WARD CLASS Click to edit Master subtitle style ON FIRST-AID & WOUND CARE




the immediate assistance or treatment given to someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor or other appropriately qualified person.


Aims of first-aid To preserve life and limb To prevent the patient’s condition from worsening To promote recovery


Assess the situation Make the area safe Assess all the casualties and give emergency first aid Get help


4/22/12 .Resuscitation is a procedure indented to revive a heart and lung arrest within 3 to 4 minutes. from the time the heartbeat and breathing stops prevent death or irreversible brain damage.

The ABC of Resuscitation A-irway B-reathing C-irculation 4/22/12 .

Check the casualty’s response Breathe for the casualty Assess for circulation Commence CPR The Resuscitation Sequence Open the airway and check breathing 4/22/12 .

Common Problems of School-Age Children and their Management 4/22/12 .

Wounds and Wound Care Types: According to degree of contamination Clean Clean-contaminated Contaminated Dirty or infected 4/22/12 .

According to how they are acquired (extent of tissue layers involved)   Incision Contusion Abrasion Puncture Laceration Penetrating Wound 4/22/12 .

deep or shallow.Incision Clean cut from a sharp edge such as a broken glass Open wound. painful  4/22/12 .

discoloration. and pain 4/22/12 .Contusion Closed wound caused by a blow to body by blunt object. contusion or bruise characterized by swelling.

Abrasion A superficial wound in which the top layers of the skin are scraped off. leaving raw tender area Open wound involving the skin 4/22/12 .

but a deep track of internal damage Penetration of the skin and the underlying tissues by a sharp instrument.Puncture A wound with small entry site. either intentional or unintentional 4/22/12 .

often from accident  4/22/12 .Laceration A crushing or ripping forces which results in rough tears or lacerations Tissues torn apart.

Penetrating wound Penetration of the skin and the underlying tissues. usually unintentional 4/22/12 .

Serous Purulent Sanguineous Mixed Types Kinds of Wound Drainage/Exudates serosanguineous purosanguineous 4/22/12 .

Factors Affecting Wound Healing Developmental Considerations Nutrition Lifestyle Medications 4/22/12 .

When possible. warm the solution to body temperature before use. make sure they are well diluted. bacteria.Wound Care Guidelines in cleaning wounds Use solutions such as isotonic saline or tap water to clean or irrigate wounds. If antimicrobial solutions are used. 4/22/12 . clean the wound at every dressing change. slough. or necrotic tissue. If a wound is grossly contaminated by foreign material.

and reveals healthy granulation tissue. avoid repeated cleaning. Use gauze squares. 4/22/12 . has little exudates.If a wound is clean. Avoid using cotton balls and other products that shed fibers into the wound surface.

Clean from the wound in an outward direction to avoid transferring organisms from the surrounding skin into the wound.Clean superficial noninfected wounds by irrigating them with normal saline. To retain wound moisture. Hold cleaning sponges with forceps or with a sterile gloved hand. 4/22/12 . avoid drying a wound after cleaning it.

4/22/12 .Consider not cleaning the wound at all if it appears to be clean.

or radioactive agents scald is a burn from a hot liquid or vapour. electric. such as steam.Burns and Scalds Burns results to excessive exposure to thermal. chemical. 4/22/12 .

First-degree burn Types and Assessment Findings Second-degree burn Third-degree burn 4/22/12 .

the burn is more serious. Do this after cooling with water.First Aid Measures  Remove the child from the cause of burning without endangering yourself. the burn under cold water at least 10 minutes. remove clothing only if it is stuck to the burn and you can do so easily and without doing more harm. 4/22/12  Hold  If  If . the burn is minor remove clothing from the affected area.

Or put a clean plastic bag over a foot. because the burnt area may swell. the burn with clingfilm or a clean. nonfluffy cloth (handkerchief. hand. . the child to the neatest Accident and Emergency 4/22/12  Do  Do  Take  Watch for signs of shock. pillow case or linen/cotton tea towel). arm or leg. creams or fats. not burst blisters or use adhesive dressings. Loosen  Cover tight clothing and removed any jewellery. not apply any lotions.

lighters and other flammable materials out of children’s reach. children a plan for escaping your home in a fire and practice it! smoke alarms in your home on every level and in every sleeping area. stoves or candles. testing them once a month and replacing the batteries at least twice a year. matches. bathing children in heated water. gasoline.Tips on Prevention  Never  Keep leave children alone around open flames. 4/22/12 always run your open hand through the water  Teach  Install  Before .

Never carry children and hot foods or liquids at the same time. things that easily catch fire (such as papers) away from heat sources like stoves. sure that pot handles are turned towards the stove when cooking so that a child cannot accidentally grab the handle and spill the contents.  Make  Keep 4/22/12 . Keep hot foods and liquids away from table and counter edges. heaters and fireplaces.

Bruises and Sprains Bruise Sprain First Aid Measures Bruises Raise the injured part Apply firm pressure with your hand 4/22/12 .

Sprain (Follow the RICE procedure) Rest Ice pack or cold compress Compress the injury Elevate and support the injured limb Dipped Take or send the casualty to the hospital 4/22/12 .

