Nitin Vazirani

Dean- HR SIES College Of Management Studies,Nerul. vazirani.nitin@gmail.com

RECRUITMENT
“A process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for efficient workforce.”

“The process searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.”
- Edwin B. Flippo

RECRUITMENT

OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT
To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experience that suit the present and future organizational strategies. To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits To seek non-conventional development grounds for talent. To search for talent globally and not just within the company. To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum. To anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet.

RECRUITMENT

FACTOR AFFECTING RECRUITMENT
Factors Affecting Recruitment

Internal Factors
• Company’s Pay Package • Quality of Worklife • Organizational Culture • Career Planning and Growth • Company’s Size • Company’s Products/Services • Geographical Spread of the Company’s Operations • Company’s Growth Rate • Role of Trade Unions • Cost of Recruitment • Company’s Name and Fame

External Factors
• Socio-economic Factors • Supply and Demand Factors • Employment Rate • Labor Market Conditions • Political, Legal and Governmental Factors like reservations for SC/ST/BC and sons-of-soil. • Information System like Employment Exchanges/Telerecruitment like Internet.

RECRUITMENT

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
Sources of Recruitment

Internal Sources
• Present permanent employees • Present temporary/casual employees • Retrenched or retired employees • Dependents of deceased, disabled, retired and present employees

External Sources
• Campus Recruitment • Private Employment / Agencies / Consultants • Public Employment Exchanges • Professional Associations • Data Banks • Casual Applicants • Similar Organizations • Trade Unions • Poaching • E-Recruitment

RECRUITMENT

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
Why do Organizations Prefer Internal Source?
Internal recruitment can be used as a technique of motivation. Morale of the employees can be improved. Suitability of the internal candidates can be judged better than the external candidates as “known devils are better than unknown angels.” Loyalty, commitment, a sense of belongingness, and security of the present employees can be enhanced. Employees’ psychological needs can be met by providing an opportunity for advancement. Employees economic needs for promotion, higher income can be satisfied. Cost of selection can be minimized. Cost of training, induction, orientation, period of adaptability to the organization can be reduced Trade unions can be satisfied. Social responsibility towards employees may be discharged. Stability of employment can be ensured.

RECRUITMENT

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
Why do Organizations Prefer External Source?
The suitable candidates with skill, knowledge, talent etc., are generally available. Candidates can be selected without any pre-conceived notion or reservations. Cost of employees can be minimized because employees selected from this source are generally placed in minimum pay scale. Expertise, excellence and experience in other organizations can be easily brought into the organization. Human resources mix can be balanced with different background, experience, skill etc. Latest knowledge, skill, innovative or creative talent can also be flowed into the organization. Existing will also broadens their personality. Long-run benefit to the organization in the sense that qualitative human resources can be brought.

RECRUITMENT

RECRUITMENT TECHNIQUES
Recruitment Techniques
For internal candidates: Promotions Transfers For external candidates: Present Employees Scouting Advertising

RECRUITMENT

RECRUITMENT TECHNIQUES
Modern Sources and Techniques of Recruitment • Walk-In • Consult-In • Head-hunting • Body Shopping • Business Alliances • Tele-Recruitment • Poaching • E-Recruitment

RECRUITMENT

HOW PEPSI RECRUITS FOR ITS FIT
THE FIT
• A winner’s mindset • An ability to lead dramatic change • Hands-on • An ability to stretch • An ability to deal with ambiguity • An orientation towards the business • A certain impact and presence • Flair and style • Open and informal • Aggression • Innovation • High achievement

THE PROBES
STARTER PROBES: To build a rapport with the candidate, give the interviewer immediate control of the interview, and probe what the interviewer believes is the major issue in the candidate’s background JOB FIT PROBES: Probes the candidate’s educational background, work experience, career expectations, preferences on national – and international – mobility, and the expected compensation package SUCCESS FACTOR PROBES: Looks at the candidate’s ability to be successful at his or her job. Executive maturity, ability to lead and manage people, excecutional excellence, and knowledge of the business are probed FATAL FLAW PROCESS: If a candidate exhibits certain traits – lack of drive, a penchant for playing office politics, losing cool under pressure, promoting self-interest, and low integrity – these automatically disqualify him

