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POWER SYSTEM

FAULTS
POWER SYSTEM FAULTS
 Power substations as a target of study consists of some
elements like Transmission Lines, Bus Bars, Power
Transformers, Outgoing Feeders, and Bus Couplers.
 Regardless of the design and the systematic preventive
maintenance procedures instituted, failures due to
abnormal or fault conditions do occur
 Fault are intolerable power conditions (other than
steady-state or rated ones) to which the power system or
requirement are subjected.

General causes of power system
faults

 1- Fault Current
Healthy insulation in the equipment is subjected to either transient
over voltages of small time duration due to switching and lightning
strokes, direct or indirect. Failure of insulation may be happened,
resulting in very high fault current. This current may be more than
10 times the rated or nominal current of the equipment.
 2- Insulation Aging
Aging of power equipments may cause breakdown of its insulation
even at normal power frequency voltage.

General cause of power system
faults (contd)
 3- External Causes
External object such as bird, kite, or tree branch are
considered as external cause of fault. These objects
may span one conductor and ground causing single
line to ground fault (phase-earth) or span two
conductors causing phase-phase fault


Fault Effects

 The fault must be cleared as fast as possible. Many
equipments may be destroyed if the fault is not cleared
rapidly. The dangerous of the faults depends on the
type of the fault, as example the three phase short
circuit is the most dangerous fault because the short
circuit current is maximum. Some of the effects of short
circuit current are listed here under.
Fault Effects
1- Due to overheating and the mechanical forces
developed by faults, electrical equipments such as bus
bars, generators, transformers will be damaged
2- Negative sequence current arises from
unsymmetrical faults will lead to overheating.
3- Voltage profiles may be reduced to unacceptable
limits as a result of faults. A frequency drop may lead
to instability

Fault Types

Fault can be classified due t as:
1- Permanent
2- Transient
Or due to PARTICIPATED PHASES as
1- Phase-Earth
2- Phase-Phase
3- Phase-Phase-Earth
4- Three-Phase or Three-Phase-Earth

Broad categorization of Fault Types
Fault may be categorized broadly into 2 types:
 Symmetrical or balanced faults
 Asymmetrical or unbalanced faults
Broad categorization of Fault Types
Balanced (3Ø) Faults
RARE :- Majority of Faults are Unbalanced
CAUSES :-
1. System Energisation with Maintenance Earthing
Clamps still connected.
2. 1Ø Faults developing into 3Ø Faults
Line - Line - Line (5%)
3 Phase; Ia + Ib + Ic = 0 and Va = Vb = Vc

Broad categorization of Fault Types
3Ø FAULTS MAY BE REPRESENTED BY 1Ø CIRCUIT
This is valid because system is maintained in a BALANCED state
during the fault
Voltages equal and 120° apart
Currents equal and 120° apart
Power System Plant Symmetrical
Phase Impedances Equal
Mutual Impedances Equal
Shunt Admittances Equal

Broad categorization of Fault Types
Unbalanced Faults
Unbalanced Faults may be classified into
SHUNT FAULTS and SERIES FAULTS.

SHUNT FAULTS:
 Line to Ground
 Line to Line
 Line to Line to Ground

Broad categorization of Fault Types
Broad categorization of Fault Types
 Causes :
 1) Insulation Breakdown
 2) Lightning Discharges and other Overvoltages
 3) Mechanical Damage
During unbalanced faults, symmetry of system Is
lost therefore single phase representation is no
longer Valid

Broad categorization of Fault Types
SERIES FAULTS OR OPEN CIRCUIT:
Single Phase Open Circuit
Double Phase Open Circuit
Causes :
1) Broken Conductor
2) Operation of Fuses
3) Maloperation of Single Phase Circuit Breakers




Characteristics of Faults

A fault is characterized by:
 Magnitude of the fault current
 Power factor or phase angle of the fault current

The magnitude of the fault current depends upon:
 The capacity and magnitude of the generating sources
feeding into the fault
Characteristics of Faults

 The system impedance up to the point of fault or
source impedance behind the fault
 Type of fault
 System grounding, number and size of overhead
ground wires
 Fault resistance or resistance of the earth in the case
of ground faults and arc
 resistance in the case of both phase and ground faults

Characteristics of Faults
The phase angle of the fault current is dependent upon:
 For phase faults: - the nature of the source and
connected circuits up to the fault location and
 For ground faults: - the type of system grounding in
addition to above.


