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Log Interpretation

Masashi TAKAYAMA
Exploration Division,
JAPEX

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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Fundamentals of well logs
3. Wellsite interpretation
4. Workshop
5. Recent advanced technology
6. Geological applications

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1. Introduction
(1) Well Logs: What? Why?
(2) Logging Operations
(3) Log Presentations
(4) Logging Companies
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(1) Well Log : What?
A graphic record of the measured or
computed physical characteristics of the
rock section encountered in a well, plotted
as a continuous function of depth
Geophysical well log
Sample log, Mud log
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(1) Well Log
Logging
Act or process of making or recording a log
Method or technique
Wireline logging
Logging while drilling
Mud logging
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(1) Well Log : Why?
To estimate OIP (GIP)
OIP=AreaThickness(1-Sw)
Thickness : Reservoir interval GR, SP, Resistivity...
: Sonic, Density, Neutron
Sw : Resistivity + Porosity
Area OWC (Resistivity), Dipmeter
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Matrix
(Rock Grain)
Oil Water
Porosity
0
1
0
1
Sw
Basic Model
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(1) Well Log : Why?
Geological Information
Stratigraphy Log Correlation
Lithology GR, Density
Structure Dipmeter
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(1) Well Log : Why?
Geophysical Information
Tie-in with seismic data
Sonic Log, VSP
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(1) Well Log
Core Log Seismic

Resolution High Medium Low

Cost High Medium Low

Information Direct Direct/Interpretative Interpretative
Discontinuous Continuous/1D Continuous/2D, 3D

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(2) Logging Operations
When a log is made, it is said to be run
A log run is typically made at the end of
drilling phase
More logs are run over intervals containing
reservoirs or with shows
The choice of logs depends on what it is
hoped to find
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(2) Logging Operations
Field Operation
Wireline well logs are recorded when the
drilling tools are no longer in the hole
Open-hole logs are recorded immediately
after drilling
Logs are made using highly specialized
equipment
Onshore: a logging truck
Offshore: a small cabin
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(2) Logging Operations
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(2) Logging Operations
Data Acquisition System
Downhole mesurement instruments (Downhole
tools)
Electrical cable and winch needed to lower the
instruments into the borehole
Surface instrumentation needed to power the
downhole instruments and to receive and process
their signals
Equipment needed to make a permanent recording
of the log
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Data Acquisition System
Logging Truck
Winch
Cable
Downhole
Tool
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(2) Logging Operations
Downhole Tools
Sonde: sensors used in making the
measurement
Cartridge: electronics that power the sensors,
process the resulting measurement signals,
and transmit the signals up the cable to the
truck
Most logging tools are easily combinable
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Sonde
Cartridge
Downhole Tool
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(2) Logging Operations
Depth Measurement
Use both systems
IDW(integrated depth wheel):two precision
measuring wheels as the primary depth
reference and to drive the recording system
MARK: the calibrated cable (marks) as the
secondary (back-up) depth reference
Accuracy is 1 foot/5000 feet
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IDW
(integrated depth wheel)
DS1
DS2
Schematic Representation
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Depth Reference and Datum
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(2) Logging Operations
Logging Cable
Provide electrical connections between the
surface and downhole tools
Give mechanical support to lower tools into
the hole
Provide a means for depth measurement
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Logging Cable
Heptacable Construction
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(3) Log Presentations
A standard API (American petroleum
institute) log format exists
On the old analog logging systems, the
choice of vertical or depth scales was
limited to two of 1:1000, 1:500, 1:200,
1:100, 1:40, 1:20
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(4) Logging Companies
Big Three :
Schlumberger
Baker Atlas
Haliburton Energy Services
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Fundamentals of well logs
3. Wellsite interpretation
4. Workshop
5. Recent advanced technology
6. Geological applications

