COLUMN – TOPANG
2
3
CRITICAL LOAD
• Long slender members subjected to
an axial compressive force are called
columns.
• The lateral deflection that occurs is
called buckling.
4
CRITICAL LOAD, P
cr
• The maximum axial load that
a column can support when it
is on the verge of buckling is
called the CRITICAL LOAD,
P
cr
or sometimes called as
Euler Load, P
e
.
• Any additional load will cause the
column to buckle and therefore
deflect laterally
5
To Understand The Concept:
• When the bar are in the
vertical position, the spring
having the stiffness k, is
unstretched.
• FBD, the bar are displaced by
pin at A which produce force
F=k∆.
6
The spring will produce the
force,
Restoring spring force become:
Applied load P will develops
two horizontal components,
Since u is small,
and tanu=u
( )
2
L
k F
u = A
A =
u =
u =
P 2 P 2
x
tan P
x
P
2
L k
F
u
=
7
4
kL
P
cr
=
•Stable equilibrium
The force developed by the spring would be
adequate to restore the bars back to their
vertical position.
•Unstable equilibrium
If the load P is applied and a slight displacement
occurs at A, the mechanism will tend to move out
of equilibrium and not be restored to its original
positions.
•Neutral equilibrium
Any slight disturbance given to the mechanism
will not cause it to move further out of
equilibrium, nor will it be restored to its original
position. Instead, the bars will remain in the
deflected position.
4
kL
P <
4
kL
P >
•If the restoring force is greater than disturbing force
u u P
L
k 2
2
>
8
• When the critical load P
cr
is
reached, the column is on the
verge of becoming unstable, so
that a small lateral force F will
cause the column to remain in the
deflected position when F is
removed.
• In order to determine the critical
load and buckled shape of the
column, the followed equation is
used:
• Deflection y and internal moment
M are in positive direction
M
dx
y d
EI =
2
2
1.Column With Pin Support
9
• With M=Py
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
EI
P
or
EI
P
with
) 3 _________( 0 y
dx
y d
or
) 2 _______( 0 y
EI
P
dx
y d
) 1 _________( Py
dx
y d
EI

.

\

= o = o
= o +
=

.

\

+
÷ =
• Equation 3 is homogeneous,
second order, linear
differential equation
which is similar to simple
harmonic equation.
Using methods of differential equation or by direct substitution,
general solution for equation 3 can be written as follows:
) 4 ____( ) x ( sin B ) x ( cos A y o + o =
10
• At x=0, y=0, then from equation (4), A=0 and equation (4) become as:
y=B sin (ox)_____(5)
• At x=L, y=0, then from equation (5):
0= B sin (oL)
• If B=0, It means no deflection occur in the column. Therefore, B=0,
but:
sin (oL)=0
(oL)= t, 2t, 3t, 4t, …….nt, if o, n=0
• The smallest value of P is obtained when n=1,
• (oL)= t or
• so critical load for this column is:
t =

.

\

L .
EI
P
2
1
) 6 ( __________
L
EI
P
2
2
cr
t
=
11
Least Moment of Inertia
• A column will buckle about
the principal axis of the
cross section having the
least moment of inertia (the
weakest axis).
• As in picture, the column will
buckle at the aa axis not the
bb axis.
• Pcr=critical or max axial load
on the column just before it
begins to buckle. This loads
must not cause the stress in
the column to exceed the
proportional limit.
• E=modulus of elasticity
material.
• I=least moment of inertia for
the column crosssectional
area.
2
2
L
EI
P
cr
t
=
12
5.Column With Various Types of Supports
Based on all Euler’s Formula for various types of supports, the
formula can be written as:
2
e
2
2
2
cr
) L (
EI
) KL (
EI
P
t
=
t
=
With K = constant depends on the end support types
= 1, 2, 0.5, and 0.7
EI = column minimum stiffness (kNm
2
)
L = Column actual length (m)
L
e
= effective length
P = P
cr
=Buckling @ Critical Load (kN@MN)
13
( )
( )
2
2
r
KL
A E
P
cr
t
=
( )
( )
2
2
r
KL
A E
P
cr
t
=
( )
( )
2
2
r
KL
A E
P
cr
t
=
( )
( )
2
e
2
2
2
2
2
cr
) L (
EI
) KL (
EI
r
KL
A E
P
t
=
t
=
t
=
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
25 . 0
4
2
L
EI
L
EI
L
EI
P
cr
t
t
t
=
=
=
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
25 . 0
5 . 0
L
EI
L
EI
L
EI
P
cr
t
t
t
=
=
=
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
49 . 0
7 . 0
L
EI
L
EI
L
EI
P
cr
t
t
t
=
=
=
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
cr
L
EI 1
L
EI
L
EI
P
t
=
t
=
t
=
Effective Length :Le=KL
14
Column Buckling Stress
ratio s slendernes the as known is
r
L
r
L
E
A
1
L
) Ar ( E
gyration of radius smallest r , area tional sec cross A where Ar I
A
1
L
EI
A
P
Area tional sec Cross
Load Buckling
Stress Buckling
e
2
e
2
2
e
2 2
cr
2
2
e
2
cr
cr
cr

