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A bit of History

• Tycho Brahe – Danish Astronomer 1547 • He was given an island in the North Sea to set up an observatory. Tycho observed the stars for 20 years and collected data. • The man with the gold replacement nose!

Johannes Kepler

Polish Astronomer born 1571 Interpreted Brahe’s data.

Kepler’s Laws

• 1st Law - All objects in the solar system travel in elliptical paths. • An ellipse has two focal points. • The sun is at one focal point. • The eccentricity of an ellipse is a ratio of the two major axes.

Kepler’s Laws

• 2nd Law – All objects sweep out equal areas in equal times. • S = Sun is at one of the focal points.

Kepler’s Laws

• 2nd Law – • Area of triangle ASB(green) equals area of triangle CSD(blue) This is true because of the conservation of angular momentum.

Kepler’s Laws

• Point B is summer for New York • Point D is winter for New York • Is the speed of the Earth constant? • When is the Earth moving fastest in its orbit around the sun?

Kepler’s Laws

• 3rd Law - R2/T3 is a constant for every object in the solar system moving around the sun. • This is true because of Newton’s 2nd Law of motion

• F = G M1M2/r2 = M2v2

**Sir Isaac Newton
**

• Describes why the planets behave the way they do – Gravity – It’s everywhere! Not just on the Earth!

Gravitation

• What variables affect the gravitational attraction between two objects. 1) Mass of object #1 Earth This is a direct and linear relationship.

F

M earth

Gravitation

2) Mass of object #2 You This is a direct and linear relationship.

F

M you

Gravitation

• 3) Distance between the centers of the two F objects - r. This is an inverse square relationship.

r

**Newton’s Law of Gravitational Attraction
**

• F = G M1M2/r2

• G = Universal Gravitational Constant = 2 2 -11 6.7 x 10 N-m /kg

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation • It is only an attractive force. • It acts at a distance. • It is an inverse square law. • It describes the gravitational force that exists between all bodies.

Force of Attraction

• What is the force of attraction between a 50 Kg girl and a 70 Kg boy standing 1 meter apart?

Force of Attraction

• F = G M1M2/r2

• M = 50 Kg • M = 70 Kg • r=1m • G = 6.7 x 10-11

• F=?

**The Cavendish Experiment -1798
**

• Proves that even small objects have gravitational attraction for each other.

**Newton’s 2nd Law
**

• F = m2a = G MeM2/r2

So

a = G Me/r2

This is the acceleration due to gravity on a planet with mass - Me and a radius of r.

Distance from the Earth’s Center ½ Re 1 Re 2 Re 3 Re 4 Re

Local g m/s/s 39.2 9.8 9.8/4 = 2.45 9.8/9 = 1.1 9.8/16 = 0.61

Local Weight w = mg 2800 N 700 N 172 N 77 N 43 N

Suddenly, through forces not yet fully understood, Darren Belsky’s apartment became the center of a new black hole.

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