Finance and Controlling – Day 1

Introduction to SAP

Business without ERP
Customers 4
PP contacts Purchasing for raw material

Purchasing
Customer Calls to place 1 order for a Car

Sales office/Inventory contacts PP

Production Planning
3
Sales office contacts Inventory

3

2

Sales
-3-

Inventory

Business without ERP (Contd..) Lets add some more Business Processes -4- .

.Business without ERP (Contd.) Customers Where is my car What is this confusion What to manufactur e?? Whom to contact for status? What is Cost and profit Production Planning Sales Shop floor Finance Purchasing Vendors Inventory -5- .

. I did not order for a TRUCK!!!! Dear Sir.Lets Deliver the end product to customer. Your Order… Sales -6- .

) I AM NOT TAKING DELIVERY AND WILL NEVER DEAL WITH YOU! We are SORRY Sir Sales -7- .Business without ERP (Contd..

Overall Picture Vendors Sales General Ledger Purchasing Customers A/R A/P Production Planning Inventory Shop Floor Execution -8- .

Why Enterprise Architecture • Why Enterprise Architecture ? – Numerous disparate information systems – Integrating the data becomes costly • Time • Money • Resources – Inconsistencies and duplication of data – Lack of timely information – Required: Central enterprise definitions – Required: Centrally controlled business change -9- .

Plants -10- .Enterprise Structure – Integrating Business FA Marketing Treasury GL Shop Floor Sales AR AP Purchasing Payroll HR Partner Systems PP Mfg.

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Enterprise Architecture .Benefits • • • • • • • Eliminates the duplication. discontinuity and redundancy in data Increases the return on investment made on IT implementations Delivers quality information designed for the Enterprise as a whole Faster and cheaper Delivers quality information to produce a quality enterprise Satisfying Partners/Customers Reducing required manpower ERP -12- .

Quiz Time • What is the full form of SAP? • When was SAP founded? -13- .

Quiz Time • What is the full form of SAP? Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing • When was SAP founded? Founded in 1972 by Wellenreuther. Hopp. Hector. Plattner and Tschira – Renamed in 1977 – Before 1977 : Systems Analysis and Program Development (German : Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung) -14- .

which covers virtually every aspect of the business Three systems developed : R/1. Hopp. Hector. Anwendungen. R/2. R/3 • -15- .History of SAP • Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing – German : Systeme. Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung • Founded in 1972 by Wellenreuther. Plattner and Tschira – Renamed in 1977 – Before 1977 : Systems Analysis and Program Development (German : Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung) • • SAP is both the name of the Company as well as their ERP Product SAP system comprises of a number of fully integrated modules.

Steps to Strategic ERP Enterprise Resource Planning is evolved through these stages … Enterprise Resource Planning Inter-Enterprise Co-operation Collaborative Business Create Strategic Value Total Company Value Automation Efficiency and Control 80’s R/2 90’s R/3 Today mySAP ERP Evolution of ERP -16- .

Evolution of SAP -18- .

Quiz Time • SAP R/3 client server architecture evolved in year___________.com with one step business -19- . • Which is the latest SAP product? – mySAP ERP – mySAP Business Suite – mySAP.

Quiz Time • SAP R/3 client server architecture evolved in year 1992 • Which is the latest SAP product? – mySAP ERP – mySAP Business Suite – mySAP.com with one step business -20- .

SAP R/3 Architecture .

as a whole -22- .3 Tier Client / Server Architecture • The SAP R/3 architecture is based on a 3-tier client/server principle – Presentation Server – Application Server – Database Server • Dedicated Servers are linked by Communication Networks • Perform tasks without sacrificing data integration and processes within the system.

2) -23- .SAP R/3 System Architecture (Contd...

Overview of Presentation & Database Servers • The Presentation Server – – – – – GUI only At workstation Very light Sends requests to application server Obtains screens from application server and displays • The Database Server – Interface between application server and RDBMS – Also holds the vendor specific DB driver -24- .