.

\

t
=

.

\

t
= o
= ÷ = =

.

\

t
= o
= o
÷
=
15
• Curve hyperbolic valid for
critical stress below yield
point.
• Eg:
• The smallest acceptance
slenderness ratio for
steel.(L/r=89)
• If (L/r>89) euler’s formula
can be used however if
(L/r<89) euler formula not
valid.
Y cr
steel Y
MPa
o o
o
=
=
÷
250
SLENDERNESS RATIO,L/r
16
Example:
17
18
Example:
The aircraft link is made from an A36 steel rod.
Determine the smallest diameter of the rod, to the
nearest mm, that will support the load of P=4kN without
buckling. The ends are pin connected. E=210GPa,
σ
y
=250MPa
19
SOLUTION:
( )( )
 
( )( )
( )
m 8 m 71 . 7 d
300 ) 1 (
64
d
10 210
) 10 ( 4
) 300 ( 1
64
d
10 210
) KL (
EI
P
, formula s ' Euler Applying
. column ends ported sup roller for 1 K and
64
d
2
d
4
I
: Load Buckling Critical
2
4
3
2
3
2
4
3
2
2
2
cr
4
4
~ =

.

\
 t
t
=

.

\
 t
t
=
t
=
=
× t
=

.

\

t
=
I
20
Check!:
( )
valid is formula s ' Euler , Therefore
MPa 250 MPa 6 . 79
8
4
) 10 ( 4
A
P
Y
2
3
cr
cr
= o ( =
t
= = o
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
EXERCISE 1:
Solution
Solution (Contd.)
EXERCISE 2:
Solution
34
35
• The Euler formula was derived with the assumptions that
the load P is always applied through the centroid of the
columns’s crosssectional area and that the column is
perfectly straight.
• This is quite unrealistic since manufactured columns are
never perfectly straight.
• In reality, columns never suddenly buckle; instead they
begin to bend although ever so slightly , immediately upon
application of the load.
• Therefore, load P will be applied to the column at a short
eccentric distance e from the centroid of the cross section.
The Secant Formula
36
The Secant Formula
( ) y e P M + ÷ =
M
dx
y d
EI =
2
2
Internal moment in the column:
Differential equation for the deflection curve:
37
GENERAL SOLUTION
( )  
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )   1 cos sin
2
tan
as; written curve deflection the hence,
2
tan 1
2
sin 2 cos
2
sin 2 sin
2
sin 2 cos 1
: ince
sin
cos 1
1
0 ,
. 2
0 , 0
cos 2 sin 1
2
2
÷ + =
=
=
= ÷
÷
=
= =
=
= =
÷ + =
x EI P x EI P
L
EI P e y
L
EI P e C
L
EI P
L
EI P L EI P
and
L
EI P L EI P
s
L EI P
L EI P e
C
y L x when
e C
y x when
Condition Boundary
e x
EI
P
C x
EI
P
C y
0 y 0, e
1
2
sec
: y y ,
2
L
when x
Therefore, midpoint. s column' at the occur
stress maximum and deflection Maximum
: Deflection Maximum
max
max
max
÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

=
÷ = =
if
L
EI
P
e y
38
The Secant Formula
( )

.

\

=
+ =
2
sec
max
L
EI
P
Pe M
y e P M
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ =
=

.