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2. Fundamentals of Well Logs
(1) Basic Tools
Caliper Hole diameter
SP, GR Well correlation, Lithology
(2) Resistivity Tools Sw
Dual Induction Tool
Dual Laterolog Tool
(3) Sonic Tools Porosity
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2. Fundamentals of Well Logs
(4) Radioactive Tools Porosity
Litho-density Tool
Compensated Neutron Tool
(5) Dipmeter Structure, Accumulation Area
(6) Sampling Tools
RFT Pressure, Formation fluid
CST Coring
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2. Fundamentals of Well Logs
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Schlumberger
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Schlumberger
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(1) Basic Tools
Caliper Logs
Measure hole size and shapes
All pad type tools require an eccentralising
sping or arm to hold the sensor against the
borehole wall
Three main types
Single arm caliper: MSFL, LDT
Four arm caliper: HDT, SHDT, FMI
Two arm caliper: ML, EPT
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Three Main Types
of Caliper Tools
Single Arm Caliper
MSFL, LDT
Four Arm Caliper
HDT, SHDT, FMI
Two Arm Caliper
ML, EPT
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Four Arm
Caliper Log
Caliper 1
Caliper 2
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(1) Basic Tools
SP Log
A measurement of the relative voltage in the
borehole
Electrochemical:
Membrane potential (E
m
)
Liquid junction potential (E
j
)
SSP (Static SP) = E
m
+ E
j
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E
m
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E
j
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Rw <Rmf <Rm SP : - Deflection
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Rm >Rw RmRw Rm < Rw
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SP Log
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(1) Basic Tools
SP Applications
Identify permeable zones (potential oil
bearing rocks)
Determine Rw
Calculate shaliness of a sand body
Correlation log
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(1) Basic Tools
GR Logs
Natural radioactivity of the formations
K, Th, U
Two types:
GR: total radioactivity
NGS: total radioactivity, concentrations of K,
Th and U
The radioactive elements tend to
concentrate in clays and shales
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GR Log
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(1) Basic Tools
Interpretation Uses of GR
Correlation
Lithology identification
Quantitative evaluation of shaliness
Cased-hole perforating depth control
Positioning of openhole sampling tools
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(2) Resistivity Tools
A key parameter in determining
hydrocarbon saturation
The resistivity (ohm-m) depends on:
Resistivity of the formation water
Amount of water present (porosity & Sw)
Pore structure geometry
Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity
and is expressed in mhos/m
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n m
Sw
Rw a
Rt

Resistivity of Formation Water


Porosity Water Saturation
Amount of Water
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(2) Resistivity Tools
Two basic types: Induction, Laterolog
Induction tools measure formation
conductivity by creating electromagnetic
fields in the formation
Laterolog tools measure resistivity by
sending current into the formation
Usually from 0.2 to 1000 ohm-m
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Induction Tool Laterolog Tool
Creating Electromagnetic Fields Sending Current into Formation
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(2) Resistivity Tools
Induction Log
Induction tool is for measuring Rt
It is a conductivity measuring tool
Principles of measurement is electro-magnetism
To achieve better focusing, there are 2 systems:a
system of focusing coils to improve the signal
response, Deconvolution (ILD only)
Tool response has to be corrected for borehole
effects, invasion effects, shoulder bed effects

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Formation Model
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Principle of
Induction Tool
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Induction Measurement
Focusing
2 Receiver Coils
(One is reverse)
2 Receiver Coils
(One is reverse)
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Deconvolution
The shoulder bed effect
can be minimized by
DECONVOLUTION.

3 conductivity values 78
apart are taken and
weighting factors are
applied.

W
1
= W
3
= 0.05
W
2
= 1.10
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(2) Resistivity Tools
DIT: Dual Induction Tool
Induction tools measure formation
conductivity by creating electromagnetic
fields in the formation
Fresh-water mud, oil-based mud, gas or air
Introducing some additional focusing coils
6ff40: ILD
8ff28: ILM
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Coil Arrangement
ILD
6FF40 : 6 Coils Fixed Focus
40 Spacing

(ILM=8FF28)
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(2) Resistivity Tools
AIT: Array Induction Tool
Using eight induction-coil arrays
Self-determination of downhole mud
resistivity and borehole size
Five resistivity logs with progressive radial
investigation from 10 to 90 in
Quantitative 2D imaging of formation
resistivity
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AIT Tool
Configuration
8 Receivers Array (7 Combinations)