Necessity for fault calculations
Fault calculations are done primarily for the following:
 To determine the maximum fault current at the point of
installation of a circuit breaker and to choose a
standard rating for the circuit breaker (rupturing)
 To select the type of circuit breaker depending upon
the nature and type of fault.

Necessity for fault calculations
 To determine the type of protection scheme to be
deployed.
 To select the appropriate relay settings of the
protection scheme.
 To co-ordinate the relay settings in the overall
protection scheme of the system

Necessity for fault calculations
The calculation is not only limited to present system
requirements but also meet:
 The future expansion schemes of the system such as
addition of new generating units
 Construction of new transmission lines to evacuate
power.
 Construction of new lines to meet the load growth and
or Construction of interconnecting tie lines
Necessity for fault calculations
Basically, there are two approaches to fault
calculations. These are:
(a) Actual reactance or impedance method
(b) Percentage reactance or impedance method or per
unit (p.u) reactance or impedance method.
 Machine and Transformer impedance or reactance are
always noted in percentage values on the nameplate.
Hence the latter method is considered for our
calculation.
Per Unit System
 Power system quantities such as voltage,
current and impedance are often expressed in
per unit or percent of specified values.
 Per unit quantities are calculated as:




Value Base
Value Actual
Value Per Unit =





Per Unit Values
base
pu
S
S
S
=
base
pu
I
I
I
=
base
pu
V
V
V
=
base
pu
Z
Z
Z
=
Z
Z
2
base
base
base
pu
V
S
Z
Z = =
pu
base
2
base
pu base
Z
S
V
Z Z = = Z
Conversion of Per Unit Values
Per Unit System
Per Unit System
 Usually, the nominal apparent power (S) and
nominal voltage (V) are taken as the base values for
power (S
base
) and voltage (V
base
).
 The base values for the current (I
base
) and
impedance (Z
base
) can be calculated based on the
first two base values.
100% Z
base
actual
%
× =
Z
Z

 The percent impedance
 e.g. in a synchronous generator with 13.8
kV as its nominal voltage, instead of
saying the voltage is 12.42 kV, we say the
voltage is 0.9 p.u.

 Simplified:
◦ Concerns about using phase or line voltages are
removed in the per-unit system
◦ Actual values of R, X
C
and X
L
for lines, cables, and
other electrical equipment typically phase values.
◦ It is convenient to work in terms of base VA (base
volt-amperes)
,
3
3
B
B
B
B B B
V
S
I
I V S
=
=
( )
B
B
B
B
B
B B B
S
V
I
V
Z
Z I V
2
3 /
3
= =
=
• Usually, the 3-phase S
B
or MVA
B
and line-to-line V
B
or kV
B

are selected
• I
B
and Z
B
dependent on S
B
and V
B

 The impedance of individual generators &
transformer, are generally in terms of
percent/per unit based on their own ratings.
 Impedance of transmission line in ohmic
value
 When pieces of equipment with various
different ratings are connected to a system, it
is necessary to convert their impedances to a
per unit value expressed on the same base.
( )
O
O
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = Z
V
S
Z
Z
Z
old
B
old
B
old
B
old
pu
2
( )
O
O
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = Z
V
S
Z
Z
Z
new
B
new
B
new
B
new
pu
2
new
B
new
B
V base voltage new &
S base power new on the impedance unit per new the be
new
pu
Z
old
B
old
B
V base voltage &
S base power on the impedance unit per the be
old
pu
Z
1
2
Change of Base
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
new
B
old
B
old
B
new
B
old
pu
new
pu
V
V
S
S
Z Z
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
old
B
new
B
old
pu
new
pu
S
S
Z Z
From (1) and (2), the relationship between the old
and the new per unit value
If the voltage base are the same,
Change of Base

2
) (
2
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
* *
new base
old base
old base
new base
old pu new pu
KV
KV
MVA
MVA
Z Z =
Other base quantites :-
kA in
kV . 3
MVA
Current Base
Ohms in
MVA
) (kV
Z Impedance Base
b
b
b
b
2
b
b
= =
= =
Ι
Per Unit Values = Actual Value
Base Value
Current Unit Per
) (kV
MVA
. Z
Z
Z
Z Impedance Unit Per
KV
KV
kV Voltage Unit Per

MVA
MVA
MVA MVA Unit Per
b
a
p.u.
2
b
b
a
b
a
p.u.
b
a
p.u.
b
a
p.u.
Ι
Ι
Ι = =
= = =
= =
= =
 If Z
T
= 5%
with Secondary S/C
5% V
(RATED)
produces I
(RATED)
in Secondary.
V
(RATED)
produces 100 x I
(RATED)
5
= 20 x I
(RATED)
 If Source Impedance Z
S
= 0
Fault current = 20 x I
(RATED)

Fault Power = 20 x kVA
(RATED)

 Z
T
is based on I
(RATED)
& V
(RATED)

i.e. Based on MVA
(RATED)
& kV
(RATED)

is same value viewed from either side of transformer.