SAP R/3 Conceptual Areas SAP Conceptual Areas Application Area (Initiate and execute SAP transactions) (Functional) Basis Area (The technical administration of the system) Development Area (1. Create & Test ABAP/4 programs) (Technical) (Authorizations/Ids/etc) -25- . A developer’s workbench 2.

-26- ..Systems in R3 Transport Request Development System (DC) Quality System (QC) Production System (IC) Client 110 100 etc.

Clients in R/3 • The Logon Client – 3 digit number ( 000 to 999) – Helps maintain independent sets of data within the same R/3 system • Client mechanism and handling -27- .

Clients in R/3 -28- .

. C. C++. Windows 95.. Java ABAP/4.1. HTML. Macintosh *. OSF/Motif *.R/3 Technology Environment Hardware UNIX Systems Bull IBM Digital SNI HP SUN Bull/Zenith Compaq Data General . OS/2 Presentation Manager (PM). Windows NT. Digital NCR HP (Intel) Sequent IBM (Intel) SNI IBM AS/400 IBM S/390 Operating AIX Reliant systems Digital UNIX UNIX (SINIX) HP-UX SOLARIS Windows NT OS/400 OS/390 Databases ADABAS D DB2 for AIX INFORMIX-OnLine ORACLE ADABAS D MS SQL Server INFORMIX-OnLine ORACLE DB2 for OS/400 DB2 for OS/390 Dialog SAPGUI Languages Windows 3. Java .

1 ADABAS D Oracle 7.0 ADABAS D Windows NT AT&T Compaq Bull / Zenith HP (Intel) SNI IBM (Intel) Digital (Intel) Data-General OS/400 AS/400 Win 95 OS/2 DB2/400 -30- .1 SQL Server 6.1/ 95 / NT OSF / Motif OS/2 Macintosh Win 3.1 / 95 / NT OSF / Motif OS/2 Macintosh DB2 for AIX Informix – Online Oracle 7.Platforms and Databases supported by R/3 Operating Systems Supported Hardware Supported Front ends Supported Databases AIX SINIX SOLARIS HP-UX Digital Unix IBM SNI SUN Digital HP Bull Win 3.

Client Server Benefit -31- .

Quiz Time Match the following Presentation Server Application Server 3 Digit number Client Testing/ UAT Unix Systems Authorizations Windows Basis Quality System GUI Oracle Client Business Administration -32- .

Quiz Time Match the following Presentation Server Application Server 3 Digit number Client Testing/ UAT Unix Systems Authorizations GUI Business Administration Client Quality System (QC) Windows Basis -33- .

SAP R/3 Modules .

SAP Modules SD – Sales and Distribution MM – Materials Management PP – Production Planning FI – Financial Accounting SD MM PP FI CO AM CO – Controlling AM – Asset Management SAP R/3 QM QM – Quality Management PM – Plant Maintenance WM – Warehouse Management HR PM WM PS WF HR – Human Resources WF – Workflow PS – Project System -35- .

SAP R/3 Application Modules • Financial accounting (FI) • Controlling (CO) • Asset management (AM) • Materials management (MM) • Sales and Distribution (SD) • Production Planning (PP) • Quality management (QM) • Plant maintenance (PM) & Customer Service (CS) • Project system (PS) • Human resources (HR) • Workflow (WF) -36- .

Module Functionalities MM Material Procurement Inventory Management Batch Management Goods inspection Invoice Verification PP BOM/Work Center/Routing MRP Capacity Evaluations Production Orders QM in production SD Inquiry processing Sales Order Processing Delivery Processing Billing FI General Ledger Accounts Payable Accounts receivable Cash management CO Cost Center Accounting Product Costing Order Contribution Analysis -37- .

Quiz Time Match the following Financial Accounting Controlling Materials Management Sales & Distribution Production Planning Project System Inventory Management Shop Floor Control Financial Reporting Profit center Accounting Billing Activity monitoring Asset Management -38- .

Quiz Time Match the following Financial Accounting Controlling Materials Management Sales & Distribution Production Planning Project System Asset Management & Financial Reporting Profit center Accounting Inventory Management Billing Shop Floor Control Activity monitoring -39- .