2 Frequencies

R & X Signals

28 Independent Signals
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28 Array Signals
5 Depths of Investigation 2D Invasion Profile
AIT Processing Flow
Borehole Correction
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(2) Resistivity Tools
DLT: Dual Laterolog Tool
Focused resistivity device
Deep and shallow measurements are
recorded simultaneously
0.2 - 40000 ohmm
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Focusing System
V=IR
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Focusing System of DLT
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Dual Laterolog
Principle
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(2) Resistivity Tools
DIL or DLL
Low Rmf, : DLL best, DIL worst
Low Rmf, High: DLL good
High Rmf, High: DIL best, DLL worst
High Rmf, low :
Salty water: DIL preferred
Hydrocarbon zones: DLL preferred
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DIL or
DLL?
Salty Mud
Fresh Mud
Laterolog
Preferred
Induction Log
Preferred
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(2) Resistivity Tools
MSFL:
Micro Spherically Focused Log
Measure the conductivity of the formation
near the borehole and provide the relatively
shallow investigation required to evaluate
the effects of invasion on deeper resistivity
measurements
A pad tool to minimize mud reading
The pad is less than a foot long
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MSFL Tool
A pad tool to
minimize mud reading
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MSFL Principle
Measure current (between
spheres B & C), is flowing
through the invaded zone
and is not affected by mud
cake
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(3) Sonic Tools
SLT: Sonic Logging Tool
Formations are mixture of matrix and liquid
(or gas)
The amount of liquid in the formation
determines its porosity
Sound traveling in different materials will
have different speeds
The sonic tool consists of transmitters and
receivers that measure travel time/transit time
in sec
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Formation Model
Formation
Matrix
Liquid
(1-)
ma

f
t1-
ma
+
f
measured known known
(t t
ma
) / (t
f
t
ma


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Sonic
Parameters
for LQC
(55.5)
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(3) Sonic Tools
Sonic Applications
Open hole measurements
Transit time, t: porosity determination
Integrated TT: seismic correlation, seismogram
Waveform: fracture identification, rock
mechanical property
Cased hole measurements
CBL: casing-cement bond
VDL: casing-formation bond
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Sonic
Wave Form
For DT Measurement:
Start = firing
End = E2 arrives at receiver
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(3) Sonic Tools
BHC: Borehole Compensated
Dual transmitters - 4 receivers
Offset the upper transmitter-receiver set from
the lower T/R set by 5
This distance is chosen empirically as the best
value for average hole size
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BHC Tool
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How to Compensate Mud Influence in BHC
The DT is not influenced by the mud
even when the tool is tilted
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(3) Sonic Tools
SDT: Digital Sonic Tool
One cartridge and 2 sondes:
One contains 2 T and 2 R and can be run alone
with cartridge
The other contains an array of 8 R and must be
run above the other sonde
4 depth derived compensated t in
spacings 3-5, 5-7, 8-10 and 10-12
Lower frequency and more powerful T
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SDT Tool
8 Receivers Array
T
T
R
R
R
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SDT Array Firing Modes
6in
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(4) Radioactive Tools Density Log
Compton Scattering
75 keV<EGR<5 MeV
Incident GR photon elbows electron from
the atom and proceeds on its deflected way
with smaller energy
Such reactions may be considered as elastic
collisions of two particles
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Interaction of -ray
with Matter
Density Log
E
GR
<100KeV
75KeV<E
GR
<5MeV
E
GR
>a few MeV
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(4) Radioactive Tools Density Log
Principle of Density Logs
A radioactive source emits medium-energy
gamma rays into the formation
After interacting with the formation, some gamma
rays are scattered by the Compton effect and
detected by the tool
The count rate at the detectors is in inverse
proportion to the electron density of the formation,
which is in turn inversely proportional to the
density
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Low electron density
High electron density
Gamma Ray Spectrum in LDL
Window
for PEF
Window
for b
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(4) Radioactive Tools Density Log
LDT: Litho-density Tool
The litho-density tool is designed to make
direct measurements of formation lithology
and density
It consists of a gamma ray emitting source
and two NaI crystal scintillation detectors,
mounted in a skid
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LDT Tool
To compensate mudcake effect,
LDT tool has two detectors
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LDT Detector Principle
1e 20,000,000e
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Formation Model
Formation
Matrix
Liquid
(1-)
ma

1-
ma
+
f
measured known known
(
ma

b
) / (
ma

f


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Log Response for Minerals
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(4) Radioactive Tools Density Log
Quality Control
Abnormally low density log readings:
Washed-out hole (17") or rough hole
Short washouts
Abnormally high Pe value in mud containing
barite
Large corrections (>0.5 gm/cc):worn pad,
electronic drift, or poor calibration
Negative corrections : bad log or very heavy
barite mud
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Density Log Quality Control
Washed-out Hole Short Washout
Abnormally low density log readings
0
0
is proportional to
LS
-
SS

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Abnormaly Low Density Reading in Washed-out Hole
Caliper
b

