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Consumer Attitude Formation and Change 30th Sept, 2011

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Attitude

A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.

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What are Attitudes?
• The attitude “object” – specific consumption or marketing related concepts • A learned predisposition – result of a direct experience with product, word of mouth, exposure to advertising • Attitudes have consistency – with the behavior

• Attitudes occur within a situation – could be inconsistent with behavior

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Structural Models of Attitudes • • • • Tricomponent Attitude Model Muliattribute Attitude Model The Trying-to-Consume Model Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model 8-4 .

A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Conation Affect Cognition 8-5 .

8-6 . • Affective Component – A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. • Conative Component – The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive Component – The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.

Multiattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. 8-7 .

Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward-object model – Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations • The attitude-toward-behavior model – Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object. integrative model of attitudes 8-8 . rather than the attitude toward the object itself • Theory-of-reasoned-action model – A comprehensive.

Theory of Reasoned Action To understand intention. we also need to measure the subjective norms that influence an individual’s intention to act Subjective Norm Measured directly by assessing a consumer’s feelings as to what relevant others would think of the action being contemplated… 8-9 .

A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes Evaluation of the outcomes Beliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behavior Motivation to comply with the specific referents Attitude toward the behavior Intention Behavior 8-10 Subjective norm .

8-11 .Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).

” “I am sorry.Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS “I’m going to try to get tickets for a Broadway show for your birthday. We cannot serve you. the shoes didn’t come in this shipment from Italy.” POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS “The first ten people to call in will receive a free T-shirt. I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.” “Sorry.” “Tonight. We are closing the restaurant because of a problem with the oven.” “I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.” “I am going to increase how often I go to the gym from two to four times a week.” “There are only three bottles of champagne in our stockroom.” 8-12 . You better come in sometime today.

affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. which. in turn. 8-13 .AttitudeTowardthe-Ad Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement.

A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Exposure to an Ad Judgments about the Ad (Cognition) Feelings from the Ad (Affect) Beliefs about the Brand Attitude toward the Ad Attitude toward the Brand 8-14 .

mass media.Attitude Formation • How attitudes are learned – Shift from no attitude to attitude is a result of learning – Only 2 or 3 important beliefs likely to dominate attitude formation • Sources of influence on attitude formation – Personal experience. influence of family and friends. internet • Impact of Personality – Need for cognition 8-15 . direct marketing.

Event or Cause • Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model • Changing Beliefs About Competitors’ Brands 8-16 .Strategies of Attitude Change • Changing the Basic Motivational Function • Associating the Product With an Admired Group.

Changing the basic Motivational Function • The Utilitarian Function – Showing people that it has a utilitarian function that they may not have considered • The Ego-defensive Function – Offering reassurance to consumer’s self concept • The Value-expressive Function – Overall attitude to category a reflection of attitude to product • The Knowledge Function – Based on the consumer’s need to know 8-17 .

Strategies for Attitude Change • Associating the Product With an Admired Group. Event or Cause – Mention of philanthropic acts in ads – Sponsorship of worthy causes • Resolving two conflicting attitudes – Natural products are not as effective • Changing belief’s about Competitor’s Brands – Avoid giving undue visibility to competitor’s brands 8-18 .

consumers can be persuaded to cross over • Changing brand beliefs – Most common form.Altering components of a Multiattribute Model • Changing the relative evaluation of attributes – When the category is divided on benefits..repositioning • Adding an attribute – Either previously ignored or an improvement • Changing the overall brand rating – Alter consumer’s overall assessment of the brand than a particular attribute 8-19 ..

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective e.g. the central route or he peripheral route 8-20 .

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) • Central Route – Relevant when consumer involvement is high – Learning through information relevant to the attitude object itself • Peripheral route – When consumer motivation is low – Attitude change through secondary inducements 8-21 .

Why Might Behavior Precede Attitude Formation? • Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Form Attitude 8-22 .

When they think of the unique. after commitment to buy a selected brand 8-23 .Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. . positive qualities of the brands not selected.

Reducing Cognitive Dissonance 8-24 .

8-25 . Postpurchase Dissonance Consumers resolve this dissonance through a variety of strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of their choice.Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase.

Attribution Theory A theory concerned with how people assign causality (blame or credit) to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior. 8-26 .

Issues in Attribution Theory • Self-perception Theory – Foot-In-The-Door Technique • Attributions Toward Others • Attributions Toward Things • How We Test Our Attributions 8-27 .

8-28 .SelfPerception Theory A theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior.

Defensive Attribution A theory that suggests consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution). 8-29 .

Criteria for Causal Attributions • • • • Distinctiveness Consistency Over Time Consistency Over Modality Consensus 8-30 .