Module FI – Financial Accounting • External reporting of • • • General ledger Accounts receivable/payable Sub-ledger accounts with a user-defined Chart of Accounts • Key elements • • • • • • • General ledger Accounts payable Accounts receivable Asset Management Special Purpose Ledger (FI-SL) Legal consolidation Accounting Information System -40- .

Financial Accounting Bank Foreign exchange management Finance information system Management of secureties and loans Cash management and forecast Accounts payable Payables Bank accounts Receivables Accounts receivable General Ledger Invoice verification Extended General Ledger Consolidation Credit management -41- .

Module CO – Controlling
• Represents the flow of cost and revenue • Instrument for organizational decisions

• Key elements of the CO application module include :
• • • Cost center accounting Product cost Planning Product Costing


• • •

Profitability analysis
Profit center accounting Activity based costing Enterprise controlling

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Module SD – Sales and Distribution
• Optimize tasks/activities in
• Sales


Delivery
Billing

• Key elements of the SD application module include :
• Pre-sales support


• • • • • • •

Inquiry processing
Quotation processing Sales order processing Delivery processing Warehouse management Billing Credit Management Sales Information system
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Sales and Distribution Processing
SALES INFORMATION SYSTEM Sales Support
Sales activity

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT

Sales

Inquiry Quotation Contract Scheduling agreement

USD

Delivery free of charge

Subsequent delivery free of charge

Sales order

Returns

Shipping
Delivery

Billing
Debit memo Invoice Credit memo

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING
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Module MM – Materials Management • Supports • • Procurement Inventory • Key elements • • Materials procurement (purchasing) Inventory management • • • • Invoice verification Material valuation Vendor evaluation External Services management • • Purchasing Information System (PurchIS) Inventory Controlling Information system -45- .

Materials Management BASIC DATA  Material Special stock Batch  Vendor/one-time customer  Purchasing info record  Service specifications  Workflow  Optical archive PURCHASING  Purchase requisition    SD PP PM Third-party order Requirements  RFQ/Quotation    Purchasing information system Vendor evaluation MRP Direct requisition Release procedures Material/service Price comparisons Price comparison list Purchase orders Outline agreements Scheduling agreements  Purchasing    Service/ Spare Parts Service / Inspection QM spare parts lot FI AM CO PS G/L accounts Cash management and forecast Fixed assets Cost center / Budget Project INVENTORY MANAGEMENT       Texts Mail Communication  Classification  Documents Goods receipt/issue Transfer posting Quantities and values Physical inventory Storage bins INVOICE VERIFICATION    Conditions Check and post Price update -46- .

Module PP – Production Planning • To plan and control the manufacturing activities • Key elements • • • • • Bill of Material (BOM) Routings Work Centers Sales and Operations planning (SOP) Master Production Scheduling (MPS) – Capacity Planning • • • • • • • • Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) Shop Floor Control (SFC) Production orders Product costing. activity-based costing Work in process Kanban Production planning for process industries (PP-PI) Repetitive Manufacturing -47- .

Production Planning SD PP Customers Sales Shipping Billing SD Sales and Operations Planning Demand management / MPS Material requirements planning Detailed Schedeling and Planning Capacity planning Shop floor control Costing Information system Project Networks PS SD PM SD Maintenance Repairs Plant maintenance QM SD Inbound Raw Material Finished Goods Vendors MM SD Purchasing Warehouse Invoice verification FI Financial accounting CO Cost accounting -48- HR Human resources .

Module QM – Quality Management • Supports • Quality planning • • • • Inspection Control for manufacturing Costing Procurement • Key elements • • • Quality planning Quality during procurement. production.Quality inspection • Information System (QMIS) -49- . distribution Quality Management Information .

Module PS – Project System & HR – Human Resource • PS – Project Systems • Support planning. control. Milestones. Material Planning. & monitoring of long term highly complex projects with defined goals • Project WBS – Plan • Budget & Monitor • Network Management • Activity monitoring. Capacities Scheduling • Key elements • Project Management Information System • HR – Human Resource • Key elements • Recruitment • Payroll & Time management • Travel Expense accounting & Benefits • Workforce planning & Training administration • Organization management -50- .