Short Washout
0

Washed-out Hole
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Density Log Quality Control
Gas Sand with Sallow Invasion
0
b
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Density Log Quality Control
Rugose Hole
0
Cyclic
b

C
y
c
l
i
c


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(4) Radioactive Tools Neutron Log
Neutrons
Neutrons are classified into three categories
according to their enegy level
Fast neutrons: energy > 0.1 MeV
Epithermal neutrons: 10ev >E> 0.4 eV
Thermal neutrons: E= 0.025 eV
Neutrons are electrically neutral particles
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(4) Radioactive Tools Neutron Log
Lifetime of a Neutron
The neutrons travel out in all directions in
the formation and as they progress they go
through three stages
Slowing down stage
Thermal neutron diffusion stage
Thermal neutron absorption (radioactive
capture)
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Capture
Life of Neutron
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(4) Radioactive Tools
Physics of Measurement
There are two distinct actions of the neutron emitted
from the source
Slowing down
Capturing
The density of neutrons at any point depends on:
Distance from the source
Density of atoms which cause scattering
Density of atoms which capture neutrons
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There are two distinct actions
of the neutron emitted from the source
Slowing down
Capturing
The density of neutrons at any point
depends on:
Distance from the source
Density of atoms which cause
scattering
Density of atoms which capture
neutrons

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(4) Radioactive Tools
Hydrogen
Amongst the commonly encountered elements in
the formation, hydrogen is dominant element that
slow down the high energy neutrons because:
Its atomic weight is the same as that of the
neutron
It has a high scattering slowing down power
And thus high neutron slowing down power
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Interaction of Neutron:
The Case of Hydrogen
Hydrogen has the same mass
as the Neutron
Relative Neutron
Slowing Down Powers
Like Collision of Two Billiard Balls
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(4) Radioactive Tools
CNT :
Compensated Neutron Tool
The population of thermal neutrons at any point
from the source depends mostly on the quantity of
hydrogen (H.I.) Between the source and that point
The hydrogen index of fresh water is 1
The CNT is designed to detect thermal neutrons
and measure the H.I. Of the formation
The formation consists of rock and fluid filled
porosity
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Compensated Neutron Tool
CNT uses two detector system
to reduce the effects of borehole
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(4) Radioactive Tools Neutron Log
Neutron Porosity Outputs
NPHI: traditional mod 8 ratio to porosity
transform from instantaneous near and far
counts
TNPH: new ratio to porosity transform
Dead time, depth and resolution match
NPOR: enhanced resolution processing
using short spacing detector countrates and
TNPH
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NPHI
TNPH
NPOR
Neutron Porosity
Outputs
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Porosity Logs
Tree types: density, neutron, sonic
Sensitive not only to porosity but also to
rock types and to fluid types
The sonic was the popular porosity curve,
run in combination with the induction
The neutron- density combination
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Porosity Logs
Compensated Neutron Log
Advantages:
Excellent gas detector, with density
Good lithlogy tool, with density
Good in cased hole
Disadvantages:
Strongly affected by bound water and neutron
absorbers in clay
Cannot be run in empty holes
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Gas Effect

b

N
Crossplot


Porosity
Lithology
Gas Effect
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Complex Lithology
Identification
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Porosity Logs
Litho-density Log
Advantages:
Simple and exact convertion to porosity
Best porosity device in shallow uncompacted
formations
Pe curve for lithogy
Disadvantages:
Severly affected by rough hole and short caves
Needs outside help (from Neutron) when matrix vareis
or gas present
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Log Response for Minerals
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Lithology & Porosity
Determination
from Pe Curve
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Porosity Logs
Sonic Log
Advantages:
Can operate in very rough hole
Can be run faster than density-neutron
( 3600ft/hr ) (2000ft/hr)
Provides time-to-depth tie for seismic sections
Disadvantages:
Requires knowledge of rock matrix
Response in gas zones is unpredictable
Gas bubbles in mud cause erratic operation
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Porosity Logs
Neutron - Density Logs
Overlay of neutron-density is an excellent
gas indicator
Matrix transitions can be distinguished
Shale effects are more evident and can be
accounted for
Compaction correction in shallow sands is
not required
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Gas Effect

b

N
Crossplot


Porosity
Lithology
Gas Effect
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Porosity Logs
Sonic Log
Available for very rough hole
Important for secondary porosity
Tie-in with seismic data
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Dipmeter Tool

