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Data Link Layer

Data Link Layer

Data Link Layer


Provides a well-defined service interface to the network layer. Determines how the bits of the physical layer are grouped into frames (framing). Deals with transmission errors (CRC and ARQ). Regulates the flow of frames. Performs general link layer management.
Data Link Layer 2

Packets

Packets Data link Layer Physical Layer

(a)

Data link Layer Physical Layer

Frames

(b)

1 2

2 2 1

Medium

1 2 B

3 2 1

2 2 1

A 1 2
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Physical layer entity Data link layer entity

Network layer entity

Figure 5.2 Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Data Link Layer

End to End
ACK/NAK

1 Data

2 Data

3 Data

4 Data

Hop by Hop

Data 1 ACK/ NAK


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Data 2 ACK/ NAK 3

Data 4 ACK/ NAK


Data Link Layer
Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Data 5 ACK/ NAK


Figure 5.7

Tanenbaums Data Link Treatment


Concerned with communication between two adjacent nodes in the subnet (IMP to IMP). Assumptions:
Bits delivered in the order sent Rigid interface between the HOST and the node the communications policy and the Host protocol (with OS affects) can evolve separately. uses a simplified model
Data Link Layer 5

Host A

Layer 4 4 Layer

Host B

Node 1

Layer 2 frame

Node 2

Data Link Layer Model Assume Host has infinite supply of messages. Node constructs frame from a single packet message. Checksum is automatically appended in the hardware. Protocols are developed in increasing complexity to help Understand the data link layer issues.
Data Link Layer 6

Basic Elements of ARQ


Packet sequence Transmitter
Station A Control frames Information frames

Error-free packet sequence Receiver


Station B

CRC Information packet


Information Frame
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CRC Header

Header

Control frame

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Figure 5.8

Data Link Layer

packet network layer buffer frame data link layer info ack seq kind

physical layer

Data Link Layer

Protocol 3 (PAR) Positive ACK with Retransmission [Old Tanenbaum Version]


#define MAX_SEQ 1 typedef enum {frame_arrival, cksum_err, timeout} event_type; include protocol.h

void sender_par (void) { seq_nr next_frame_to_send; frame s; packet buffer; event_type event; next_frame_to_send = 0; from_network_layer (&buffer); while (true) s.info = buffer; s.seq = next_frame_to_send; to_physical_layer (&s); start_timer (s.seq); if (event == frame_arrival) { from_network_layer (&buffer); inc (next_frame_to_send); } } } Data Link Layer 9

Protocol 3 (PAR) Positive ACK with Retransmission [Old Tanenbaum Version]

void receiver_par (void) { seq_nr next_frame_to_send; frame r, s; event_type event; frame_expected = 0; while (true) wait_for_event (&event); if (event == frame_arrival) { from_physical_layer (&r); if (r.seq == frame_expected) { to_network_layer(&r.info); inc (frame_expected); } to_physical_layer (&s); /* Note no sequence number on ACK */ } } }
Data Link Layer 10

Ambiguities with Stop-and-Wait [unnumbered frames]


(a) Frame 1 lost
A B frame 0 ACK Time-out time frame 1 frame 1 ACK Time-out frame 0 ACK time frame 1 ACK frame 1 ACK frame 2 frame 2

(b) ACK lost


A B

In parts (a) and (b) transmitting station A acts the same way, but part (b) receiving station B accepts frame 1 twice.
Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Figure 5.9

Data Link Layer

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PAR [OLD] problem


Ambiguities when ACKs are not numbered
time-out A B
frame 0 ACK

time
frame 0 ACK frame 1 frame 2

Transmitting station A misinterprets duplicate ACKs

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Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Figure 5.10

Data Link Layer

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State Machine for Stop-and-Wait


0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Slast Timer Transmitter
Station A

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Rnext

Slast Rnext (0,0) Error-free frame 0 arrives at receiver

Receiver
Station B

(0,1) ACK for frame 0 arrives at transmitter (1,1)


Figure 5.11

Global State: (Slast, Rnext)

ACK for frame 1 arrives at transmitter (1,0)

Error-free frame 1 arrives at receiver

Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies

Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Data Link Layer

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Data Link Layer

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Sliding Window Protocols


[Tanenbaum]

Must be able to transmit data in both directions. Choices for utilization of the reverse channel:
mix DATA frames with ACK frames. Piggyback the ACK
Receiver waits for DATA traffic in the opposite direction. Use the ACK field in the frame header to send sequence number of frame being ACKed.

better use of the channel capacity.