RECRUITMENT

THE REEBOK FIT
YOUTH: As Reebok’s consumers are young, the company stresses youth. So the average age at Reebok is 28 years

A SPORTY ATTITUDE: Employees should have a passion for the fitness business and reflect the company’s aspirations

INFORMAL: HANDS-ON: As Reebok has only 29 employees, the ability to get one’s hands dirty is crucial Employees must have an ability to cope with informality, a flat organization, and absence of hierarchies

EMPOWERED: Employees must be able to take decisions independently and perform consistently with their clearly-defined roles

SELECTION
“The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidates’ specifications are matched with the job specifications and requirements or not.”

The selection procedure cannot be effective until and unless: 2. 3. 4. Requirements of the job to be filled have been clearly specified (Job analysis, etc.) Employee specifications (physical, mental, social, behavioral, etc.) have been clearly specified. Candidates for screening have been attached

SELECTION

SELECTION PROCEDURE
1 Job Analysis 2 Recruitment

3 Application Form

4 Written Examination

5 Preliminary Interview

6 Business Games

7 Tests

8 Final Interview

9 Medical Examination

10 Reference Checks

11 Line Manager’s Decision

12 Employment

SELECTION

INTERVIEW PROCESS
a Preparation for the Interview
Appropriate type of interview The areas to be tested Type and number of interviews Review the information

b

Conduct the Interview

Open the interview Get complete and accurate information Record observations and impressions Guide the interview Check the success of the interview

c d

Close the Interview Evaluate Interview Results

SELECTION

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS IN INTERVIEWS
What goals have you set for yourself? How are you planning to achieve them? What factors did you consider in choosing your majors? Tell me how do you perceive your strengths. Your weaknesses. How do you evaluate yourself? What was the most useful criticism you ever received, and who was it from? How do you motivate people? Why did you choose the extra-curricular activities you did? What did you gain? What did you contribute? Give an example of a situation in which you failed. How you handled it? What two or three accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? What idea have you developed and implemented that was particularly creative or innovative? Describe a situation where you had to work with someone who was difficult. How was the person difficult, and how did you handle it? Describe a leadership role of yours and how you committed time to it? What work experience has been the most valuable to you and why? What are your team player qualities? Give examples Describe a situation were you had a conflict with another individual, and how you dealt with it. Tell me about your expectations from your future employer?

SELECTION

INTERVIEWER'S SAMPLE SHEET
Candidate’s Name Source
Referral Direct Advertisement Computer Institute Placement Agency

Date
Internet Campus

Position Parameter
Functional Ability / Computer Skills Work Exp. Value Addition Mental Acumen General Knowledge Assertiveness / Initiative Leadership Capability Team Work & Adaptability Maturity Personal Impact / Communication Potential 0
No Data

Test Score
1
Deficient

2
Average

3
Capable

4
Strong

5
Exceptional

Overall Rating

SELECTION

INTERVIEWER'S SAMPLE SHEET
Strengths Development Areas

Recommendation Allocation

Financial Information Processing Collections

Technology Sales

Call Centers

Work Experience Weightage: Candidate open to: Overall Comments:

0%

25% - 50% Sunday working

75%

100% Overnight Shift working

Staggered Hours

Recommendation Interviewer’s Name

Hire

Hold for Comparison Signature

Turndown Date

PLACEMENT & INDUCTION
“When once the candidate reports for duty, the organization has to place him initially in that job for which he is selected.”

