nature of WIG boats their operating cost are low as compared to aircraft. – WIG technology is not mature yet. relative to aircraft (both weight and volume) – Low complexity. – No sea sickness • On the other hand WIG boats do have their limitations: – WIG boats are sensitive to weather conditions such as wave height and wind speed. – Low operational/maintenance cost. so initial WIG boats will not be able to fulfill all the promises. – WIG boats achieve high speeds while still maintaining high efficiency. – Small WIG boats are less efficient than big ones and are even more sensitive to weather conditions . – Especially in a wavy sea the comfort level in cruise is very high as compared to other high speed marine craft. – The infrastructural requirements for WIG boats are very low. especially when compared to other high speed marine craft. – Low capital cost relative to aircraft. any existing port is sufficient.

• The WIG boat must be absolutely safe. • Legislation must be clear. • Low sea states <1. An operator will only seriously consider to operate WIG boats when some conditions and requirements are met : • The characteristics of the WIG boat must match the requirements for that specific application and route. • Low traffic density areas/controlled traffic lanes due to high speed (perhaps) • Seasonal use (probably) .5m wave height for civilian versions. • Operations profitable only in Coastal/inland/estuary/delta. • Low wind. • Operation of the WIG boat must be profitable. but inevitable: WIG boats must be available.COMMERCIAL VIABILITY OF WIG CRAFTS. For certain applications the benefits far outweigh the limitations so that WIG boats are a viable alternative to competing means of transport. • Obvious. so the WIG boat must have (big) advantages over alternatives.

• Another interesting application for these craft may be the transportation of perishable goods. These craft could accommodate 20 to 300 passengers and they may weigh up to 100 tons. .25 to 2 metre in height. Large lakes like the great lakes in the USA.could prove useful as In the near future relatively small WIG boats water taxis in sheltered waters. Large river deltas like in Brazil and the USA. Areas where these medium size WIGs can be operated are the same as the above but their better seaworthiness allows them to operate almost all year around (up to 2-3 m waves). • Somewhat larger WIGs could be developed to provide scheduled passenger and freight services. Sheltered coastal areas like the Great Barrier reef in Australia. Possible areas where these craft could be operated are: – – – – – · · · · · Sheltered seas like the Baltic and the Medditeranean.• APPLICATION. Some archipelagos like in South East Asia and the Caribbean. These 2 to 10 ton craft will accomodate approximately 6 to 30 people (or an equivalent amount of freight) and they can operate in waves from 0.

that the first serious WIG boats were developed.HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT • Just before the second world war some experimental WIG craft were built in Scandinavia. lead by Alexeiev. • They independently worked on WIG technology with entirely different backgrounds. • It was not until the nineteen-sixties however. • In the USSR the WIG developments took place at the Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau (CHDB). encountered the same problems and came to very different solutions. The contributions of two individuals were very significant: the Russian Rostislav Alexeiev and the German Alexander Lippisch. .

only a few years after this top secret project was initiated. No foreigners were allowed there. • This very important development in WIG history lead to the Caspian Sea Monster. • The KM was built in the (at that time) closed city Gorky. a 550 ton military Ekranoplan. now called Nizhny Novgorod. • The 550 ton KM (Russian abbreviation for prototype ship) was baptised in 1966.HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT • Alexeiev received personal support from Kruchev including virtually unlimited financial resources. .

• The second Lun was eventually renamed to Spasatel.90.HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT • After the experimental craft the Russian ekranoplan program continued and lead to the most successfull ekranoplan so far. it had a huge turboprop engine for cruise thrust at the top of the fin and two turbofans in the nose for air injection. the military systems were removed and work started to finish the craft as a rescue vessel.125 Orlyonok. the 125 ton A. It carried six missiles on top of the hull. The Orlyonok incorporated many features that had been tested separately in earlier designs: it was amphibious. Unfortunately there were financial problems and the work had stopped completely by the mid-nineties . • The most recent large ekranoplan from the former Soviet Union is the 400 ton Lun which was built in 1987 as a missile launcher.