-Formation Dip
Structure, Sedimentology
-Fault Identification
-Unconformity Identification

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Dipmeter Tool Configuration
& Principle
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Dipmeter
Interpretation (1)
Conformity
Crossbedding
Sand Lens
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Dipmeter
Interpretation (2)
Brrecia Zone of Fault Unconformity
Drape & Channel Filling
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(6) Sampling Tool

Repeat Formation Tester (RFT)
Why Wireline Testing?
Proper reservoir management requires
Formation pressure measurements
Collecting representative formation fluid
sample
Determining permeability
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RFT

Vertical pressure profiles are obtained to
Determine fluid contact level
Determine formation fluid density in situ
Characterize reservoir heterogeneities
Determine completion strategy
Optimize the mud density for infill drilling
Can be combined with geology, cores, seismic and
conventional logs to develop a static model of the
reservoir
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RFT Tool & Its Pretest and Sampling System
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Vertical Pressure Profiles
Gas
Oil
Water
GOC
OWC
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(6) Sampling Tool
Chronological Sample Taker (CST)

Also known as Core Sample Taker
or Sidewall Core Taker
Percussion device that fires a hollow,
cylindrical bullet into formation
Bullet removes a core from borehole wall

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CST Tools
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Appendix 1 : Resolution & Depth of Investigation of Each Tool
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Appendix 2:
Measurement of
the Principal Logging Tool
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Fundamentals of well logs
3. Wellsite interpretation
4. Workshop
5. Recent advanced technology
6. Geological applications

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Log Measurements
Borehole effects
Mudcake propeties, mud characteristics, hole size
Chartbook corrections
Invasion effects
Evaluation of Rt, problems with unusual Di
Chartbook invasion corrections
Parasitic effects
Bad logs, different for specific tools
Log quality control
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Symbols Used in Interpretation
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Basic Interpretation Method (1/2)
(1) Examine logs together:
Get a feel for well
Use cuttings log
(2) Separate into logical zones
(3) Quality control the logs
(4) Select intervals for analysis
(5) Environmental correction
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Basic Interpretation Method (2/2)
(6) Decide on interpretation model
(7) Compute porosity: 3 methods
(8) Rw determination
(9) Compute Ro
(10) Compute Sw
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Examine Logs Together
SP: + Rw>Rmf (salt mud), - (fresh mud)
Resistivity: Rt>Rxo Rw>Rmf or oil
GR: clean/ shale zones
NPHI-RHOB: tracking/separation
Sonic: tracks NPHI-RHOB average
Caliper: hole size/ washouts
Heading: mud type/weight/Rm, tool type/setup,
remarks
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*******
*******
*******
Heading of Log
Mud Information
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Logical Zones
Determine reservoirs from evidence of
permeability: SP, Rxo-Rt, caliper, GR.
Decide on lithology: sand, limestone etc.
NPHI-RHOB separation in clean zones.
Fluid content: water/oil/gas.
Compare Rt/Rxo ratio (water:lowest).
Gas: neutron reads much lower than density.
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Permeable Zone
SP : - deflection (Rmf > Rw),
+ deflection (Rmf < Rw)
Rt Rxo: separation
Caliper : < Bit size (mudcake)

Lithology Identification from
b N Separation (in Lst compatible scale)
Limestone : 0
Quartz : +7
Dolomite : -12 to 16
Anhydlite : -15
Shales : up to 45
Gas : up to +45

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Porosity
Lithology correction

NC
,
D

T

(
NC
+
D
)/ 2
(
nc
2
+
d
2
)
1/2
/ 2 for gas bearing
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Porosity
from Neutron
CNT measurements are presented on the log in
limestone porosity units
This is true porosity except when:
Environmental corrections are necessary
The rock matrix is not limestone
The formation contains clay (bound water)
The pore spaces contain gas
The formation is a non-porous mineral, such as salt or
anhydrite
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Porosity from Neutron
Some Typical Readings
Water filled
Sandstone: about 4 pu too low
Dolomite: about 1 - 4 pu too high
Gas bearing rocks: very low
Shales: 30 - 50 pu
Anhydrite, salt: near 0 pu
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Porosity
from Density

D = (
ma
-
b
)/ (
ma
-
f
)

ma
: density of rock matrix
2.65 gm/cc for SS, 2.71 gm/cc for LS

f
: density of pore fluid
1.0 gm/cc for fresh mud filtrate
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Porosity
from Sonic