INDUCTION

EMPLOYEE PLACEMENT PROCESS
Collect details about the employee

Construct the employee’s profile

Match between sub-group profile and individual’s profile

PLACEMENT

&

Compare sub-group profile to job family profile

Match between job family profiles and sub-group profiles

Assign the individuals to job family

Assign the individual to specific job after further counseling and assignment

INDUCTION & PLACEMENT

INDUCTION PROCEDURE AND PROGRAMME
1. Word of welcome. 2. Explain overall departmental organization and its relationship to other activities of the company. 3. Explain employee’s individual contribution to the objectives of the department and his starting assignment in board terms 4. Discuss job content with employee and give him a copy of job description (if available) 5. Explain departmental training programmes and salary increase practices, and procedures 6. Discuss where the employee lives and transportation facilities. 1. Explain working conditions a) Hours of work b) Use of employee entrance and exit c) Lunch hours d) Coffee breaks e) Personal telephone calls and mail f) Overtime policy and requirements

g) Pay days and procedure for being paid h) Lockers i) Other – Safety habits and security regulations

INDUCTION

INDUCTION PROCEDURE AND PROGRAMME
1. Requirement for continuance of employment – explain company standards as to: a) Performance of duties b) Attendance and punctuality c) Handling confidential information d) Behavior e) General appearance f) Wearing a uniform

& PLACEMENT

9. Introduce new staff member to manager (s) and other supervisors (special attention should be paid to the person to whom the new employee will be assigned. 1. Release employee to immediate supervisor who will: a) Introduce new staff member to fellow workers b) Familiarize the employee with his work lace c) Begin on – the – job training.

INDUCTION

MERITS AND DEMERITS OF INDUCTION
MERITS

PLACEMENT

    

Exposes new managers to all kinds of businesses Prevents inductees from being over-specialized Makes a recruit productive to the company quickly Familiarizes new entrants with corporate culture Imparts training on the job rather than theoretically

&

DEMERITS

    

Throws trainees into the thick of action too soon Mistakes made by raw recruits can damage company Allows no time to gauge individual strength and weaknesses Daunts people who prefer structured work environment Small periods spent in each job can create wrong perceptions

INDUCTION

CITIBANK’S INDUCTION PROCESS
ORIENTATION PROGRAMME Duration: 21/2 weeks ON-THE-JOB PERFORMING

Presentation by each business head

Corporate Banking

Customer Banking

& PLACEMENT
Case study presentations which encourage solutions from the participants

Assigned Specific Job Duration 21/2 – 6 weeks

Assigned Projects: Two or more projects

Simulation exercises

Duration: 6 weeks

Interaction with peers across the region

Detailed job-wise discussions, training, problem-solving

CONCLUDING CLASS-ROOM TRAINING

Recruitment – The Cisco Way

“Our philosophy is very simple – if you get the best people in the industry to fit into your culture and you motivate them properly, then you’re going to be an industry leader.’ John Chamber CEO, Cisco Systems

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

INTRODUCTION
The Case: The case examines various changes brought about by global networking major. Cisco, in its recruitment policies in the mid-1990s

Background of Cisco: Cisco was founded in 1984 by a group of computer scientists at Stanford, who designed an operating software called IOS (Internet Operating System) In 1985, the company started a customer support site from where customers could download software over FTP and also upgrade the downloaded software. It provided technical support to its customers through emails

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

INTRODUCTION
Introduction to the case:
In 1995, global networking major, Cisco, found that despite hiring an average of 1,000 people every three months during the year, the company still had hundreds of openings. Cisco hired more than 1,000 employees every quarter – around 10 percent of the total jobs generated through Internet in the Silicon Valley. The management realized that they had to adopt innovative recruitment measures to get the best people and remain the leader in the Internet era. Foremost among these was the first of its kind online recruitment called the ‘Friends program’ In 2001, the company recruited around 40-50% of its employees through ‘Make a friend @ Cisco’ online program and other such initiatives

“Friends is designed to put some grace into the hiring process.”. Cisco recruiters have also began to target passive job seekers, who were content and successful in their existing jobs. - Michael McNeal, Director, Corporate Employment

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

RECRUITMENT AT CISCO
Cisco’s Vision Statement:
“Attracting, growing and retaining great talent is critical to sustaining Cisco’s competitive advantage.”