Quiz Time • Is Industry solutions an SAP module like FI/CO/MM etc? • True/False – PP Supports procurement and Inventory – FI Handles project budgeting and monitoring – WF management is a support tool for all modules -52- .

Quiz Time • Is SAP .Industry solutions a module like FI/CO/MM etc? NO • True/False – PP Supports procurement and Inventory (False – MM Supports these functions) – FI Handles project budgeting and monitoring (False – PS handles these functions) – WF management is a support tool for all modules (True) -53- .

IS – Industry Solutions • Combines SAP R/3 application modules to additional industryspecific functionality • Result of the research by industry Centers expertise (ICOE) -54- .

Construction & Operations SAP for Professional Services • • SAP for Insurance SAP for Utilities • • • • • • SAP for Healthcare SAP for Public Sector SAP for High Tech SAP for Retail SAP for Higher Education & Research SAP for Service Providers • • SAP for Industrial Machinery & Components SAP for Telecommunications -55- .mySAP Industry Solutions (Some Examples) • • • • • • • • • • • • SAP for Aerospace & Defense SAP for Media SAP for Automotive SAP for Mill Products SAP for Banking SAP for Mining SAP for Chemicals SAP for Oil & Gas SAP for Consumer Products SAP for Pharmaceuticals SAP for Engineering.

SAP Product Overview .

mySAP Business Suite R/3 SAP NetWeaver •Easing Upgrade Plans & Providing Transition Options •Bringing benefits of SAP Netweaver into installed base •New Customers have more entry options & receive world –class ERP -57- ..Evolution of SAP products mySAP ERP R/3 Enterprise Web AS Solutions mySAP CRM mySAP SCM mySAP HR mySAP PLM ……….

Evolution of SAP products SAP R/3 my SAP Solutions my SAP Business Suite -58- .

SAP R/3 Financials HR Corporate Services Operations -59- .

mySAP Solutions mySAP PLM mySAP SCM mySAP Financials mySAP CRM mySAP HR Corporate Services Operations mySAP SRM Adaptive Business Solutions -60- SAP R/3 .

my SAP Business Suite mySAP PLM mySAP SCM mySAP mySAP SRM mySAP Financials mySAP HR Corporate Services Operations CRM SAP NetWeaver Application Platform ( Web As) People Integration (Portal) Information Integration( BI.MDM) Process Integration (XI) -61- .

mySAP Solutions & Netweaver • mySAP CRM • mySAP SRM • mySAP SCM • mySAP PLM • SAP Netweaver -62- .

My SAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM) .

CRM Solution Map -64- .

CRM – Holistic view -65- .

Where does a CRM solution fit? Who What Marketing Sales Service Executives Service Use a CRM Solution to complete the Cycle Engage Fulfill Transact Workplace Which way How Internet Mobile Telephony Operational -66- Analytical Collaborative .

CRM Component Landscape mySAP.com Portal Users OLTP R/3 System CRM System BW As one big logical box Internet Telephone Callers Mobile Clients APO -67- .

CRM Internet Sales Enterprise B2C Scenario Consumer Internetselling BBP Scenario Business Partner B2R Scenario -68- Reseller .

up-to-date record of a customer’s products and installations to facilitate service and anticipate customer requirements -69- .Service module within CRM • Service Planning • Proactively engage customers with the correct resources at the most beneficial times • Customer Care • Provide customer with 24/7 accessibility from all communication channels with precise and consistent informationon • Installed Base Management • Maintain an accurate.

competitors. product and competitive information – Determining product and pricing configurations – Managing sales projects across sales teams – Generating presentation and proposals -70- . – Heavy cross-referencing for easy navigation • Facilitates the sales process by – Effectively managing customers and prospects – Providing appropriate customer. quotations. products. etc. orders.Mobile Sales module within CRM • Suite of tools tailored to the needs of the offline mobile sales force – Provides an integrated view of customers. prospects. activities. opportunities. services.