the X-112. The CHDB had already developed the 8 seat Volga-2 in 1985. . developing or maintaining big ekranoplans became impossible for the Russians and the design bureaus started focusing on smaller ekranoplans for non-military use. Lippisch. This design proved to be stable and efficient in ground effect and although it was succesfully tested and followed up by the X-113. was at least as revolutionary a design with its reversed delta wing and T-tail. • The boat for Collins. • The story of Alexeievs western counterpart. Collins from Collins Radio Company in the USA. Collins decided to stop the project and sold the patents to a German company called Rhein Flugzeugbau (RFB) which further developed the reversed delta WIG boat. At that time he was asked to build a very fast boat for Mr. also started around 1960.HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT • After the collapse of the Soviet Union.

the FS-8 will soon be series produced by a SingaporeAustralian joint venture called Flightship. requiring it to fly without ground effect as well as in ground effect. HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT .• In Germany the military potential for WIG boats was recognised and RFB was contracted by the German military to develop the X-114. It became apparent that the conflicting requirements of a WIG boat and an aircraft lead to a compromise with little advantages and that the true power of WIG technology lies in staying close to the surface. Their two seat Airfisch 3 was a very successful design. This craft. which has recently been scaled up to seat 6 passengers. • Hanno Fischer had taken over the project from RFB and he pursued Lippisch' work at his own company called Fischer Flugmechanik.

Fischer was already working on the next generation of WIG boat with hovercraft technology to assist at take-off. The tandem WIG boat excels in simplicity and low cost and is the most boat-like of all WIG concepts. the first manned craft was the Jörg-II. After many radio controlled models he succeeded in developing a stable WIG boat with two wings in a tandem arrangement. • Although Alexeiev discarded the tandem wing principle after having tested the SM-1. .HISTORY OF WIG BOAT DEVELOPMENT • While the Airfisch technology was being made ready for the market. the concept was later rediscovered by the German Günter Jörg. The 2 seat hoverwing prototype HW-2VT has been successfully demonstrated many times and now development continues with a 20 seat version.

.400 tons of cargo.“Pelican” Container Cargo Aircraft BOEING PHANTOM WORKS. • Its called the Pelican and it would have a normal cruising altitude of only twenty feet because it uses the concept of ground effect to achieve lift. • A concept aircraft currently under development at Boeing’s Phantom Works Research and Development unit might be the largest airplane to ever fly. • Performance specifications say this ground effect vehicle (GEV) will have a wingspan of 150 meters and be able to carry up to 1. but it won’t set any altitude records.

Operating from paved runways. anywhere in the world. • Pelican currently stands as the only identified means by which the U. the Pelican could carry 17 M-1 main battle tanks on a single sortie. the aircraft's size and efficiency would allow it to carry types of cargo equivalent to those carried by container ships. But the range would be greatly reduced to 6.“Pelican” Container Cargo Aircraft • It has a range of 10. If necessary. allowing it to also fly at higher altitudes up to 20. or five divisions in 30 days. • The Pelican is designed to be a hybrid GEV. .500 nautical miles when not using the ground effect. Commercially.S. Army can achieve its deployment transformation goals of deploying one division in five days. the plane has thirtyeight fuselage-mounted landing gears with seventy-six tires to distribute the weight. • It would be the biggest bird in the history of aviation. at more than 10 times the speed.000 nautical miles in trans-oceanic flight.000 feet.

Comparison of Relative $/lb and Speed to Move Cargo 6 Aircraft 4 3 2 1 0 Relative $/lb of Payload 5 WIG Ship 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Speed. kts .

• East Asia is attractive from the point of view of growth over the long term.g. but marketing will require country specific local knowledge. air traffic control. airports and services. • Ekranoplans. support staff. offer a comparable speed of service off the quayside. which is not required by the Ekranoplans.Ekranoplans and the transport industry • We have seen that Ekranoplans offer similar utility to that of an aircraft. without the large capital and maintenance costs associated with aircraft. . e. The concept decouples fast transport from high infrastructure spend. • Aviation carries with it very high unseen fixed costs. on the other hand.

