# WORKSHOP CALCULATION

1

Introduction to Units ( Pressure)
PRESSURE CONVERSION Bar. 1 Kg / cm² = 14 . 223 psi ( Lb / In² ) 1 Kg / cm² = 0 . 9807 1 PSI = 0.07031 Kg / cm²

Introduction to Units (Length)
1m = 100 cm 1cm = 10 mm 1m = 1000 mm 1in. = 25.4 mm

Introduction to Units ( Temperature)
Temperature unit = Degree Celsius or Degree Fahrenheit

C = 5/9(f-32)
If Temp. Is 100°f, Then So, C=37.7 C=5/9( 100-32)

If Preheat Temp. Is 150’c, Then F=302

AB² + BC² = AC² . So based on pythagoras theory . B C LET US SAY  ABC is right angle triangle .PYTHAGORAS PRINCIPLE APPLICATION A Pythagoras Principle : In Any Right Angled Triangle a Sum of Adjacent Side Square Is Always Equal to It Hypotenuse Square. AB and BC = Adjacent sides and AC = Hypotenuse.

BC = 4 and AC = 5 SO AC² = AB² + BC² = 3² + 4 ² = 25 By taking AC = 5 so AC² = 25 It means that LHS = RHS .PYTHAGORAS PRINCIPLE APPLICATION Example : A 3 5 B 4 C Proof of theory in triangle ABC AB = 3 .

Angle ACB =  .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS A Trigonometric functions are used to solve the problems of different types of triangle. AB & BC are sides of triangle. So for this triangle. . Let us consider  ABC is a right angled triangle.  B C We will see some simple formulas to solve right angle triangle which we are using in day to day work.

TRIGONOMETRY A Hypoteneous Opposite Side AB SIN ø = Opposite Side = AC Hypoteneous ø B TAN ø = Opposite Side = AB Adjacent Side BC C Adjacent Side COS ø = Adjacent Side = BC AC Hypoteneous .

A 25 mm We Will Find Value Of  By Tangent Formula So . Tan(1) = 45º Now. We Will Find AC By Using Sine Formula  25 mm B C Sin  = Opposite Side /Hypotenuse = AB / AC  Ac = AB / Sin  = 25 / Sin45 =25 / 0.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Example : For triangle ABC find out value of  and .  Tan  = Opposite Side / Adjacent Side = AB / BC = 25/25 =1 Tan  = 1   = Inv.7071 = 35.3556mm .

7071   = Inv Cos (0.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Example: We Will Find Value Of  By Cosine Formula A 25 mm   B 25 mm C Cos  = Adjacent Side / Hypotenuse = AB / AC = 25 / 35.7071) = 45º .3556 = 0.

60 ø = 36° .60 50 ø B ADJACENT SIDE C ø = InvSINE VALUE OF 0.52’ .TRIGONOMETRY Example: A FIND OUT ANGLE ‘ Ø ’ OF A TRIANGLE SIN ø = OPPOSITE SIDE = HYPOTENEOUS HYPOTENEOUS AB AC OPPOSITE SIDE 30 = 30 50 = 0.

727 27.FIND OUT SIDE ‘ø ’ OF A TRIANGLE Example: A TAN ø = OPPOSITE SIDE = AB ADJACENT SIDE BC HYPOTENEOUS OPPOSITE SIDE 20 TAN 36° = • • BC = • 20 BC 20 TAN VALUE OF 36° 20 0. 51 mm 36° B ? ADJACENT SIDE C • • BC = • • BC = • • .

circle etc.AREA Definition : A surface covered by specific Shape is called area of that shape. i.e. area of square. 1. Square : Area Of Square = L X L = L² L Where L = Length Of Side L So If L Then Area = 5cm = 5 X 5 = 25cm² .

Rectangle: Area Of Rectangle = L X B Where.AREA 2. Circle : Area Of Circle =  / 4 x D² D Where D= Diameter Of The Circle Area Of Half Circle = /8 x D² D Same way we can find out area of quarter of circle . Area = Length = Width = 6 mm = 10 X 6 = 60mm² B L 3. And B Then. L B If L= 10 mm.