(1) To calculate the p.u impedance and % impedance
of a transmission line at 100 MVA
base Line voltage 330 KV
Line length 200 Kms
Line resistance /Km = 0.06 ohms/Km
Line reactance /Km = 0.4 ohms/Km


Z = R + jX
For the 200kms line length
Z = 200 (0.06 + j 0.4)
= 12 + j 80
|Z| = \ [(12)
2
+ (80)
2
] = 80.895 ohms

Zp.u = Z x MVA base
(KV)
2
base

= 80.895 x 100
(330)
2
= 0.0743 p.u
%Z = 0.074 x 100
= 7.43


(2)To calculate the p.u impedance to a 100 MVA base
Given four generators; 90MVA, 11KV of 15%
impedance each connected to step up transformers
of 90MVA 11KV/330KV of 14% impedance. Calculate
the fault current at F.

Assumed MVA = 100
%Z generators = 15 on 90 MVA base
or Z
g
p.u = 0.15 on 90 MVA base

Z
g
p.u on 100 MVA base will be:
(Z
g
p.u)
base2
= (Z
g
p.u)
base1
x MVA base2
MVA base1
(Z
g
p.u)
100
= 0.15 x 100
90
= 0.167

%Z transformers = 14 on 90 MVA base
or Z
t
p.u = 0.14 on 90 MVA base

Z
t
p.u on 100 MVA base will be:
(Z
t
p.u)
base2
= (Z
t
p.u)
base1
x MVA base2
MVA base1
(Z
t
p.u)
100
= 0.14 x 100
90
= 0.156

The system reduces as follows

Z
total
= 0.323
4
= 0.08075
Total p.u impedance at F = 0.08075 = Z
total

Fault MVA at F = Base MVA
Z
total

= 100 MVA
0.08075
= 1238.4 MVA

Current at F = Fault MVA x (10)
3
u
\3 x system voltage (KV) at point of fault

= 1238.4 x (10)
3

\3 x 330
= 2166.638Amps

 MORE EXAMPLES IN YOUR LECTURE BOOK,
PLEASE.

POWER SYSTEM FAULTS

Power substations as a target of study consists of some elements like Transmission Lines, Bus Bars, Power Transformers, Outgoing Feeders, and Bus Couplers. Regardless of the design and the systematic preventive maintenance procedures instituted, failures due to abnormal or fault conditions do occur Fault are intolerable power conditions (other than steady-state or rated ones) to which the power system or requirement are subjected.

Failure of insulation may be happened.Fault Current Healthy insulation in the equipment is subjected to either transient over voltages of small time duration due to switching and lightning strokes.General causes of power system faults   1. direct or indirect. resulting in very high fault current. 2. This current may be more than 10 times the rated or nominal current of the equipment. .Insulation Aging Aging of power equipments may cause breakdown of its insulation even at normal power frequency voltage.

These objects may span one conductor and ground causing single line to ground fault (phase-earth) or span two conductors causing phase-phase fault .General cause of power system faults (contd)  3. or tree branch are considered as external cause of fault. kite.External Causes External object such as bird.

Many equipments may be destroyed if the fault is not cleared rapidly. . Some of the effects of short circuit current are listed here under. as example the three phase short circuit is the most dangerous fault because the short circuit current is maximum.Fault Effects  The fault must be cleared as fast as possible. The dangerous of the faults depends on the type of the fault.

Negative sequence current arises from unsymmetrical faults will lead to overheating. electrical equipments such as bus bars. transformers will be damaged 2. generators. 3.Fault Effects 1.Due to overheating and the mechanical forces developed by faults. A frequency drop may lead to instability .Voltage profiles may be reduced to unacceptable limits as a result of faults.