Cisco sources revealed that the company had a policy of attracting the ‘top 10-15 percent’ people in the networking industry. It believed that if it could get the best people in the industry and retain them, it would remain the industry leader Cisco’s recruiting team identified the candidates whom they felt that the company ‘should hire,’ and then figured out ways those potential candidates did their job hunting and designed hiring processes to attract them to the company. “The top 10 percent are not typically found in the first round of layoffs from other companies, and they usually aren’t cruising through the want ads.” - Barbara Beck, Vice President, Human Resources

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

RECRUITMENT AT CISCO
Since the most sought after employees were not accessible, Cisco deviced a strategy to lure them.

As part of its strategy to attract the best talent, Cisco changed the way it used wanted advertisements in newspapers. Instead of listing specific job openings, the company featured its Internet address in its ads and invited prospective candidates to apply.

The company learned to attract happily employed people through focus groups. For example, it was found that most professionals like to watch movies in their free time, websites on ‘corporate cartoon Dilbert’ were extremely popular and most professionals hated job hunting.

Cisco linked its website to the Dilbert web page, which registered around 2.5 million hits per day, mainly from engineers and Internet-savvy managers.

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

RECRUITMENT AT CISCO
The focus group’s exercise made Cisco realize that a candidate would approach the company if he had been informed by a friend about better opportunities at Cisco.

Cisco also reached out to potential applicants through a variety of routes which were unusual in recruiting. It began frequenting art fairs, beer festivals and certain annual events in which people from Silicon Valley participated. These places proved to be very ‘fruitful hunting venues’ as they attracted young achievers from various successful infotech companies.

Cisco recruiters mingled with the crowd, collected business cards from prospective candidates and spoke to them informally about their careers. The Cisco employees then called the prospects to inform them in their own words about life at the company.

By 1999, about one third of new recruitments were made through the Friends program, Cisco launched a tool called Profiler on the employment page of its website to accelerate and standardize online resume submission.

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

RECRUITMENT AT CISCO
To avoid applicants from being caught by their current employers while using Profiler, Cisco designed each screen with an escape button that opened web page about gift suggestions for coworkers.

To speed up the hiring process, Cisco hired in-house headhunters to identify qualified candidates for managers.

Cisco also encouraged internal referrals for recruitment through a program called ‘Amazing People.’ This system allowed Cisco employees to refer their friends, acquaintances for positions in Cisco. Employees were given bonus if the company hired the person they referred.

Every new recruit was assigned a ‘buddy’ who clarified all doubts and answered questions about Cisco and work in general.

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

REAPING THE BENFITS
Cisco believed that its new recruitment philosophy should be made a part of the overall corporate culture. By last 2000, Cisco’s job page was recording around 500,000 hits per month.

Cisco, which was hiring approximately 8,000 people a year, received 81 percent of the resumes were from the web.

Eventually, 66 percent of the new recruits were the candidates who had sent their resumes through the Cisco website.

It was also reported that about 45 percent of the company’s new recruits came from the Amazing People program.

Cisco’s hiring cycle also came down to 45 days from 68 days.

The recruitment costs in this ‘direct mode’ was around 40 percent below the industry average.

RECRUITMENT - THE CISCO WAY

REAPING THE BENFITS
Referral rates at Cisco were twice the industry norm and that created a performance edge, as most recruits were qualified employees with vast experience.

By 2002, referrals and the friends program accounted for 50-60 percent of new employees. Most importantly, the retention rate at the company had also increased.

According to the company sources on average Cisco employees accessed the corporate e-HR site 16 times a day for information about job cuts.

Analysts claimed that Cisco’s innovative and aggressive recruiting initiatives were to a large extent responsible for the company’s expansion at 40 percent every year and recruiting 250 employees every week despite the global dot-cum slump.

Industry observers felt that other players should also change their recruitment policies to keep up with Cisco’s ‘power-staffing’ recruitment.

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