Quiz Time • What is the latest version of mySAP CRM • Name the three service modules with in CRM -71- .

0) • Name three service modules with in CRM – Service Planning – Customer care – Installed base management -72- .Quiz Time • What is the latest version of mySAP CRM (Version 5.

My SAP Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) .

SRM Solution Map -74- .

5 • Enterprise Portal 5.0 Exchange Infrastructure Content Integrator -75- .5 • User Management 3.5 • Supplier self services 1.Key Components of mySAP SRM mySAP SRM – eProcurement mySAP SCE Supplier Collaboration Engine • Enterprise Buyer Prof 3.0B • Requisite Bugs Eye 3.5 • Business Inf.0 • Bidding Engine 3.0 • Requisite eMerge 3. W’house 3.

Key Components of mySAP SRM • Strategic Sourcing •Sourcing analytics: Helps provide analytics based on supplier location. line of business •Supplier evaluation: Helps you evaluate the supplier base within the organization systems and external market places to identify and select supplier to ensure reliable & uninterrupted supply •Request for quotation and auctions: Provides electronic auctioning and bidding tools to compress sourcing cycle times •Contract management: Helps create and manage value and quantity contracts • Operational Procurement •Self-service procurement: Enables decentralizing procurement process within organization. without diluting the control •Plan-driven procurement: Enables automatic purchase order generation for stock materials across the integrated supply chain •Services procurement: Enables service procurement process to be managed online -76- .

data edit and a search engine -77- .Key Components of mySAP SRM…. • Supplier Enablement •Supplier portal: Provides portal features for suppliers to manage their product data and orders •Supplier connectivity: Provides capability to connect multiple suppliers through XM_based document exchange • Content Management •Content consolidation: Provides capability to consolidate product and vendor information •Catalog content management: Provides capability to manage OCI compatible catalog with tools for data import.Contd.

Quiz Time • Name any one key component of mySAP SRM Solution map -78- .

Quiz Time • Name any one key component of mySAP SRM Solution map – Following are the three key components of mySAP SRM • Strategic Purchasing & Sourcing • Operational Procurement • Supplier Collaboration -79- .

My SAP Supply Chain Management (SCM) .

SCM – Solution Map -81- .

alert and resolve exceptions -82- .mySAP SCM SAP APO (Advanced Planning and Optimizing) Flexible and Adaptive Planning. Integration with CRM. SRM and PLM SAP ICH (inventory Collaboration Hub) Collaboration with Suppliers SAP EM (Event Management) Monitor.

destination of transaction data like planning outputs or Availability Checks for Execution systems SAP SCM Transaction Data Core Interface Master Data Module includea Demand Planning.Typical SAP SCM Solution-scape SAP R/3 Dominant source of Master Data in SAP SCM. TPVS and TLB Planning system where selective Master data maintained and sourced from R/3 Core interface SAP CRM. GATP. Stock Transfers and Production Orders Legacy Systems BAPI -83- . SNP or PPDS Planned Orders. SAP SRM and SAP PLM Planning Outputs include Forecasts. SNP & Deployment. PPDS.

One-on-One comparison i2 Technologies (Tradematrix SCM) SAP SCM ORACLE APS Manugistics (Networks SCM) Forecasting Demand Planner/Demand Management Demand Fulfillment Demand Planner Oracle Demand Planner Demand Management ATP and Fulfillment SAP GATP (Global ATP) Oracle GOP (Global Order Promising) Fulfillment Management Material and Resource planning Supply Chain Planning SAP SNP (Supply Network Planning) Oracle ASCP (Advanced SCP) Master Planning Manufacturing Planning Factory Planning PP/DS (Production Planning and Detailed Scheduling) TP/VS (Transportation Planning/Vehicle Scheduling) Oracle Manufacturing Scheduling Manufacturing Planning and Scheduling Logistics Management Solutions Transportation TMS (Transportation Management Solutions) Oracle Transportation -84- .

mySAP Product Life Cycle Management (PLM) .