3. and so may lock out existing players from the highend sector in the future. That the market leaders in Ekranoplan transport may not be from the existing pool of fast ferry players Once established. Hoverwing concept brings with it a massive increase in payload volume. taking market share from existing players. insofar as it is a resource denied to the competition. lightweight structures. high speed operations etc.) that could be transferable to high-end conventional fast craft. 4. Develop away from the initial niche markets into more mainstream markets.EFFECT OF ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY 1. aerodynamic lift. This could be considered as a strategic advantage over nonEkranoplan players. 5.g. giving greater passenger comfort and enabling such craft to carry loads that would not fit in an aircraft. Existing players will be unable to catch up. 2. Ekranoplans could take market from the existing players. Provide the builder and user a new level of technology (e. .

Genuine capability to intercept almost all other marine vessels. Covert and special operations . Ship to shore transport.MILITARY APPLICATION • In the military environment WIGs attributes are: • • • • Ability to cover a wide area within a short time Rapid response capability – rapid closure. Zero wake stealth • Potential paramilitary applications might include: – – – – – – – – – – Over-horizon and littoral operations Drug-running interdiction Anti-piracy Border patrol Fleet patrol/asymmetric threat protection Search and rescue Medevac Pollution / environmental monitoring.

• In addition these craft may be difficult to detect by mines or sonar. making them suitable for crossing minefields. leading to more effective enforcement.MILITARY APPLICATION • The high interception speed combined with stealth means that persons undertaking illegal activities can be caught red-handed. mine clearance or ASW work. • Such WIG vehicles could have a great deal of presence. especially beneficial in areas with high incidences of piracy. terrorism or smuggling. • Opportunities certainly exist to substitute WIG vehicles for horrendously expensive and maintenance intensive helicopters – Forces getting smaller – Logistics decreasing .

Sea Sniper:An Example for ASW Uses a 30mm Bushmaster II chain gun for shallow water mines Stationary Target/Stationary Shooter Based on RAMICS technology – could put this on a WIG Moving Target/Moving Shooter .

ASCMs: An Example for Large Ship ASUW Utka: Armed with six SS-N-22 SUNBURN missiles. . Length 242 ft. ONI has concluded that Utka would be difficult to destroy. NOTE: Due to ship construction techniques used.

and perform its mission on the other side. without damage. Have a WIG drop and control a number of UUVs designed to hunt/kill mines on its way over the minefield.Clear a Path Through a Minefield? Hop over the minefield? A WIG will travel over the top of a minefield at very high speed. and have them clear the path in a parallel effort. as opposed to starting at one edge of the minefield and working through it in a serial manner. .

– The Air borne Laser.Small Boat ASUW • Lethal – 30 mm chain gun • Same one for Sea Sniper • Look down/Shoot down • Stay out of lethal range of small boat weapons – Other guns and/or missile systems • Non-lethal – Active Denial Technology • HPM system causing intense skin pain for exposed personnel – Running Gear Entangling System • Specially designed boat-stopping rope – The Airbone Gun ship. .

• Allowable sea states for efficient cruise. landing and take off form the bounds of the performance envelope. Operational considerations such as speed. • Amphibious potential for operation from beachheads. . WIG craft also have the potential for high stealth and weapons delivery.Use as heavy military transport • The possible benefits from the use of these craft with a potential increase in performance and efficiency over existing transport mediums has been the momentum for their development as heavy lift and cargo platforms. waterways or runways and autonomous operation at sea are also possibilities for WIG craft. • The primary mode of operation for current and envisaged WIG craft is over and in water. range and payload abilities are similar to aircraft.

Active Denial Technology The Air Force is investigating an airborne version of this current ACTD. Whatever they develop could be adapted to WIGs. .

being integrated into airborne platforms. large weapon systems have. .Additional military uses AC-130 Gunship w/ 105mm gun Airborne Laser While not WIGs. these examples indicate that other. This could be done for WIGs. and are.