S = (t -tma )/ (tf-tma)1/Cp

tma = matrix travel time
55 usec/ft for SS
49 usec/ft for LS
44 usec/ft for DL
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Rw Determination
Water catalogue
Chemical analysis
SP
Rwa metod
Rxo/Rt method
Resistivity vs. Porosity crossplot
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Rw Determination from SP
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Charts for Rw Determination from SP (1)
Gen-6 Estimation of
Formation Temperature
Gen-9 Temperature Correction of Rmf
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Charts for Rw Determination
from SP (2)
SP-4 Bed Thickness Correction of SP
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Charts for Rw Determination from SP (3)
SP-1 Rweq Determination from SP SP-2 Rw Determination from Rweq
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Rw Determination from Rxo/Rt Method

In Water Zone ;


Rmf
Rxo
Rt
Rw =
Rmf
Rxo
Rt
Rw =
ILD/LLD reading of water zone
MSFL reading of water zone
Measured
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Rw Determination from Rt vs Crossplot
=
Rw
Sw
Rt
1
Archies Formula
Rt
1
|
Rt
1
|
Rw
Slope
1
=
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Interpretation Model
n m
Sw
Rw a
Rt

Rt
Rw a
m
n
Sw
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= F
a
m
|
SP, Rxo/Rt, Xplot
ILD, LLD
LDL, CNL, Sonic
F : Formation Factor
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Interpretation Model
F= 0.81 /

2
for compacted Sands
F= 1 /

2
for Carbonates
m: lower in uncompacted sands
F= 0.62 /

2.15
Humble formula for sands
Lithology:

b
vs
N
Xplot
Pe vs
b
Xplot
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Lithology Determination

b
vs
N
Xplot
Pe vs
b
Xplot
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Ro, Sw
Compute Ro:
Ro=FRw
F=0.81/
2
for compacted sands
F= 1 /
2
for carbonates
Compute Sw:
Sw
2
=Ro/Rt
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Log Interpretation Outline
Scanning the log
Logical zones
Lithology assumption
Log analysis
Point selection
Rw determination
Sw computation
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Fundamentals of well logs
3. Wellsite interpretation
4. Workshop
5. Recent advanced technology
6. Geological applications