PLM Solution Map -86- .

SAP Netweaver .

A Roadmap for Web Services -88- .

Services are changing SAP’s Product portfolio -89- .

From Basis to WAS -90- .

Integration is the Key Challenge Business Drivers Document Mgmt Call Center Market Analysis Extended Value Network Increased Market Dynamics Integration costs are high Long integration projects IT environments become increasingly rigid Lots of heterogeneous systems SCM ERP E-sales Pressure on IT increases Must leverage existing investments Must support new business processes quicker Trading E-procurement Technical systems Must reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) PLM -91- .

information.How to Address the Integration Challenge Reduce Complexity • Minimize the number of connections through hubs Document Mgmt Call Center Market Analysis •Use only one platform to integrate all people. not projects E-sales Increase company performance •Increase ease of use.NET and J2EE interoperability •Deliver adaptors for ISV products •Deliver products. scalability and adaptability Trading E-procurement Technical systems •Increase business process flexibility by using an Enterprise Services Architecture PLM -92- . and systems Reduce Cost Integration SCM ERP •Deliver .

The fundamental Web services standards are supported by the Web Application Server (Web AS). which is the basis for all other NetWeaver components -93- .

information and business processes Integrates across technologies and organizational boundaries A safe choice with full .SAP NetWeaver The integration and application platform for lower TCO Unifies and aligns people.NET and J2EE interoperability The Business foundation for SAP and partners  Powers business-ready solutions that reduce custom integration It’s Enterprise Services Architecture increases business process flexibility -94- .

comprehensive toolsets Leverage existing infrastructure/skillets -95- . Accential ) Life cycle Management Information Integration Bus. Intelligence Knowledge Mgmt Master Data Management Master Data Management Coming in 2003 Process Integration Integration Broker Business Process Management SAP Exchange Infrastructure Proxy generation and mapping tools Integration directory SAP’s ability to execute Application Platform J2EE ABAP Multi-channel Access SAP Web Application Server Proven.SAP NetWeaver in Detail (SAP Internal View) Product components and killer features SAP Mobile Infrastructure Tight coupling and alignment with SAP business solutions SAP NetWeaver People Integration Composite Application Framework Multi-channel Access Portal Collaboration SAP Enterprise Portal Business packages Collaboration SAP Business information Warehouse Business content Tight integration to Sap Open architecture (Crystal. scalable.

SAP Solutions Powered by SAP NetWeaver Business content makes the business foundation -96- .

SAP Organizational units .

Business Scenarios – Main Elements -98- .

Organizational Structure in SAP Production Planning Financial Accounting Plant Company Code Controlling Controlling Area Client Human Resources Personnel Area Sales and Distribution Materials Management Sales Area Purchasing Organization -99- .

Company Code -100- .

Levels -101- .Organizational Structure .

Organizational Structure – Business Functions -102- .

Technology -103- .Enterprise Structure .

SAP Organizational Structure: Cardinality Client Chart of Accounts Purchasing Group Company Code Purchasing Org. Shipping Point Storage Location Distribution Channel Sales Office Sales Group Loading Point Division -104- . Plant Sales Organ.

-105- .

Quiz Time • Which is not a part of SAP Business Scenario main Elements – Master Data – Organizational Unit – Transaction – Document – All the above • Answer True or False – One Chart of accounts can be assigned to many Company Codes – A plant can be assigned to many Company codes -106- .

Quiz Time • Which is not a part of SAP Business Scenario main Elements – Master Data – Organizational Unit – Transaction – Document – All the above • Answer True or False – One Chart of accounts can be assigned to many Company Codes (True) – A plant can be assigned to many Company codes (False) -107- .

Organizational Elements in FICO .

Organizational Units in R/3 FI -109- .

Overview: Organizational Elements in Accounting -110- .

Organizational Elements in Logistics .

Overview: Organizational Elements in Logistics

-112-

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Quiz Time • State True/False – Company is obligatory in an organization structure • Fill in the blank – Unit responsible for procurement of materials/services and negotiating with vendors is called ____________. -115- .