AREA 4 .d²) 4 d WHERE D = Diameter of Greater Circle d = Diameter of Smaller Circle D Sector Of Circle= xD²xØ 4 x 360 Ø D . Circle : Hollow Circle =  x (D² .

AREA 4. Triangle : Area Of Triangle = ½ B x H Where B H = Base Of Triangle = Height Of Triangle B H 5. Cylinder : Surface area of Cylinder =xDxH Where H D = Height Of Cylinder = Diameter Of Cylinder D H .

Rectangular Block : Volume= L X B X H Where L = Length B = Width H = Height H L B . Block = L X L X L = L³ 2. width and height are equal.VOLUME Defination : A space covered by any object is called volume of that object. L L L Volume Of Sq. Square block : In square block. 1. so length.

VOLUME H 3.Triangle L = Length of Prism B L .Triangle H = Height of R.Prism or Triangle Block : Volume of Triangular Block = Cross Section Area of Triangle x Length ( Area of Right Angle Triangle = ½ B H ) Volume = ½ B H X L Where B = Base of R.A.A.

VOLUME 4. Cylinder : Volume of Cylinder = Cross Section Area x Length of Cylinder Volume= ¼D² X H D H Where : D = Diameter Of Cylinder H = Length Of Cylinder .

1439  DIA ( m ) = 0.1000  DIA .SPHERICAL ( m ) = 0.CG CALCULATION CG m TAN LINE DIA CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF D’ENDS ( CG ) (1) HEMISPHERICAL ( m ) = 0.2878  DIA (2) (3) 2:1 ELLIPSOIDALS TORI .

S.WEIGHT CALCULATION Examples : Weight calculation of different items: • • • • • Rectangular plate Circular plate Circular plate with cutout Circular sector Shell coursce Specific gravity for (i) C.86 g/cm3 (ii) S.= 7.S.=8.00 g/cm3 .

86gm / CC Here L = 200cm.Gravity = 70000 X 7. Rectangular plate : Weight of This Plate 3.Gravity 200 CM = L X B X H X 7.5 cm So Volume = 200 X 100 X 3.5 cm³ = 70000 cm³ Now Weight Of Plate = Volume X Sp .2 kgs . B = Width = 100cm And H = Thk = 3.WEIGHT CALCULATION Examples : 1.5 CM = Volume X Sp.86 gm/cc = 550200 gms = 550.

362 kgs . CIRCULAR PLATE : 300 cm Weight= V X Sp. Gravity Volume V= Cross Section Area X Thk = ¼D² X 4cm = ¼ x 300² X 4cm = 282743.5738 gms = 2222.33 X 7.33 cm³ So W = V X sp.86 gms/cc Thk = 4cm = 2222362.WEIGHT CALCULATION Examples : 2.Gravity = 282743.

Now Volume = Cross Sec.WEIGHT CALCULATION Examples : Circular sector : Weight of Circular Plate Sector : W = Volume X Sp.Gravity = 78539.Gravty.86 gms/cc = 617322.R2²) X Ø X 2 cm 360 =  X (400² .81 X 7.Area X Thk =  X ( R1² .95 gms = 617.81 cm³ Now Weight = V X Sp .323 kgs R1 R2  = 120º R1 = 400 cm R2 = 350 cm THK = 2cm  = 120º .350²) X 120 X 2 360 = 78539.

54cm³ Now Weight W = V X Sp.Gravity V= ¼  X ( OD² .947kgs = @ 15 Ton .400² ) X 300cm = 1908517. Gravity = 1908517.86 = 15000947gms = 15000.54 X 7.ID² ) X Length Here OD = 400 + 10 = 410cm ID = 400cm Length = 300cm So V = ¼ X ( 410² .WEIGHT CALCULATION Examples : Shell : W = V X Sp.

WELD METAL WEIGHT CALCULATION Basic fundamentals of weld metal weight Calculation 1. seam weld weight `= Cross section area x mean circ.Single v for long seam and circseam • Long seam weld weight = Cross section area x length of seam x density • Circ. of seam x density .

