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Chapter 19 The Reproductive System

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Male Reproductive System
1. Production of sperm cells 2. Sustaining and transfer of sperm cells to the female. 3. Production of male sex hormone

Female Reproductive System
1. Production of female sex cells 2. Reception of sperm cells from the male 3. Nurturing the development of and providing nourishment for the new individual 4. Production of female sex hormone

• Saclike structure containing the testes • Divided into right and left by a suptum • Externally it is composed of skin • Loose connective tissue and a layer of smooth muscle, called DARTOS MUSCLE. • In cold temperature, the dartos muscle contracts • Cremaster muscles • Response of Cremaster and Dartos muscle is important in regulation of temperature in the testes

 The formation of sperm cells  Puberty – Spermatogenesis begins  Sertoli cells nourish the germ cells and produce a number of hormones  Spermatogonia – most peripheral germ cells (Primitive sperm cell)
 They undergo mitotis

 Primary spermatocyte - Mieosis  At the end of spermatogenesis, they are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.

Epididymis • Sperm cells continue to mature • final maturation area & storage site for sperm • Develop the ability to swim • Capacitation – final changes in the sperm cell, occurs after ejaculation Ductus deferens (vas deferens) • Spermatic cord ( + Testicular artery & veins, lymphatic vessels, testicular nerve) • Surrounded by cremaster muscle • 45cm, ampula of ductus deferens

Urethra • Extends from the urinary bladder to the end of penis • Prostatic urethra – passes through the prostate gland • Membranous urethra – passes through the floor of the pelvis. • Spongy urethra – extends the length of the penis.

Seminal vesicles
 Empty into ejaculatory duct  Produce about 60% of semen

 Fructose and nutrients  Fibrinogen – weak coagulation
 contribute a large amount of fluid to the semen during ejaculation.  The fluid, rich in fructose and enzymes, helps to maintain and nourish the sperm.

Prostate gland
 Produces about 30% of semen

 secretes enzymes and fluid that help to neutralize the acid environment of the urethra and vagina.  Secretes slightly acidic prostate fluid

Bulbourethral glands (also called Cowper's gland)
 Contribute about 5% to semen  secretes a fluid that helps to neutralize the pH and lubricate the urethra and vagina to create an optimal environment for the sperm.

Secretions
 Semen

 Composite of sperm cells and secretions
 Emission

 Discharge of semen into prostatic urethra
 Ejaculation

 Forceful expulsion of semen from urethra

• Male sex organ for copulation, and functions to transfer sperm cells from the male to the female. • Contains 3 erectile columns of erectile tissue • Engorgement of this erectile tissue causes the Penis to enlarge and become firm – ERECTION

• Male sexual behavior – Testosterone required to initiate and maintain • Male sex act – Complex series of reflexes that result in erection of penis, secretion of mucus into urethra, emission, ejaculation – Sensations result in orgasm associated with ejaculation and then resolution

Erection: – Controlled by hypothalamus and spinal cord. • Increased vasodilation of arterioles. – Parasympathetic nervous system. – Blood flow (sinusoids) into the erectile tissues of the penis. Emission: – Movement of semen into the urethra. • Stimulated by sympathetic nervous system. Ejaculation: – Forcible expulsion of semen from the urethra out of the penis. • Stimulated by sympathetic nervous system.

• 60-150 million sperm/ml ejaculate. • Oligospermia: – Sperm count of < 20 million/ml ejaculate. – Decreased fertility caused by heat, pharmaceuticals, and illicit drugs. • Male contraception: – Compounds that suppress gonadotropin secretion. • Testosterone. • Progesterone and GnRH antagonist. • Vasectomy: – Each ductus deferens is cut and tied. • Interferes with sperm transport. • May develop anti-sperm antibodies.

• • • •

Ovaries Uterine tubes Uterus Vagina

• The functions of the female reproductive organs are summarized below: • The vagina (also called the birth canal) receives the penis and the sperm during copulation, allows for the discharge of fluid during menstruation, and the birth of the baby. • The cervix secretes mucus that varies during the menstrual cycle—from thin (to facilitate sperm entry) to thick (to prevent sperm entry). • The uterus is the site of implantation of the fertilized egg and is where the developing embryo is nourished and maintained. During the menstrual cycle, the uterine lining undergoes several phases under hormonal control. • The fallopian tubes are the site of fertilization of the egg. They contain cilia that pass the egg from the fimbria to the uterus.

• The fimbriae "capture" the egg after it is expelled from the ovaries and funnel it into the infundibulum.
• The ovaries produce eggs (oogenesis) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

 Uterine tubes (Fallopian tubes or oviducts)  Infundibulum  End closest to the ovary with numerous fimbriae  Ampulla  The middle portion  Isthmus  A short segment connected to the uterine wall  Fimbrae  Opening to the ovaries  Fertilization occurs in uterine tube  12-24 hours after ovulation  During passage from infundibulum to uterus

 Muscular organ
 Mechanical protection  Nutritional support  Waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus

 Supported by the broad ligament and 3 pairs of suspensory ligaments

Uterus
    Body Isthmus Cervix Cervical os (internal orifice)  Uterine cavity  Cervical canal  Internal os (internal orifice)

Uterine wall consists of three layers:
 Myometrium – outer muscular layer  Endometrium – a thin, inner, glandular mucosa  Perimetrium – an incomplete serosa continuous with the peritoneum

Uterine Wall

Figure 28.19b

• Female organ of copulation, receives the penis during copulation. • Allow menstrual flow and childbirth • Wall- outer smooth muscle, inner mucus membrane • Hymen

Behavioral Method • Abstinence • Coitus interruptus • Rhythm method

Chemical Methods • Oral contraceptives • Morning-after pills Surgical Methods • Vasectomy • Tubal ligation • Abortion Prevention of implantation • Intrauterine devices

Barrier Methods • Condom • Vaginal condom • Diaphragm • Spermicidal douches • Foams