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Generations of computer

The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors, memories and I/O units. I Generation : 1945 – 55 II Generation : 1955 – 65 III Generation : 1965 – 75 IV Generation : 1975 – 89 V Generation : 1989 to present

These were translated into machine level language for execution.First Generation • 􀂃 Vacuum tubes were used – basic arithmetic operations took few milliseconds • 􀂃 • 􀂃 Bulky Consume more power with limited performance • 􀂃 High cost • 􀂃 Uses assembly language – to prepare programs. .

• 􀂃 Magnetic tape / magnetic drum were used as secondary memory • 􀂃 Mainly used for scientific computations. .• 􀂃 Fixed point arithmetic was used • 􀂃 100 to 1000 fold increase in speed relative to the earlier mechanical and relay based electromechanical technology • 􀂃 Punched cards and paper tape were invented to feed programs and data and to get results.

Digital Data Corporation’s PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400) – 􀂃 Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes. (invented at AT&T Bell lab in 1947) – 􀂃 – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Small in size Lesser power consumption and better performance Lower cost – 􀂃 Magnetic tapes and magnetic disks were used as secondary memory – 􀂃 Hardware for floating point arithmetic operations was developed .Second Generation • (Manufacturers – IBM 7030.

• 􀂃 High level languages such as FORTRAN. production planning. marketing. research. • 􀂃 Increasingly used in business. • 􀂃 Separate input-output processors were developed that could operate in parallel with CPU. • 􀂃 • 􀂃 Punched cards continued during this period also. . COBOL etc were used. industry and commercial organizations for preparation of payroll. inventory control. 1000 fold increase in speed. scientific & engineering analysis and design etc.

– 􀂃 Smaller & better performance – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Comparatively lesser cost Faster processors . I/O processors etc.Third Generation • (System 360 Mainframe from IBM. PDP-8 Mini Computer from Digital Equipment Corporation) – 􀂃 ICs were used – 􀂃 Small Scale Integration and Medium Scale Integration technology were implemented in CPU.

Virtual memory makes it appear larger) • • 􀂃 High level languages were standardized by ANSI eg. . ANSI COBOL etc 􀂃 Database management. ANSI FORTRAN. Later they were replaced by semiconductor memories (RAM & ROM) 􀂃 Introduced microprogramming 􀂃 Operating system software were introduced (efficient sharing of a computer system by several user programs) 􀂃 Cache and virtual memories were introduced (Cache memory makes the main memory appear faster than it really is.• • • • 􀂃 In the beginning magnetic core memories were used.

laser & ink jet printers. 68030.Fourth Generation • (Intel’s 8088. scanners etc were developed.. Apple II.80286. – 􀂃 Semiconductor memory chips were used as the main memory . Motorola’s 68000.80486 . CRAY I/2/X/MP etc) – 􀂃 Microprocessors were introduced as CPU– Complete processors and large section of main memory could be implemented in a single chip – 􀂃 Tens of thousands of transistors can be placed in a single chip (VLSI design implemented) – 􀂃 CRT screen.80386. 68040..

• • • • • • • 􀂃 Secondary memory was composed of hard disks – Floppy disks & magnetic tapes were used for backup memory 􀂃 LAN and WANS were developed (where desktop work stations interconnected) 􀂃 􀂃 􀂃 􀂃 􀂃 Introduced C language and Unix OS Introduced Graphical User Interface Less power consumption High performance. lower cost and very compact Much increase in the speed of operation .

multiple processors etc – 􀂃 Massive parallel machines and extensively distributed system connected by communication networks fall in this category.. – 􀂃 Computers based on artificial intelligence are available – 􀂃 Computers use extensive parallel processing. multiple pipelines. . Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core. IBM SP/2) – 􀂃 Generation number beyond IV. PARAM 10000. Origin 2000. have been used occasionally to describe some current computer system that have a dominant organizational or application driven feature. SUN work stations.Fifth Generation • (IBM notebooks.

• 􀂃 Memory chips up to 1 GB. hard disk drives up to 180 GB and optical disks up to 27 GB are available (still the capacity is increasing) • 􀂃 Object oriented language like JAVA suitable for internet programming has been developed. • 􀂃 Portable note book computers introduced • 􀂃 Storage technology advanced – large main memory and disk storage available .• Introduced ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology – Intel’s Pentium.

• Nanotechnology will radically change the phase of computers. LINUX.) • 􀂃 New operating systems developed – Windows 95/98/XP/…. . (and other existing applications like e-mail. Virtual libraries/Classrooms.• Introduced World Wide Web. e Commerce. etc. multimedia applications etc. • 􀂃 The recent development in the application of internet is the Grid technology which is still in its upcoming stage.

• TYPES OF COMPUTERS – 1. Mini Computers – 4. Main Frame Computers – 3. Micro Computers . Super Computers – 2.

g. NEC (SX20). Hitachi (S820).Super Computer • E. Fujitsu (VP2000).CRAY Research . PARAM 10000 by C-DAC.needs a large room – 􀂃 – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Minimum world length is 64 bits Equivalent to 4000 computers High cost: 4 – 5 millions – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Able to handle large amount of data High power consumption . PACE Series by DRDO 􀂃 Most powerful Computer system . Anupam by BARC.:.

. DEC – 􀂃 – 􀂃 – 􀂃 – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Able to process large amount of data at very high speed Supports multi-user facility Number of processors varies from one to six. Burroughs B7900. Univac 1180.:.g. Cost: 3500 to many million dollars Kept in air conditioned room to keep them cool – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Supports many I/O and auxiliary storage devices Supports network of terminal.IBM 3000 series.Mainframe • E.

Minicomputer • E.Digital Equipments PDP 11/45 and VAX 11) – 􀂃 – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Perform better than micros Large in size and costlier than micros Designed to support more than one user at a time – 􀂃 Posses large storage capacities and operates at higher speed – 􀂃 – 􀂃 Support faster peripheral devices like high speed printers Can also communicate with main frames .g.:.

g. . Microcomputers are tiny computers that can vary in size from a single chip to the size of a desktop model – 􀂃 – 􀂃 They are designed to be used by only one person at a time Small to medium data storage capacities 500MB – 2GB – 􀂃 The common examples of microcomputers are chips used in washing machines.Wrist PC – 􀂃 A microcomputer uses a microprocessor as its central Processing Unit.Palmtop.Microcomputer • E. Cars and Note book/Personal computers. PS/2 and Apple Macintosh. TVs.:.Laptop.IBM PC.

• Connects the globe under one roof. • Due the invention of computer IT sector came into existance. • Used in a home to the largest multinationals.Conclusion • Most useful instrument of present world. .

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