\

+ =
+ =
EA
P
r
L
r
ec
A
P
Ar I
L
EI
P
I
Pec
A
P
I
Mc
A
P
2
sec 1
2
sec
;
2
max
2
max
max
o
o
o
Max stress in the column is caused by both
the axial load and the moment:
39
Exercise 1
• The W250x18 structural A36
steel column is used to
support a load of 4 kN. If the
column is fixed at the base
and free at the top,
determine:
i. The deflection at the top of
the column due to the
loading.
ii. The maximum stress in the
column.
E=210GPa, oy=250MPa.
40
Solution (i):
  mm y
KL
EI
P
K
KL
EI
P
e y
def lection Maximum
mm d mm r mm I mm A
W f or properties tion
x x
136 . 2 1 ) 1455 . 0 ( sec 200
1455 . 0
2
) 5000 ( 0 . 2
) 10 )( 5 . 22 )( 10 ( 210
) 10 ( 4
2
0 . 2 1 )
2
( sec
:
251 3 . 99 ) 10 ( 5 . 22 2280
; 18 250 sec
max
6 3
3
max
4 6 2
= ÷ =
=

.

\

=
=
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
= = = =
÷ ×
41
 
. OK MPa 252 . 6
) 1455 . 0 ( sec 5455 . 2 1 75 . 1
1455 . 0
) 2280 )( 10 ( 210
) 10 ( 4
) 3 . 99 ( 2
) 5000 )( 0 . 2 (
EA
P
r 2
KL
5455 . 2
3 . 99
2
251
200
r
ec
MPa 75 . 1
2280
10 4
A
P
)
EA
P
r 2
KL
( sec
r
ec
1
A
P
mm 251 d mm 3 . 99 r mm ) 10 ( 5 . 22 I mm 2280 A
; 18 250 W for properties tion sec
Y max
max
3
3
2 2
3
2
max
x
4 6
x
2
o ( = o
+ = o
=


.

\

=
=

.

\

=
=
×
=
(
¸
(
¸
+ = o
= = = =
÷ ×
Solution (ii):
42
Exercise 2a
• The W360 X 39 structural
A36 steel member is used as
a column that is assumed to
be fixed at its top and its
bottom. If the 15 kN load is
applied at an eccentric
distance of 250 mm.
Determine the MAXIMUM
STRESS in the column.
E = 210 GPa, σ
y
= 250 MPa.
43
Solution:
 
. OK MPa 250 MPa 72 . 9
) 03317 . 0 ( sec 2189 . 2 1 02 . 3
03317 . 0
) 4960 )( 10 ( 210
) 10 ( 15
) 143 ( 2
) 1000 )( 5 ( 5 . 0
EA
P
r 2
KL
2189 . 2
) 143 (
2
363
250
r
ec
; MPa 02 . 3
4960
) 10 ( 15
A
P
5 . 0 K
EA
P
r 2
KL
sec
r
ec
1
A
P
: axis x x about Yielding
mm 143 r mm ) 10 ( 102 I mm 363 d mm 4960 A
: 39 360 W for properties Section
Y max
max
3
3
2 2
3
2
max
x
4 6
x
2
= o ( = o
+ = o
= =
=

.

\

= = =
=
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ = o
÷
= = = =
÷ ×
44
• Solve the problem if the
column is fixed at its top
and pinned at its bottom.
Exercise 2b
45
Solution:
 
OK MPa 250 MPa 73 . 9
) 04644 . 0 ( sec 2189 . 2 1 02 . 3
04644 . 0
) 4960 )( 10 ( 210
) 10 ( 15
) 143 ( 2
) 1000 )( 5 ( 7 . 0
EA
P
r 2
KL
2189 . 2
) 143 (
2
363
250
r
ec
; MPa 02 . 3
4960
) 10 ( 15
A
P
7 . 0 K
EA
P
r 2
KL
sec
r
ec
1
A
P
: axis x x about Yielding
mm 143 r mm ) 10 ( 102 I mm 363 d mm 4960 A
: 39 360 W for properties Section
Y max
max
3
3
2 2
3
2
max
x
4 6
x
2
= o ( = o
+ = o
= =
=

.

