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 The IP address is the number that

devices use in order to and


communicate with each other on a
computer network utilizing the
Internet Protocol standard (IP).

 Every server, client and devices


have this unique address for their
identification.

 An IP address is somewhat
similar to the Telephone number.
IP addresses are written in "dotted decimal" notation, which is four
sets of numbers separated by periods; for example, 10.1.1.1 .

The range of IP Address is from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255.


An IP address is first divided between networks and hosts. The host bits
are further divided between subnets and hosts.
Static IP addresses are used to identify semi-permanent devices with
constant IP addresses.

Servers typically use static IP addresses. Routers, firewalls and proxy


servers use static addresses as do most servers and printers that serve
multiple users.

Routers, firewalls and servers use static addresses as do most servers


and printers that serve multiple users.

These IPs are used in LAN and WAN.


The IP address assigned to your service by your cable or DSL Internet provider is
typically dynamic IP.

In routers and operating systems, the default configuration for clients is dynamic IP
(Client machines may use Static or Dynamic IP address).

Dynamic IP address allocation requires a server to listen for requests and then
assign an address. Addresses can be assigned at randomly or based on a
predetermined policy.

The most common protocol used to dynamically assign addresses is Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

DHCP includes a lease time which determines how long the requester can use an
address before requesting its renewal, allowing addresses to be reclaimed if the
requester goes offline.
When we type a name, such as www.hotmail.com, into our browser's
address bar, our computer sends a DNS lookup request to our local DNS
server.

During its normal course of operation, the local server caches entries in
resource records. So if there's a current cached entry for www.hotmail.com,
the local DNS server returns the corresponding IP address (63.87.252.186)
to our computer, and our browser connects to that address.

If there's no current entry, the DNS server contacts a root server for the
top-level domain (such as .com, .org, or .net). The root server contains a
database with entries for the authoritative server for all domains.
The root server would report back to your ISP that the authoritative
DNS server for www.hotmail.com is 198.6.1.18 .

The ISP's DNS would then contact that authoritative server, which
would return Hotmail's Web site's current address.

The ISP passes the address to the computer, which in turn plugs it into
our browser.
For some applications, a changing IP address just won’t do.
DDNS solves the problem.

Article
Presentation By: By:

Director of Operations at
PC magazine Labs.