Data Link Layer 15

Sliding Window Protocols


ACKs introduce a new issue how long does receiver wait before sending ONLY an ACK frame.
We need an ACKTimer!! sender timeout period needs to set longer.

The protocol must deal with the premature timeout problem and be robust under pathological conditions.
Data Link Layer 16

Sliding Window Protocols


Each outbound frame must contain a sequence number. With n bits for the sequence number field, maxseq = 2**n - 1 and the numbers range from 0 to maxseq. Sliding window :: sender has a window of frames and maintains a list of consecutive sequence numbers for frames that it is permitted to send without waiting for ACKs. receiver has a window that is a list of frame sequence numbers it is permitted to accept. Note sending and receiving windows do NOT have to be the same size. Windows can be fixed size or dynamically growing and shrinking.
Data Link Layer 17

Sliding Window Protocols


Host is oblivious, message order at transport level is maintained. senders window :: frames sent but not yet ACKed. new packets from the Host cause the upper edge inside sender window to be incremented. ACKed frames from the receiver cause the lower edge inside window to be incremented. All frames in the senders window must be saved for possible retransmission and we need one timer per frame in the window.
Data Link Layer 18

Sliding Window Protocols


If the maximum sender window size is B, the sender needs B buffers. If the sender window gets full (i.e., reaches its maximum window size, the protocol must shut off the Host (the network layer) until buffers become available. receiver window Frames received with sequence numbers outside the receiver window are not Data Link Layer 19 accepted.

Sliding Window Protocols


receiver window
Frames received with sequence numbers outside the receiver window are not accepted. The receiver window size is normally static.

The set of acceptable sequence numbers is rotated as acceptable frames arrive. a receiver window size = 1 the protocol only accepts frames in order. There is referred to as Go Back N.
Data Link Layer 20

Standard Ways to ACK

1. ACK sequence number indicates the last frame successfully received. 1. ACK sequence number indicates the next frame the receiver expects to receive. Both of these can be strictly individual ACKs or represent cumulative ACKing. Cumulative ACKing is the most common technique.
Data Link Layer 21

Go Back N

Go-Back-4:
fr 0 fr 1 fr 2 fr 3 fr 4 fr 5

4 frames are outstanding; so go back 4


fr 6 fr 3 fr 4 fr 5 fr 6 fr 7 fr 8 fr 9

time

A C K 1

A C K 2

A C K 3

Out-of-sequence frames A C K 4 error

A C K 5

A C K 6

A C K 7

A C K 8

A C K 9

ACKing next frame expected


Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Figure 5.13

Data Link Layer

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Go Back N with NAK error recovery


Transmitter goes back to frame 1

Go-Back-7:
fr 0 fr 1 fr 2 fr 3 fr 4 fr 5 fr 1 fr 2 fr 3 fr 4 fr 5 fr 6 fr 7 fr 0

time

B
A C K 1 N A K 1 Out-of-sequence frames A C K 2 A C K 3 A C K 4 A C K 5 A C K 6 A C K 7

error
Copyright 2000 The McGraw Hill Companies Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Figure 5.17

Data Link Layer

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Selective Repeat with NAK error recovery

fr 0

fr 1

fr 2

fr 3

fr 4

fr 5

fr 6

fr 2

fr 7

fr 8

fr 9

fr 10

fr 11

fr 12

time

A C K 1

A C K 2

error

N A K 2

A C K 2

A C K 2

A C K 2

A C K 7

A C K 8

A C K 9

A C K 1 0

A C K 1 1

A C K 1 2

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Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks

Figure 5.21

Data Link Layer

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