\

= = =
=
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ = o
÷
= = = =
÷ ×
46
Exercise 3a
• A W360 x 45 structural A36 steel
column is pin connected at its ends
and has a length L = 5 m.
Determine the maximum eccentric
load P that can be applied so the
column does not buckle or yield.
Compare this value with an axial
critical load P applied through the
centroid of the column. E = 210
GPa, σy = 250 MPa.
47
Solution:
OK MPa 250 MPa 9 . 26
) 5710 )( 10 )( 210 (
68544
) 146 ( 2
5000
sec
146
2
352
150
1
5710
68544
EA
P
r 2
KL
sec
r
ec
1
A
P
, formula ant sec the Applying : axis x x about Yielding
. OK MPa 250 MPa 0 . 12
5710
68544
A
P
if valid only is formula s ' Euler : stress Critical
kN 54 . 68 N 68544
) 5000 (
) 10 )( 16 . 8 )( 10 )( 210 (
) KL (
EI
P P ' P
, Formula Euler Applying : axis y y about Buckling
mm 5000 ) 1000 )( 5 ( 1 ) KL ( ) KL (
: 1 K , ends both at pinned column a For
mm 352 d mm ) 10 ( 16 . 8 I mm 146 r mm 5710 A
: 45 360 W for properties Section
Y max
3 2
max
2
max
y
cr
cr
Y cr
2
6 3 2
y
2
2
cr
x y
4 6
y x
2
= o ( = o
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\


.