Phase-Phase 3.Transient Or due to PARTICIPATED PHASES as 1.Fault Types Fault can be classified due t as: 1.Phase-Earth 2.Phase-Phase-Earth 4.Permanent 2.Three-Phase or Three-Phase-Earth .

Broad categorization of Fault Types Fault may be categorized broadly into 2 types:  Symmetrical or balanced faults  Asymmetrical or unbalanced faults .

1Ø Faults developing into 3Ø Faults Line . 2.Line .Majority of Faults are Unbalanced CAUSES :1. Ia + Ib + Ic = 0 and Va = Vb = Vc .Broad categorization of Fault Types Balanced (3Ø) Faults RARE :. System Energisation with Maintenance Earthing Clamps still connected.Line (5%) 3 Phase.

Broad categorization of Fault Types 3Ø FAULTS MAY BE REPRESENTED BY 1Ø CIRCUIT This is valid because system is maintained in a BALANCED state during the fault Voltages equal and 120° apart Currents equal and 120° apart Power System Plant Symmetrical Phase Impedances Equal Mutual Impedances Equal Shunt Admittances Equal .

Broad categorization of Fault Types Unbalanced Faults Unbalanced Faults may be classified into SHUNT FAULTS and SERIES FAULTS. SHUNT FAULTS:  Line to Ground  Line to Line  Line to Line to Ground .

Broad categorization of Fault Types .

Broad categorization of Fault Types     Causes : 1) Insulation Breakdown 2) Lightning Discharges and other Overvoltages 3) Mechanical Damage During unbalanced faults. symmetry of system Is lost therefore single phase representation is no longer Valid .

Broad categorization of Fault Types SERIES FAULTS OR OPEN CIRCUIT: Single Phase Open Circuit Double Phase Open Circuit Causes : 1) Broken Conductor 2) Operation of Fuses 3) Maloperation of Single Phase Circuit Breakers .

Characteristics of Faults A fault is characterized by: Magnitude of the fault current Power factor or phase angle of the fault current The magnitude of the fault current depends upon: The capacity and magnitude of the generating sources feeding into the fault    .

number and size of overhead ground wires Fault resistance or resistance of the earth in the case of ground faults and arc resistance in the case of both phase and ground faults      .Characteristics of Faults The system impedance up to the point of fault or source impedance behind the fault Type of fault System grounding.

the nature of the source and connected circuits up to the fault location and For ground faults: .the type of system grounding in addition to above.Characteristics of Faults   The phase angle of the fault current is dependent upon: For phase faults: . .

.Necessity for fault calculations Fault calculations are done primarily for the following:  To determine the maximum fault current at the point of installation of a circuit breaker and to choose a standard rating for the circuit breaker (rupturing)  To select the type of circuit breaker depending upon the nature and type of fault.

To select the appropriate relay settings of the protection scheme.Necessity for fault calculations    To determine the type of protection scheme to be deployed. To co-ordinate the relay settings in the overall protection scheme of the system .

 Construction of new lines to meet the load growth and or Construction of interconnecting tie lines .Necessity for fault calculations The calculation is not only limited to present system requirements but also meet:  The future expansion schemes of the system such as addition of new generating units  Construction of new transmission lines to evacuate power.

u) reactance or impedance method. Hence the latter method is considered for our calculation.Necessity for fault calculations Basically. there are two approaches to fault calculations. These are: (a) Actual reactance or impedance method (b) Percentage reactance or impedance method or per unit (p. Machine and Transformer impedance or reactance are always noted in percentage values on the nameplate.  .

.

.

.

.

.

.

current and impedance are often expressed in per unit or percent of specified values.Per Unit System  Power system quantities such as voltage.  Per unit quantities are calculated as: Actual Value Per Unit Value  Base Value .

Per Unit System Per Unit Values S pu  S S base I pu  I I base Vpu  V Vbase Z pu  Z Z base Conversion of Per Unit Values Zpu  Z Zbase Sbase  2 Z Vbase Z  Z base Z pu 2 Vbase  Z pu Sbase .

the nominal apparent power (S) and nominal voltage (V) are taken as the base values for power (Sbase) and voltage (Vbase).  The base values for the current (Ibase) and impedance (Zbase) can be calculated based on the first two base values.Per Unit System  Usually. .

we say the voltage is 0. instead of saying the voltage is 12.Z actual Z%   100% Z base   The percent impedance e. in a synchronous generator with 13.8 kV as its nominal voltage.9 p. .g.42 kV.u.