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5. Recent Advanced Technology
(1) Platform Express (including Xtreme)
(2) Logging While Drilling (LWD)
(3) Combinable Magnetic Resonance (CMR)
(4) Modular formation Dynamics Tester
(MDT)
(5) Fullbore formation MicroImager (FMI)
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(1) Platform Express (PEX)
The tool was designed to combine and
environmentally correct all the
measurements required for an initial
interpretation of the reservoir
The system is designed in short, modular
units to generate quality data, operate at
high logging speeds and, as a result, provide
cost-effective measurements of the reservoir
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(1) Platform Express
Tool
Consists of four major sections that make
up to a total length of 38 ft
less than half the length of a standard triple-
combo string
Highly Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde
High-Resolution Mechanical Sonde
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde
Array Induction Imager Tool
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Platform Express Tool
Platform Express
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(1) Platform Express
Specifications
Length: 38 ft
Weight: 690 lbm
OD: 3 3/8 - 4 5/8 in
Temperature rating: 260F
Pressure rating: 10,000 psi (15,000 psi)
Hole size: 6 - 16 in
Maximum logging speed: 3600 ft/hr
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(1) Platform Express
Features
Integrated sensors in much shorter, re-engineered
string
More robust electronic packaging and mechanical
design
Higher, more rigorous LWD shock standards
Real-time speed correction
30% shorter skid with improved pad application
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Improved Pad Application
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(1) Platform Express
Features
Integrated Rxo measurement
Most advanced density, Rxo and Rt
measurements, and deep and shallow
azimuthal images
Real-time, depth-matched, borehole-
corrected data
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(1) Platform Express
High-resolution Skid
MicroCylindrically focused log (MCFL)
Accurately measures both Rxo and pad standoff
The microlog curves are computed
Three-detector LithoDensity (TDL)
Density and Pe
Accurate 2-in resolution
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Density Comparison in Bad Hole
LDT - TLD
LDT
TLD
Caliper
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(1) Platform Express
Benefits
Shorter length requires much less ratholes and lowers
drilling time and cost
More reliable performance means far less down time
and greater rig time savings
Real-time, depth-matched logs greatly improve
interpretation and more accurately estimate reserves
Better-quality logs, more data and higher resolution
uncover hard-to-find pay zones
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(1) Platform Express
Xtreme
High-pressure (25 kpsi), high-temp. (500F) suite
of 4-in.-OD logging tool for hostile environment
Modular design
Array Induction Tool, digital monopole Sonic
Logging Tool, Litho-Density Sonde, Array
Porosity Sonde neutron and Natural Gamma Ray
Spectrometry Sonde
Epithermal measurement
Accelerator-based neutron source
Flushed-zone, sigma-capture, cross-section
measurement
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Xtreme Tool
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(2) Logging While Drilling (LWD)
Advantages:
Early time logs (Pre-invasion logging)
High deviation & horizontal well logging
Insurance logging
Rig time efficiencies
Disadvantages:
Resolution/ depth/ drilling speed
Different collars for different hole sizes
Lost in hole
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(2) Logging While Drilling (LWD)
Resistivity At-the-Bit (RAB)
Focussed ring resistivity, Bit resistivity, GR
Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR)
Dual resistivities, Spectroscopic GR
Compensated Density Neutron (CDN)
Density, Neutron, Pe
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Mud Pulse Telemetry Method in LWD
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Physics of RAB
Measurements
Ring Resistivity
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Tool Configuration of
CDR & CDN
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(2) Logging While Drilling (LWD)
ISONIC: IDEAL Sonic Tool
Measures t compressional in real time
40 to 150 usec/ft
Generates synthetic seismogram during
drilling
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ISONIC Tool
Transmitter
Receiver Array
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(2) Logging While Drilling (LWD)
ADN:Azimuthal Density Neutron Tool
First azimuthal nuclear measurement in the
industry
Azimuthal nuclear measurements identify
heterogeneous formations and give better
results in rugose borehole
Density and porosity accuracy identical to
wireline
Azimuthal ultrasonic standoff measurement
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ADN Tool
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(3) NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Borehole NMR measurements can provide
different types of formation porosity-related
information
Tell how much fluid is in the formation
In some cases, NMR can be used to determine
the type of fluid - water, gas or oil Sw
Supply details about formation pore size and
structure Permeability
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Intergranular Porosity & Fluids
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(3) NMR
Basics of NMR Logging (1/2)
Response of nuclei to a magnetic field
Many nuclei have a magnetic moment
Spinning magnetic nuclei can interact with
externally applied magnetic field, producing
measurable signals
Hydrogen has a relatively large magnetic moment
and is abundant
By tuning to the magnetic resonant frequency of
hydrogen, the signal is maximized and can be
measured
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(3) NMR
Basics of NMR Logging (2/2)
Use large permanent magnets
Create a strong magnetic field inside formation
Strongly polarize hydrogen nuclei in water and
hydrocarbons
When the magnet is removed, the hydrogen
nuclei relax
The quantities measured are signal
amplitude and decay

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NMR (CMR) Tool
Permanent Magnet
Permanent Magnet
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NMR Principle
Precessing Proton Grain Surface Relaxation
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(3) NMR
NMR Measurements
NMR T2 distributions provide for fluid
discrimination
Fluids confined to small pores near surfaces
have short T2 relaxation times
Free fluids in large pores have large T2
relaxation times
Adding the amplitudes of the observed fluid
T2 components together gives a total NMR
porosity
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T
2
Pore Size & Total Porosity
Large Pores have Large T
2
High Permeability
Area = Total Porosity

