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Hand Instruments

Carbon steel + Stainless steel Carbon steel is brittle and susceptible to corrosion

Stainless steel dose not tarnish or

corrode ,but it will not maintain a sharp cutting edge

Most are double-ended Cutting & None-cutting

Parts of the Hand Instruments

a. Blade or nib
Working end Form 45 angle with the shank

b. Shank
Connect handle to blade

C. Handle
Hold, stabilize & control the instrument

Hatchet ( enamel hatchet)

Double-ended form

Right and left cutting ends to use in both sides of the preparation Removal of unsupported enamel

Gingival Margin Trimmer

Curved blade Mesial & distal gingival marginal trimmer Right and left cutting ends Mainly for trimming gingival margins

Spoon Excavators

Right and left cutting spoons They are used for removal of carious tooth structure and soft dentin Different shapes

Amalgam condenser

To compress amalgam in all areas of the preparation May be also used to adapt resin composite material


Are used to shape soft amalgam

Cleoid-discoid carver for

carving of occlusal surfaces


To burnish (smooth) amalgam restorations To shape the metal matrix band To condense amalgam at the margins To adapt composite in posterior resin composite restorations

Amalgam Carrier

Amalgam Carrier

Amalgam Carrier

Other Instruments

Rotary Instruments

Air-driven handpieces Low speed handpiece 10,000-15,000 rpm For removal of caries and polishing of restorations Different attachments: latch or friction grip

High speed handpiece up to 100,000 rpm Cavity preparation


Burs are milling devices and function by chip removal of tooth structure. Tungsten carbide bur.

Their heads are composed of a number of metal cutting blades and must rotate in counterclockwise direction .

Parts of the bur:

Shank: Part that fits on the handpiece Neck: Connect the head to the shank, transmit forces to the head

Head: The working part


Head shape Number

Basic Burs Head Shapes

Recommended Burs

Finishing Burs

Come in many sizes & shapes Have more blades than normal bur and the blades are set much closer together Finishing & polishing operations for amalgam & resin composites restorations

Instrument Grasps

Pen grasp & modified pen grasp

Palm and thumb grasp