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Communication Mix in Marketing

Sender-the party sending the message to another party Encoding-the process of putting thought into symbolic form Message-the set of symbols that the sender transmits Media-the communication channels through which the message moves from sender to receiver

Decoding-the process by which the receiver assigns meaning to the symbols encoded by the sender Receiver-the party receiving the message send by other party Response-the reactions of the receiver after being exposed to the message Feedback-the part of receivers response communicated back to the sender Noise-the unplanned static or distortion during the communication process which results in the receiver's getting a different message than the one the sender sent


the target audience-what to say, when to say, where to say, how to say Determining the communication objectives-the communicator must know where exactly the customer is standing and accordingly design the message so as to get a positive response (i.e. decision to purchase the product or service )

The stages through which consumers normally pass through on their way to purchase including awareness , knowledge, liking, preference , conviction, and purchase








Designing a message-developing an effective message

Message Generation: The marketing communicator must decide what to say (message content) and how to say it (message structure and its format( colour, size, shape, movement, sound, position)) Message content has 3 appeals namely rational (benefits of the product) ,emotional (positive and negative emotions, humour appeals) and moral (what is right and wrong) Message structure includes whether to draw conclusion to leave to audience Whether to present the strongest argument last or first Whether to present one sided or two sided argument






Choosing media-the communicator must select channels of communication There are two broad types of communication channels (personal and non personal) Personal communication channels-channels through which two or more people communicate directly with each other , including face to face , person to audience, over the telephone, or through mail Word of mouth influence-personal communication about a product between target buyers and neighbors , friends, family members, and associates Buzz marketing-cultivating opinion leaders and getting them to spread information about a product or service to others in their communities Nonpersonal communication channels-media that carry messages without personal contact or feedback, including major media, and events (press conference, exhibitions) Major media includes newspapers, magazines, direct mail. TV, radio

Selecting the message source-messages delivered by highly credible sources are more persuasive
Many food companies promote to doctors, dentist, and other health care providers to motivate these professionals to recommend their products to patients Also actors, sports persons are good credible sources

Collecting feedback-communicator has to check the effect of communication on target audience

Done buy asking the target audience how they felt about the message? Whether they remember the message? what points they recall? and how many bought the product and shared about the product to others?

An actor promoting INDIAN TERRAIN brand who act as a credible source

Can reach masses of geographically dispersed buyers at low sot of exposure Enables the seller to repeat a message many times Large scale advertising says something positive about the sellers size, popularity, and success It is also very expressive Can be used to build long term image for a product Can trigger quick sales

It is impersonal One way communication TV advertising is very costly compared to newspaper and radio advertising

Any paid form of non personal Presentation and promotion Of ideas , goods, or services by an identified sponsor

An ad promoting used cars sale

A marketing services firm that assists companies in planning, preparing, implementing, and evaluating all Portions of their advertising programs

Mission: the advertising objectives Money : how much to spend Message : what message can be sent Media : what media can be used Measurement : how to evaluate the results

Message content(USP) Product features Psychological features: fear, guilt, love or humour Association : favourite personalities. Message structure: body of advertising. 2 features: Message structure

- Message sidedness
- Order of presentation - Climax order, anti climax n pyramidal order - Stating conclusion in message

Message appeal: Rational & emotional appeal Source: Commercial source N social source

Types of Advertising budget

Competitive parity method Affordability method-small firms-availability oriented method Percentage of turnover method : PLC is neglected Functional budget method(objective n task method Regression analysis: historical data like past advertising exp n sales over the time -this is to predict the dependant variable like sales or market share done by advertisement Adaptive control method: John D C Little

Measuring how far the communication task has been accomplished: awareness n recognition Measuring the sales task has been accomplished Pre-testing: Portfolio method Post-testing: TOMA

Defining advertising goals for measured advertising results (DAGMAR) Is the logical basis for advertising goals and objectives against which success or failure should be measured Prepared by Russel Colley in 1961 According to DAGMAR advertisement objective should be measurable

Making the consumer aware of the existence of the brand or product or company

Developing an understanding of what the product is and what it will do for the consumer

Developing a mental disposition in the consumer to buy the product

Getting the consumer to purchase the product