 Simplified: ◦ Concerns about using phase or line voltages are removed in the per-unit system ◦ Actual values of R. cables. XC and XL for lines. ◦ It is convenient to work in terms of base VA (base volt-amperes) . and other electrical equipment typically phase values.

• Usually. 3VB VB  3I B Z B VB / 3 VB  ZB   IB SB 2 . the 3-phase SB or MVAB and line-to-line VB or kVB are selected • IB and ZB dependent on SB and VB S B  3VB I B SB IB  .

. Impedance of transmission line in ohmic value When pieces of equipment with various different ratings are connected to a system.   The impedance of individual generators & transformer. it is necessary to convert their impedances to a per unit value expressed on the same base. are generally in terms of percent/per unit based on their own ratings.

Change of Base old Z pu be the per unit impedance on the power base Sold B & voltage base V old B old Z pu old Z  SB    Z  old   2   V old  ZB  B  1 new Z pu be the new per unit impedance on the new power base Snew B new & new voltage base VB new Z  SB  new   Z Z pu  new   2   V new  ZB  B  2 .

Change of Base From (1) and (2). the relationship between the old and the new per unit value Z new pu Z old pu S  S  new B old B  V   V  old B new B     2 If the voltage base are the same. new  SB  new old Z pu  Z pu  old  S   B  .

Z pu ( new)  Z pu ( old ) * MVAbase( new) MVAbase( old ) * 2 KVbase( old ) KV 2 base ( new) .

kVb .Other base quantites :- (kVb )2 Base Impedance  Zb  in Ohms MVA b Base Current  Ιb  MVA b in kA 3 .

 MVA b KVa Per Unit Voltage  kVp.u.u.  Ιa Ιb Za MVA b  Za .  Per Unit Current  Ιp.u. Zb (kVb )2 .Per Unit Values = Actual Value Base Value MVA a Per Unit MVA  MVA p.u.  KVb Per Unit Impedance  Zp.

 If ZT = 5% with Secondary S/C 5% V (RATED) produces I (RATED) in Secondary. . Based on MVA (RATED) & kV (RATED)  is same value viewed from either side of transformer.e.  V (RATED) produces 100 x I (RATED) 5 = 20 x I (RATED)  If Source Impedance ZS = 0 Fault current = 20 x I (RATED) Fault Power = 20 x kVA (RATED)  ZT is based on I (RATED) & V (RATED) i.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

06 ohms/Km Line reactance /Km = 0.u impedance and % impedance of a transmission line at 100 MVA base Line voltage 330 KV Line length 200 Kms Line resistance /Km = 0.(1) To calculate the p.4 ohms/Km .

4) = 12 + j 80 |Z| =  [(12) 2 + (80) 2] = 80.895 ohms .06 + j 0.Z = R + jX For the 200kms line length Z = 200 (0.

u 0.895 x 100 (330) 2 0.Zp.u = Zx MVA base (KV) 2 base = = = = %Z 80.43 .074 x 100 7.0743 p.

11KV of 15% impedance each connected to step up transformers of 90MVA 11KV/330KV of 14% impedance. .u impedance to a 100 MVA base Given four generators. Calculate the fault current at F. 90MVA.(2)To calculate the p.

u) base2 = (Zg p.15 x 100 90 = 0.u) 100 = 0.u = 0.15 on 90 MVA base Zg p.u) base1 x MVA base2 MVA base1 (Zg p.u on 100 MVA base will be: (Zg p.167 .Assumed MVA = 100 %Z generators = 15 on 90 MVA base or Zg p.

u on 100 MVA base will be: (Zt p.u = 0.u) 100 = 0.u) base2 = (Zt p.14 on 90 MVA base Zt p.u) base1 x MVA base2 MVA base1 (Zt p.14 x 100 90 = 0.156 .%Z transformers = 14 on 90 MVA base or Zt p.

The system reduces as follows .

Ztotal = 0.u impedance at F = 0.4 MVA .323 4 = 0.08075 Total p.08075 1238.08075 = Ztotal Fault MVA at F = = = Base MVA Ztotal 100 MVA 0.

4 x (10) 3 3 x 330 2166.Current at F = Fault MVA x (10) 3 u 3 x system voltage (KV) at point of fault = = 1238.638Amps .

 MORE EXAMPLES IN YOUR LECTURE BOOK. . PLEASE.

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