# Modeling Reciprocating IC Engines Introduction

**Reciprocating Engines (Types)
**

The Reciprocating Engines: • Spark-Ignition (SI) Engines • Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines

SI Engine

CI Engine

The simplest models for both SI and CI engines are air-standard models.

Let’s look at the following figures for the definitions of top dead center (TDC). bottom dead center (BDC).Reciprocating Engines (Terminology)
The following is some terminology we need to understand for reciprocating engines— typically piston-cylinder devices. exhaust valve. intake valve. bore. clearance volume. displacement volume. stroke.
. compression ratio and mean effective pressure (MEP).

The position of the piston when it forms the largest volume in the cylinder.
. VTDC).e.
• Bore • Intake Valve • Exhaust valve
• Clearance Volume
The minimum cylinder volume is called the clearance volume (i. The diameter of the piston is called the bore. The air or air-fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder through the intake valve. and it is called the stroke of the engine. The combustion products are expelled from the cylinder through the exhaust valve.Reciprocating Engines (Terminology)
• Top Dead Center (TDC) • Bottom Dead Center (BDC) • Stroke The position of the piston when it forms the smallest volume in the cylinder.
The distances between the TDC and the BDC is the largest distance that the piston can travel in one direction.

Wnet wnet MEP Vmax Vmin vmax vmin
. would produce the same amount of net work as that produced during the actual cycle.
r V max VBDC V min VTDC
• Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) It is a fictitious pressure that. if it acted on the piston during the entire power stroke.
Vdisp VBDC VTDC
• Compression Ratio (r) The ratio of the maximum volume formed in the cylinder to the minimum (clearance) volume is called the compression ratio of the engine.Reciprocating Engines (Terminology)
• Displacement Volume The volume displaced by the piston as it moves between TDC and BDC is called the displacement volume.

Modeling Reciprocating IC Engines The Air-Standard Otto Cycle
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Process Description 1-2 Isentropic compression 2-3 Constant volume heat addition 3-4 Isentropic expansion 4-1 Constant volume heat rejection
.Reciprocating Engines (Terminology)
The Air-Standard Otto cycle is the ideal cycle that approximates the spark-ignition combustion engine.

Process 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 Description Isentropic compression Constant volume heat addition Isentropic Expansion Constant volume heat rejection
.Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
An ideal Otto cycle consists of 4 internally reversible processes.

Apply first law closed system to process 2-3.
Thus. for constant specific heats. V = constant. 23 Qin mCv (T3 T2 )
.Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
Thermal Efficiency of the Otto cycle:
Wnet Qnet Qin Qout Qout th 1 Qin Qin Qin Qin
Now to find Qin and Qout.
Qnet . 23 U 23 Qnet .

Qnet . for constant specific heats. 41 Qout mCv (T1 T4 ) Qout mCv (T1 T4 ) mCv (T4 T1 )
The thermal efficiency becomes
th .
Thus. 41 U 41 Qnet .Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
Apply first law closed system to process 4-1. V = constant. Otto
Qout 1 Qin mCv (T4 T1 ) 1 mCv (T3 T2 )
.

Otto
(T4 T1 ) 1 (T3 T2 ) T1 (T4 / T1 1) 1 T2 (T3 / T2 1)
Recall processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic.Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
th . we see that
T2 T3 T1 T4 or T4 T3 T1 T2
. so
Since V3 = V2 and V4 = V1.

Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
The Otto cycle efficiency becomes
th . Otto 1
1 r k 1
. Otto 1
T1 T2
Is this the same as the Carnot cycle efficiency? Since process 1-2 is isentropic.
where the compression ratio is r = V1/V2 and
th .

Air-fuel mixtures under high temperature resulting from high compression ratios will prematurely ignite.Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
We see that increasing the compression ratio increases the thermal efficiency. Effect of changing the specific heat ratio??
Helium Air CO2
. causing knock.

Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
Auto Ignition or Engine Knock When high compression ratios are used. This premature ignition of the fuel. called auto ignition.
. produces and audible noise. causing an early and rapid burn of the fuel at some point or points ahead of the flame front. which is called engine knock. the temperature of the air-fluid mixture rises above the auto ignition temperature of the fuel (the temperature at which the fuel ignites with out the help of a spark) during the combustion process. followed by almost instantaneous inflammation of the end gas.

P's. 7.Reciprocating Engines (Otto Cycle)
Example Problem
An Otto cycle having a compression ratio of 9:1 uses air as the working fluid. During the heat addition process. th. and V1 = 3.8 liters. the back work ratio.
. T1 = 17oC. Determine all T's. Initially P1 = 95 kPa.5 kJ of heat are added. and the mean effective pressure.

Modeling Reciprocating IC Engines The Air-Standard Diesel Cycle
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.Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
The Air-Standard Diesel Cycle is the ideal cycle that approximates the Diesel combustion engine Process 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-1 Description Isentropic compression Constant pressure heat addition Isentropic expansion Constant volume heat rejection
See the P-v and T-s diagrams.

Wnet Qout 1 Qin Qin
Apply the first law closed system to process 2-3. 23 U 23 P2 (V3 V2 ) Qnet . for constant specific heats
Qnet . P = constant.Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
Thermal efficiency of the Diesel cycle
th . Diesel
Now to find Qin and Qout.
Thus. 23 Qin mCv ( T3 T2 ) mR (T3 T2 ) Qin mC p (T3 T2 )
.

41 U 41 Qnet . V = constant (just as we did for the Otto cycle)
Thus. for constant specific heats
Qnet . Diesel
Qout 1 Qin mCv (T4 T1 ) 1 mC p (T3 T2 )
. 41 Qout mCv (T1 T4 ) Qout mCv (T1 T4 ) mCv (T4 T1 )
The thermal efficiency becomes
th .Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
Apply the first law closed system to process 4-1.

and is a measure of the duration of the heat addition at constant pressure. Diesel
Cv (T4 T1 ) 1 C p (T3 T2 ) 1 T1 (T4 / T1 1) 1 k T2 (T3 / T2 1)
What is T3/T2 ?
PV3 PV2 3 2 where P3 P2 T3 T2 T3 V3 rc T2 V2
where rc is called the cutoff ratio.Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
th .
. defined as V3 /V2.

so
PV1k PV2k and PV4k PV3k 1 2 4 3
Since V4 = V1 and P3 = P2. we divide the second equation by the first equation and obtain
Therefore.Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
What is T4/T1 ?
PV4 PV1 4 1 where V4 V1 T4 T1 T4 P4 T1 P 1
Recall processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic.
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Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
th .Otto 30 35 th . Diesel
1 T1 (T4 / T1 1) 1 k T2 (T3 / T2 1) 1 T1 rck 1 1 k T2 (rc 1) 1 1 r k 1 rck 1 k (rc 1)
Recall. But. Diesel th . Otto . since rDiesel rOtto .
25 th . th . Otto . th . that in Otto cycle
T1 1 k 1 T2 r
When rc > 1 for a fixed r. Diesel th . Diesel 40
Note: r is compression ratio
.

T1 = 26. and V1 = 1. Initially P1 = 101. Determine (a) all T 's & P 's (b) th.Reciprocating Engines (Diesel Cycle)
Example Problem
A Diesel cycle having a compression ratio of 18:1 & cutoff ratio of 2:1 uses air as the working fluid.6 oC.3 kPa. and (c) the mean effective pressure.884x10-3 m3. Net work.
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