Quiz Time • State True/False – Company is obligatory in an organization structure (False – Company code is obligatory) • Fill in the blank – Unit responsible for procurement of materials/services and negotiating with vendors is called Purchasing Organization -116- .

Organizational Elements in Sales .

-118- .

-119- .

-120- .

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________________ and _______________. -124- .Quiz Time Fill in the blanks • Sales area is a combination of _____________.

– Division and – Distribution Channel -125- .Quiz Time Fill in the blanks • Sales area is a combination of – Sales Organization.

Navigation .

Logging on to SAP System Logon pad with different systems -127- .

-128- .

-129-

Adding to favorites

Steps to add transaction to favorites Step I: Select the transaction you want to add to favorites Step II: Right click on the transaction you want to add to favorites Step III: Select Add to favorites.

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General Settings .

Global Settings (at Country level) • • Variants Calendar – Public Holidays – Holiday Calendar – Factory Calendar • Unit of Measurements • Currencies – Currency codes – Conversions (quotations) – Exchange Rate Type – Rates – Rounding rules -136- .

The Variant Principle -137- .

– Can be defined according to the country or region in which they are to be implemented. – Gives an overview of all working days and all days off for a calendar year. and adapted to suit individual business requirements -138- . It can be created to cover a validity period of several years.Calendar • Define Public Holidays • Define Holiday Calendar – A combination of a yearly 12-month calendar and a list of all public holidays that fall within a calendar year.

– Validity period of a factory calendar must be within the validity period of the public holiday calendar. – The weekdays that are working days must also be specified in this calendar. • Saturday. -139- .Calendar • Define Factory Calendar – Calendar in which working days are numbered sequentially. – Defined on the basis of a public holiday calendar. Sunday and public holidays are non-working days. – Examples: • Monday through Friday are working days.

but also centimeter <-> inch).Unit of measurement • Enables calculations with quantities and physical units. • Units of measurement are needed for internal conversions (such as kilogram <-> gram. • UOMs are held centrally in the SAP System for all applications. • CAUTION: Extra care to be taken for any creation as this global setting can affect the whole system performance -140- . • Conversion factors are stored in the system with a unique internal key. • The international system of units (SI) is used for this. • Unit of measurement can be created according to requirements.

You can manage ledgers in two parallel currencies in addition to the local currency -141- .Currencies • • Legal means of payment in a country.

For example. If any transaction in a new currency will happen for the organization. System by default will take direct quotes.Currency settings • Currency codes – SAP maintains about 187 currencies. that currency to be maintained • Standard quotation – Can specify direct or indirect quotation. • Conversion factors – Mention the conversion for currency to currency. INR To Yen will 1:100 • Rounding rules – ensures that the amounts in this currency are always rounded to this unit -142- .

This exchange rate type must be entered in the system and you must also enter the exchange rates for this type. -143- .Exchange Rate Type • Exchange Rate Type is used for different business purposes where multiple rates can be maintained for a pair of currencies • The following exchange rate types exist – Buying rate (G) – Bank selling rate (B) – Average rate (M) – Historical exchange rate – Key date exchange rate • Default exchange rate types can be maintained in document types • For posting and clearing. the system uses the exchange rate type M (average rate).

– Exchange Rate Differences – To determine gains or losses from exchange rate differences. – Valuation of Purchase Documents. – Foreign Currency Valuation – To valuate open items in foreign currency and foreign currency balance sheet accounts as part of the closing operations. or to check a manually entered exchange rate during posting or clearing. Sales documents and Commitments • Exchange rates maintained for a exchange rate type for an effective date between two currencies -144- .Exchange Rate • Exchange rates in the system for the following purposes – Posting and Clearing – To translate amounts posted or cleared in foreign currency.

-145- .Quiz Time • Fill in the blank – The difference between ____________ and ____________ is called spread. – SAP maintains ___________ number of currencies.

– SAP maintains 187 number of currencies. -146- .Quiz Time • Fill in the blank – The difference between Buying rate and Selling rate is called spread.

Thank You! .

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