\

+ = o
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ = o
÷
= o ( = = = o
o ( o
= =
t
=
t
= = =
÷
= = =
=
= = = =
÷ ×
48
Exercise 3b
• Solve the problem if the
column is fixed connected at
its ends.
2
CRITICAL LOAD
• Long slender members subjected to an axial compressive force are called columns. • The lateral deflection that occurs is called buckling.
3
CRITICAL LOAD, Pcr
• The maximum axial load that a column can support when it is on the verge of buckling is called the CRITICAL LOAD, Pcr or sometimes called as Euler Load, Pe. • Any additional load will cause the column to buckle and therefore deflect laterally
4
is unstretched. 5 .To Understand The Concept: • When the bar are in the vertical position. the spring having the stiffness k. • FBD. the bar are displaced by pin at A which produce force F=k∆.
F k q L kqL F 2 P P tan q x 2 Since q is small. Restoring spring force become: Applied load P will develops two horizontal components.The spring will produce the force. and tanq=q 2Px 2Pq 6 .
the bars will remain in the deflected position. Instead.•If the restoring force is greater than disturbing force kq L 2 Pq 2 P kL 4 •Stable equilibrium The force developed by the spring would be adequate to restore the bars back to their vertical position. the mechanism will tend to move out of equilibrium and not be restored to its original positions. •Unstable equilibrium If the load P is applied and a slight displacement occurs at A. nor will it be restored to its original position. 7 P kL 4 Pcr kL 4 . •Neutral equilibrium Any slight disturbance given to the mechanism will not cause it to move further out of equilibrium.
1. • In order to determine the critical load and buckled shape of the column. the followed equation is used:• Deflection y and internal moment M are in positive direction d2y EI 2 M dx 8 .Column With Pin Support • When the critical load Pcr is reached. so that a small lateral force F will cause the column to remain in the deflected position when F is removed. the column is on the verge of becoming unstable.
linear differential equation which is similar to simple harmonic equation. d2y EI 2 Py _________( ) 1 dx d2y P y 0 _______(2) 2 dx EI or d2y 2 y 0 _________(3) dx 2 with 2 P EI P or EI 1 2 Using methods of differential equation or by direct substitution. general solution for equation 3 can be written as follows: y A cos(x) B sin (x) ____(4) 9 .• With M=Py • Equation 3 is homogeneous. second order.
3. It means no deflection occur in the column. if . A=0 and equation (4) become as:y=B sin (x)_____(5) • At x=L. n0 The smallest value of P is obtained when n=1.L EI so critical load for this column is: • • • 2 EI Pcr 2 __________(6) L 10 . (L)= or 1 P 2 . then from equation (4). 2.n.• At x=0. but:sin (L)=0 (L)= . ……. 4. Therefore. then from equation (5):0= B sin (L) • If B=0. y=0. y=0. B0.
This loads must not cause the stress in the column to exceed the proportional limit. • I=least moment of inertia for the column crosssectional area. • As in picture. Pcr 2 EI L2 • Pcr=critical or max axial load on the column just before it begins to buckle.Least Moment of Inertia • A column will buckle about the principal axis of the cross section having the least moment of inertia (the weakest axis). the column will buckle at the aa axis not the bb axis. • E=modulus of elasticity material. 11 .
7 EI = column minimum stiffness (kNm2) L = Column actual length (m) Le = effective length P = Pcr=Buckling @ Critical Load (kN@MN) 12 .5.Column With Various Types of Supports Based on all Euler’s Formula for various types of supports. the formula can be written as: 2 EI 2 EI Pcr 2 (KL ) (L e ) 2 With K = constant depends on the end support types = 1. 0.5. and 0. 2.
5L 2 2 EI 2 Pcr 0.49 L2 2 2 EI L2 13 .25 2 EI L2 Pcr Pcr 0.7 L 2 2 EI 2 E A KL r 2 2 EI 2 EI 0.Effective Length :Le=KL 2 EA Pcr 2 KL r 2 EI (KL) 2 2 EI Pcr L 2 2 EI 2 L 1 2 EI L2 Pcr Pcr 2 EI 2 L 2 2 EI Pcr 2 E A 2 EI (L e ) 2 KL r 2 E A 2 KL r 2 4 L2 0.25 L 4 2 EI L2 0.
Column Buckling Stress Buckling Stress cr Pcr A Buckling Load Cross sec tional Area 2 EI 1 cr 2 Le A I Ar 2 where A cross sec tional area. r smallest radius of gyration 2 E(Ar 2 ) 1 2E cr 2 2 Le A Le r Le is known as the slenderness ratio r 14 .
(L/r=89) • If (L/r>89) euler’s formula can be used however if (L/r<89) euler formula not valid.L/r • Curve hyperbolic valid for critical stress below yield point.SLENDERNESS RATIO. • Eg: Y steel 250MPa cr Y • The smallest acceptance slenderness ratio for steel. 15 .
Example: 16 .
17 .
Determine the smallest diameter of the rod. The ends are pin connected. to the nearest mm. σy=250MPa 18 . E=210GPa. that will support the load of P=4kN without buckling.Example: The aircraft link is made from an A36 steel rod.