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(3) NMR
CMR: Combinable Magnetic Resonance Tool
Lithology-independent total porosity
Simplified identification of gas and
hydrocarbon liquids with a reduced
hydrogen index in shaly formation
Improved clay bound water volumes for
more accurate calculation of hydrocarbon
saturation, permeability and irreducible
water saturation
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Neutron Porosity &
NMR Porosity
Neutron Porosity NMR Porosity
Total CMR Porosity
CMR Free-fluid Porosity
3-msec CMR Porosity
H in Clay Crystal
(not detected by NMR)
Clay Bound
Water
Capillary
Bound
Water
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(3) NMR
CMR Specifications
Length: 14 ft (4.3m)
Minimum hole size: 6.25 in
7.8 in with bowspring
Maximum temperature: 350 F
(175C)
Maximum pressure: 20,000 psi
Maximum Logging speed: 600
ft/h
Measurement aperture: 6 in
Depth of investigation: 1 in
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(3) NMR
CMR-Plus
Logging speed: up to 2400 ft/h
Comparable to nuclear tool speed
Three to five times faster
Longer prepolarization magnet
Revised acquisition sequence
Enhanced precision mode processing
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(4) Modular formation Dynamics
Tester (MDT)
Why Wireline Testing?
Proper reservoir management requires
Formation pressure measurements in a wide
range of conditions
Collecting representative formation fluid
sample
Determining permeability and permeability
anisotropy
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(4) MDT
Virgin Reservoirs
Vertical pressure profiles are obtained to
Determine fluid contact level
Determine formation fluid density in situ
Characterize reservoir heterogeneities
Determine completion strategy
Optimize the mud density for infill drilling
Can be combined with geology, cores, seismic and
conventional logs to develop a static model of the
reservoir
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RFT (Repeat Formation Tester) Tool & Its Pretest and Sampling System
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Vertical Pressure Profiles
Gas
Oil
Water
GOC
OWC
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(4) MDT: Modular
Formation Dynamics Tester
First wireline tool able to measure anisotropic
permeability
Can measure static pressure faster
Can collect more, and better, formation fluid
samples in a single trip
Can optically identify the produced fluids as well as
measure the resistivity in real time
The modular design allows tool strings to be
custom designed at the wellsite
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MDT Tool

- The modular design
allows tool strings
to be custom designed
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Identification of
Produced Fluids
Optical Fluid Analyzer
Resistivity Measurement
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(4) MDT
Developed Reservoirs
Wireline testers are used to
Characterize vertical and horizontal barriers
Assess vertical permeability
Detect potential thief zones
Determine hydraulic communication between
wells
Detect fluid contact movement
Collect formation fluid samples
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(5) FMI:
Fullbore Formation MicroImager
Latest-generation electrical imaging device
Full-image mode: large coverage high
resolution images
Four-pad mode : FMS-like borehole image
Dipmeter mode: SHDT-type arrow plot
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FMI Tool
4 Arms / 8 Pads
Sonde

80% Coverage
in 8 Hole
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Image Processing
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(5) FMI
FMI Applications
A new approach to structural analysis
Characterization of sedimentary bodies
Net-to-gross ratio in sand/shale sequences
Enhanced textural analysis with the high-
resolution sensor
Secondary porosity evaluation
Complete fracture network evaluation
Depth-matching, orientation and substitution of
cores
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FMI Analysis
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FMI Analysis
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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Fundamentals of well logs
3. Wellsite interpretation
4. Workshop
5. Recent advanced technology
6. Geological applications

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6. Geological Applications
Lithology Determination: Igneous Rocks
Silica Diagenesis
Gas Hydrate
Source Rock Evaluation
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Igneous Rocks
GR and LDL-CNL logs are very useful
Acidic: High GR, no b
N
separation
Basic: Low GR, b
N
separation like shale
Resistivity:Facies
High: Massive, Intrusive
Low: Hyaloclastite (Tuff)
Alteration:GR
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Volcanic Rocks
Mode of Occurrence
Pillow Lava
Hyaloclastite
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Rock Forming Minerals
of Igneous Rocks
Log Response of
Rhyolite & Basalt
High Low
High Low
High Low
Rhyolite
b
N
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N
b
GR
Example of Log of
Igneous Rock Interval
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Silica Diagenesis
Siliceous shale: source rock
Monterey Fomation (reservoir)
Onnagawa formation (Akita)
Diagenesis: transformation temp.
Opal A opal CT :30~50
Opal CT quartz :about 70
Bottom simulating reflector (BSR)
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Diagenetic Changes of Siliceous Rocks
M
A
C
R
O
P
O
R
E
S

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Depth
b
Density & Porosity
Change in
Silica Diagenesis
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Gas Hydrate
Ice-like compounds containing methane and
other natural gases
Low temperatures and high pressures
On land: permafrost
Offshore: deep sea (more than 500 m)
Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR)
High Rt, Low t, No gas effect
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Core Including
Gas Hydrate
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BSR
BSR in
Seismic Section
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Log Response in
Gas Hydrate Zone
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Source Evaluation
Sorce rock: organic-rich rock
High GR: hot shale (Kimmeridge clay)
Over 200 API
Bulk density: low (OM:0.95~1.05 g/cm
3
)
Acoustic transit time:180 s/ft
Neutron porosity: 67%
Resistivity: non-conductive
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Log Response in Source Rock Interval
Cali GR NGS t b N Rt TOC