• The flexibility offered by WIG is that most of its asset value is in the revenue earning craft. thus giving it a strategic advantage in an uncertain world. • The key to WIG success must surely be its simplicity. • The WIG is not a flight of fancy by a commercially viable option to today’s aircraft and ship technology. • Opportunity also exists in those counties with under-developed air transport while the other countries can be excluded from the list of locations for startup. this enables it to be re-deployed as necessary. The agricultural Citroen 2CV car is a highly complex vehicle by comparison!. .s position vis-à-vis aircraft. with speeds in excess of 80 knots the obvious comparison is with aircraft. • WIG competes with all other forms of transport.TECHNO-ECONOMIC FESIBILITY. • Constraining component design to ship/surface vehicle technology rather than aerospace technology brings further reduction in maintenance. costs and so strengthens WIG.

• And not surprisingly the market analysis projects the maximum benefits near the south Asian country.CONCLUSION • At present four major classification bodies. and Australian transport bureau have developed the construction codes and structural rules for the craft and equipment. We have also seen that this craft has the capability to give medivac and search and rescue facilities much better that other crafts. We have also seen what defense and policing roles these craft can be deployed into. the Russian Register. When these leaders have taken the initiative that must not be for no reason. the LLyods London registers. China classification society. Germanischer LLyods . .

Research in India at least in the public domain has not started in nay big way. . Huge saving on the aviation fuel bill and decongestion of the air traffic routes. etc can be completely off loaded to this sector of the WIG crafts.CONCLUSION • However. This transportation solution holds several opportunities for our country in specific. CHOCHIN. India being a cash strapped country can greatly benefit from the reduced expenses on the development of the aerodromes and the airports which is offered by this craft when majority of the air freight and small critical portion of the sea freight will be offloaded on to this solution. MADRAS. • The various advantages are:1. Lot of the minor ports are not having enough sustainable traffic these can be converted into berth and loading points for WIG crafts at negligible expense 2. The coastal flights such as from Bombay to ports like GOA.

The factory ships of mass fishing can deployed causing huge augmentation in the available food for the population and the same can be effective transported to the beach head at no extra refrigeration costs by the ekranoplans the logistic chains can take over to put the catch to the cold storage warehouse. A credible back up of search and rescue support to our fishermen. cleaner. hygienic vessels like the factory ships which will reduce their risk to lives and environment ( by stopping the use of wood for the boats). who risk their lives. 4. This eliminates the needs for fishermen going out in small wooden boats out at sea and co-operatives made on the model of Amul can be realized for fishermen who operate much larger. safer. from there to retail chains can take over by logistic support over ground. Saving the seafarers in near coastal distressed vessel. .CONCLUSION 3.

China’s “string of pearl” strategy is a direct threat to our maritime security and their transgressions are becoming intolerable by the Day. If we plan to avoid the Himalayan disaster at sea we must act fast and now. CONCLUSION . India geo-political reality is severe and we are surrounded by enemies.5. The WIG crafts have an advantage of being mass produced at a very short notice and they are as seen in paper half as expensive as the airplanes. The development of the military ships is a time consuming process and the very expensive and the fighter aircrafts are also procured from outside at a tremendous expense. 6.

The Lun and other military crafts like pelican has vast potential and can petrol a long coastline. detect intruders and intercept invaders and give a fast and decisive punch to coastline security. This can be done extremely effectively by the WIG especially with respect to the transportation of perishables like milk. CONCLUSION . Where most of the food and the consumables are imported from the main land including the medicines.7. agro products 8. We can have a fortress India program where heavy artillery support in bunker forms the fixed defense line while fleet of ekranoplans can have the rapidly deployable forward mobile defense platforms. outrun any pirate skiffs. The interconnectivity of the Andaman and the Nicobar Island is critical to support the population and the retention of the islands. medicines. juice. They can also detect and low lying craft avoiding Radio detection by Radar. vegetables.

our research institute we can cut short the development cycle and deploy maximum number of this crafts for a coastal defense. we need credible defense to assert our presence and deterrence to dissuade diabolical regimes against misadventures. CONCLUSION . DRDO. The fire power that can be packed in the Ekranoplan and the transportation capability to move heavy assets like tanks and infantry and personal carriers at much higher speed than the traditional landing crafts gives a decisive striking edge. foreign affairs ministry. And commercial applicant is also set to have a growth multiplier effect which is economically and environmentally friendly. We have more Oil and Gas Fields coming up deeper into our contiguous zone. 10. We have the second largest pool of scientist in the world by a synergistic approach of the intelligence agencies.9.