42 64 Applying Euler ' s formula.71m 8m 2 3 19 .SOLUTION: Critical Buckling Load : d d4 I and K 1 for roller sup ported ends column. 4 d 4 21010 2 EI 64 Pcr (KL ) 2 1(300)2 2 3 I d 4 21010 64 4(10) 3 2 (1)300 d 7.
20 .6MPa Y 250MPa 2 A 8 4 Therefore Euler ' s formula is valid .Check!: Pcr 4(10) 3 cr 79.
21 .
22 .
23 .
24 .
25 .
26 .
27 .
28 .
EXERCISE 1: .
Solution .
) .Solution (Contd.
EXERCISE 2: .
Solution .
34 .
columns never suddenly buckle. instead they begin to bend although ever so slightly . • This is quite unrealistic since manufactured columns are never perfectly straight. load P will be applied to the column at a short eccentric distance e from the centroid of the cross section.The Secant Formula • The Euler formula was derived with the assumptions that the load P is always applied through the centroid of the columns’s crosssectional area and that the column is perfectly straight. • Therefore. • In reality. immediately upon application of the load. 35 .
The Secant Formula Internal moment in the column: M Pe y d2y EI 2 M dx Differential equation for the deflection curve: 36 .
y 0 C 2 e. when x L. y m ax 0 C1 e tan P EI L 2 hence. the deflection curve written as. when x L .GENERAL SOLUTION P P y C1sin x C 2 cos xe EI EI Boundary Condition when x 0. Therefore. y e tan P EI L sin P EI x cos P EI x 1 2 P EI L 2 cos2 sin P EI L 2 37 . y y m ax : 2 since : 1 cos P EI L 2 sin 2 and sin P EI L 2 sin P EI L 2 2 P L 1 ym ax e sec 2 EI if e 0. y 0 C1 e 1 cos P EI L sin P EI L Maximum Deflection : Maximum deflection and maximum stress occurat the column's midpoint.
A I P Pec P L m ax sec EI 2 A I I Ar 2 m ax m ax P ec L P 1 2 sec r EA A 2r 38 .The Secant Formula M Pe ymax L M Pe sec P EI 2 Max stress in the column is caused by both the axial load and the moment: P Mc .
The maximum stress in the column. ii. determine: i. If the column is fixed at the base and free at the top.Exercise 1 • The W250x18 structural A36 steel column is used to support a load of 4 kN. E=210GPa. The deflection at the top of the column due to the loading. y=250MPa. 39 .
136mm P KL 4(103 ) 2.1455 3 6 EI 2 210(10 )(22.0 ym ax 200sec (0.5)(10 ) 2 40 .5(106 )mm 4 Maximum deflection: P KL ym ax e sec ( ) 1 EI 2 K 2.3mm d 251mm A 2280mm 2 I x 22. rx 99.0(5000) 0.1455) 1 2.Solution (i): sec tion properties for W 250 18.
5455 sec (0.3) 210(10 )(2280) max 1.75MPa A 2280 251 200 ec 2 2.751 2.1455) max 6.Solution (ii): sec tion properties for W 250 18.3mm d 251mm A 2280mm 2 max P ec KL 1 2 sec ( A r 2r P 4 10 3 1.5455 r2 99.0)(5000) 4(10 3 ) 0.1455 3 2r EA 2(99.3 2 KL P (2. I x 22.5(10 6 )mm 4 P ) EA rx 99.252MPa Y OK. 41 .
σy = 250 MPa. If the 15 kN load is applied at an eccentric distance of 250 mm. E = 210 GPa.Exercise 2a • The W360 X 39 structural A36 steel member is used as a column that is assumed to be fixed at its top and its bottom. 42 . Determine the MAXIMUM STRESS in the column.
43 max 3.5(5)(1000) 15(10 3 ) 0.03317) max 9.2189 3.2189 sec (0.02MPa.03317 3 EA 2(143) 210(10 )(4960) OK. 2 A 4960 r (143) 2 KL 2r P 0.5 P ec KL 1 2 sec 2r A r 363 250 3 P 15(10 ) ec 2 2.Solution: Section properties for W360 39 : A 4960mm 2 Yielding max d 363mm I x 102(10 6 )mm 4 P EA rx 143mm about x x axis : K 0.72MPa Y 250MPa .021 2.
Exercise 2b • Solve the problem if the column is fixed at its top and pinned at its bottom. 44 .
021 2.7(5)(1000) 15(10 3 ) 0.Solution: Section properties for W360 39 : A 4960mm 2 Yielding max d 363mm I x 102(10 6 )mm 4 P EA rx 143mm about x x axis : K 0. 2 A 4960 r (143) 2 KL 2r P 0.04644) max 9.7 P ec KL 1 2 sec 2r A r 363 250 3 P 15(10 ) ec 2 2.04644 EA 2(143) 210(10 3 )(4960) OK 45 max 3.2189 3.02MPa.73MPa Y 250MPa .2189 sec (0.
σy = 250 MPa. 46 .Exercise 3a • A W360 x 45 structural A36 steel column is pin connected at its ends and has a length L = 5 m. Compare this value with an axial critical load P applied through the centroid of the column. Determine the maximum eccentric load P that can be applied so the column does not buckle or yield. E = 210 GPa.
16)(10 6 ) P' P Pcr 68544N 68. P ec KL 1 2 sec 2r A r P EA max max max 352 150 68544 68544 2 sec 5000 1 2 2(146) (210)(10 3 )(5710) 5710 146 26. A 5710 Yielding about x x axis : Applying the sec ant formula.Section properties for W360 45 : A 5710mm 2 Solution: d 352mm rx 146mm I y 8.54kN 2 2 (KL ) y (5000) Critical stress: Euler ' s formula is only valid if cr Y cr Pcr 68544 12. 2 EI 2 (210)(10 3 )(8.0MPa y 250MPa OK. K 1 : (KL ) y (KL ) x 1(5)(1000) 5000mm Buckling about y y axis : Applying Euler Formula.9MPa Y 250MPa OK 47 .16(10 6 )mm 4 For a column pinned at both ends.
48 .Exercise 3b • Solve the problem if the column is fixed connected at its ends.
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