2 + 6.38 Cm² A3 = 6.38 + 0.713 x 4.7 cm² Here B= 47 Tan30º =2.713cm  A2 = 0.2 cm² 50 3 2 1.7 cm² Now A = 1.38 Cm² A4 =0.WELD METAL WEIGHT CALCULATION 3 1  =60º 3 4 2 Now A1 = 2/3 x H x Bead Width  A1 = 2/3 x 0.2 * 4.5 x B x 4.3 x 6 cm² = 1.5 x 2.Crossection Area Of Joint A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 Now A2 =A3 A2 = 1/2 x B x h = 0.9cm² .94 cm² A = 14.38 + 6.7 Cm² = 6.

.4gms = 11.86 gms/cc = 145326gms = 145. = 50 mm Weld Weight = 14. seam = Cross section area x Mean circ.9 cm X 7. x Density For Circ. seam having OD = 4000 mm and Thk.86gm/cm³ = 11711.326kgs.9cm² X 1240.712kgs for 1 mtr long seam For circ.WELD METAL WEIGHT CALCULATION For long seam weld weight = Cross section area x Length of seam x density = 14.9cm² x 100cm x 7.

Instead of 1:3 taper.40 = 20mm. TAPER CALCULATIONS 1:3 Taper 40 x 60 Thickness Difference = 60 . a taper is generally provided on thicker plate to avoid mainly stress concentration. if 1: 5 Taper is required. X = 20 x 3 = 60mm. .Whenever a Butt joint is to be made between two plates of different thickness. X = 20 x 5 = 100 mm.

CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATION Circumference = Pie x Diameter of job If I/D is known and O/S circ. Which is the correct value of pie? 22/7 3.14 3. Is required then. Circumference = Pie x ( I/D + 2 x thick ) Here Pie value is very important.1415926 (Direct from calculator/ computer) .

00mm 3) 10000mm x 3.1415926 = 31415.571mm = 31400. calculate O/S circumference. 1) 10000mm x 22/7 2) 10000mm x 3.CIRCUMFERENCE CALCULATION Example 1 : O/S Dia of the job is 10000mm.14 = 31428.926mm .

1T but <= 2mm for web & <= 3mm for flange Say T = 34 mm than.OFFSET CALCULATION Thickness difference measured from I/s or o/s on joining edges is called offset.1 x 34mm = 3. . Offset = 0. If by mistake 0.4mm But max. offset Tolerance as per P-1402 0.1% T considered than. 0. 3mm allowed as mentioned above.1 x 34/100 = 0.034 mm offset which is wrong.

C Kink = ( A .D ) which ever is max.OFFSET CALCULATION How to measure offset & kink ? Here A = D Offset = B . D C B A Kink is nothing but peak-in/ peak-out .B or C .

Always take all digits of orientation given in drawing. • Measure circumference.ORIENTATION MARKING Start orientation in following steps. • Check long seam orientation from drawing. ./360 ) x Orientation. • Arc length = (circ. • Find out arc length for long seam from 0 degree.

ORIENTATION MARKING Example : O/S circ.16 = 5282. L/S orientation = 25300mm = 75.218mm .07mm = ( 25300/360 ) x 75.86mm = ( 25300/360 ) x 75.1 = 5277.162 = 5282.162 Arc length for L/S = ( 25300/360 ) x 75.162 degree Find out arc length for 75.

4000mm Sine 30 = CB/4000mm 1/2 chord length CB = 0.5 x 4000mm = 2000mm Full chord length = 4000mm .CHORD LENGTH A 60 C R B Example : Web segment size .600 Inside radius R .

angle  Should be between 45.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Tank rotator rollers dist. Dist. Calculation As shown in figure we can find out Two things : 1. Angle  between two rollers 2. A   D C B We will check it one by one. Between two roller for specific diameter of shell .60º . For safe working.

of Holes N = 12.  Mark P.28 mm.C.D. consider a flange 14”-1500# with P. .D.PCD & HOLE MARKING CALCULATIONS  For Example. 2 2 Y/2 P.=600 mm & No.C.  Chord length between holes = 2 x PCD x Sin ( y/2 ) 2 = 2 x 600 x Sin (30/2) ‘N’ Holes = 2 x 600 x 0.  Angular distance y = 360 / N = 360/12 = 30 degrees.D.2588 = 155. = 600 mm.C.

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