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n  °f@ n°– @ n ¾° ¾–f°–f°f °  ¾°€¾ n °.

@ Jf     ½n  f f½  J¾ .

 °f¯f¾ ¾ .

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DW ½ ¾ °€¯f©nf¾¾€nf°   ¾  ¾¾f°  –¾   ¯f°¾n   ¾ .

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DW     ¾ fn°° ff f¾° ½ n ¯f° f¾°¾f °°f –f @¾f°¾½f°¾°  ¾¾  f½½° ¾€n°°¾½ n€n  W @ f¾f f°f– ¾f  ° f °–fnf¾¾f½½ n°nf°– f ° € €¯  n  ½ °¾ ¾°   ½¯ °€  f  ¯ ¾f°  f½¾n¾€€   ¾nf€  °¯f©€ f€ –f° ¾¯fnnf½° € ¾ f€ – €€f °¾¾°  € ¯°½¾f °f°– °–¾¾f°f   f€€n ¾ nf° n°  ° f° f °– ½°¾€Jnf€¾f° ––   ½ °¾  – ¾f°–° ff°€  f°  n°– ¾°€  ff€€n ¾ @ nf¾f€–¾¾nf¾€¯ ¯ f½¾  .


.  nnf°  n¯½  €€f ¾¾ n€ Jnf€¾ ..



D  n    fn½€¾ fnf°  ¾n ¾½½ €¾ ¯ ° ¾  ¾ f°– ¾ f€f ¾° ° fnf¾f ¾ ¾¾  ¾¾  @ €fn¾½¾€¯f¾¾€¾°–nf° ½ nf¾°– – f–¯ °f°° fff  € €  ½½f°f°  ¾f¯ nf°  €€ n f°¾½    fn f f° f €– f°n¾¾   f°½f°¾  –¾nnf°¾nf°f  ½  nfn n ¾f– f ¾ €¯   f nf°¾nf°f   –¾n¾½½ –° @¾ ¯°f ¾ ° ¾€€¾ ¯ °–°–°¾¯f  ° f¾f¾ ff° n ½ f ¾¯f °  ¯ €¯ nf°  f €€¾ ¯ °½ f  ¯nf–  ¾f€  n f°  – °n ¾¾ ¾   €fn¾½¾n n  ¾ ¾f°  °°¯ °% ¾½½°– ¾ € €  f¾% .

 ° f–  ½nf f¾¾   f°  f  ¾°   ° ¯ ¾ .

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J f ¯ f° f¾  ¾n¯°–½ ½ ° n°–¾°  ° n    € °¾ f¾¾  ½ ¾ °n f°    °n  ¾¾f  f nf  –¯ ¾f–f°¾¯¾f  ° ¾ @ € ½ fnf°  ½fn ° f°½f° f°  f°¾½f° nf½f ¯  ff¾¾ ¾ f°¾f° °€f°f°  ½ ¾°fnf ¾f¯n– ¾½ f°  f °ff° °–nf€¾– ¾f n¾ ¾°– –  J f  ¾ n° f– ¾½€¾n °¾°   f¾° –¾nf½½fn€ ° – °n f– °n ¾  € –°f€€f¾¯°¾   ¾ fn°¾   nf°n¾   ½¯ °nn f°  ½ ¯f¯¯°¯ €¾nf€¾€fnf¾f € °¾ °  n¯¯ nff½½nf°¾f¾¾ f f– ¯½  €€ nn¾ n°¯nff°  °°¯ °f€ °   .


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