Nosebleed Definition and Cause . Release the nostrils to see if the nosebleed has stopped 4/22/12 . Reassure and encourage her not to sniff.a hemorrhage from the nose caused by the rupture of tiny. cough. or even speak. First Aid measures Let the child sit down Pinch the nostrils. swallow. distended vessel in the mucous membrane of any area of the nose.

caused by a brief restriction in blood flow to the brain. Children may faint out of hunger. which usually corrects itself quickly.If the nosebleed has stopped. or if they have to stand without moving for a long time. ask her to remain leaning forward. fear or pain. The child now needs to rest for a while Definition and Cause . Fainting 4/22/12 .

any clothing that is tight-fitting and provide fresh air. a sugary drink or small snack to raise the sugar level in her blood. very pale face. and slow pulse. briefly losing consciousness. calm reassurance. raise his/her legs and support them. the child down. sickness or weakness. Do not offer4/22/12 or drink if she is not fully food  Lie  Loosen  Give  Offer .First Aid Measures  Watch for signs of dizziness.

legs. 4/22/12 You feel a sense of doom. It feels like you can't get enough air You feel tingling and numbness in the arms. .Hyperventilation Definition and Cause . and around the mouth. usually caused by anxiety or panic.is rapid or deep breathing. Signs and Symptoms     Your heart pounds.

First aid measures  Have the hyperventilating person breathe slowly into a paper bag that's held closely around his or her mouth and nose person should breathe like this for five to seven minutes. Try to distract him or her and make the person feel comfortable and safe. take him or her to the emergency room. symptoms fail to improve or the person loses consciousness. 4/22/12  The  Talk  If . to the individual the entire time.

Administer antihistamines and prevent secondary infection the area under cool running water or put a cold compress on it for a few minutes to reduce pain and swelling. the sting is inside the mouth give an icecold drink to sip or ice cubes to suck. 4/22/12  Rinse  If .Animal Bites Insect Bites First Aid Measure  First aid measure: Use antipruritic agents and baths.

 If the swelling gets worse or the child's breathing is affected. call an ambulance and monitor the child's airway. breathing. and circulation (the ABC of resuscitation) until the ambulance arrives. 4/22/12 .

First Aid Measure Superficial Bites . 4/22/12 .  Dogs and Rodents Wash the wound thoroughly with warm.Bites that puncture only the skin can be safely treated at home. Wash away any dirt by rinsing the wound under running water for several minutes. soapy water.

Put a clean pad over the wound and press down on it to control the bleeding. Cover the bite. Bandage it firmly.Bites that penetrate deep into the tissues beneath the skin needs medical expert. Take the child to the accident and emergency department or to the doctor. Use either a clean pad or a sterile dressing. 4/22/12   .Deep Bites   . Raise the injured part of the body above the level of the heart to reduce blood flow to the wound.

cause by a disturbance in the function of the brain. Convulsions usually result in loss of.Seizures (Convulsions) Definition and Cause . or impaired. 4/22/12 . consists of involuntary contractions of many of the muscles in the body. consciousness. or fit.convulsion.

like the casualty may be staring blankly ahead. head or limbs.Types Seizures  Minor  Major Epilepsy Epilepsy Signs and Symptoms Minor Epilepsy  sudden  slight switching off. 4/22/12 . eyelids. or localised twitching or jerking of the lips.

The lips may show grey-blue tinge (cyanosis) and the face and neck may become congested. may cease. blood stained if lips or tongue have been bitten. The jaw may be clenched and breathing may be noisy. 4/22/12  Breathing  Convulsive .Major Epilepsy  the casualty suddenly falls unconscious. There may be loss of bladder or bowel control. movement begin. often letting out a cry. Saliva may appear at the mouth.

Stay with her until you are sure she is herself again. to her calmly and reassuringly. from the immediate vicinity. Remove any possible sources of harm. Do not pester her with questions. advise her to consult her own 4/22/12  Talk . for example hot drinks or sharp objects.First Aid Measures  Help Minor Epilepsy the casualty to sit down in a quiet place. If the casualty does not recognize and know about her condition.

place him in the recovery position. Check breathing and pulse. Make space around him and ask bystanders to move away. Stay with him until he is fully recovered. if possible. clothing around his neck and. be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.Major Epilepsy  If you see the casualty falling. 4/22/12  Loosen  When . try to support him or ease his fall. the convulsions cease. protect his head.

Drugs and alcohol can also poison the body. First Aid Measures v v v Swallowed Poison Inhaled Poison Absorbed Poison 4/22/12 . or be caused by eating contaminated food or poisonous plants.It can occur as a result of accidents.Poisoning .

poisonous household substances in their original containers. medicines in a locked cupboard. 4/22/12  Keep  Leave  Buy  Dispose appropriately of unwanted . medicines and household substances in child-resistant containers.Tips on Prevention  Keep toxic chemicals out of children’s reach and sight (not under the sink). Never store them in old soft drinks bottles. children are commonly misled by such container and try to drink the contents.

Fractures Definition a break in the rigid structure and continuity of a bone. and is known as the most common type of bone lesion Common Types Closed Open 4/22/12 .

secure the injured part to a sound part of  4/22/12 .First Aid Measures Closed Fracture Tell the casualty to keep still and steady and support the injured part with your hands until it is immobilised For firmer support.

carefully place some clean padding over and around the dressing. the dressing and padding: bandage firmly. non-fluffy material around the bone until you can bandage over the pads. If bone is protruding. build up pads of soft. touching an open wound with your fingers. 4/22/12  Without  Secure .Open Fracture  Cover the wound with a clean pad or sterile dressing and apply pressure to control the bleeding. but not so tightly that the circulation is impeded.

Don't bother trying to get water out of the lungs . First aid measures v v v Carry the child out of the water with the head lower than the chest. Get another adult to call an ambulance.is the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid.Drowning . 4/22/12 . the child will cough it out as she starts to breathe.

breathing and circulation. her to the hospital. her airway. 4/22/12  Assess . She might have inhaled some water.If the child is conscious:  Wrap  Take her in dry clothes coats or towels and get her into clothes. which may damage her lungs. If the child is unconscious:  Call an ambulance.

Thank you for listening!!!! 4/22/12 .

Evaluation 4/22/12 .

V. S. Wound Care 4/22/12 . (1197). & Jones.Bibliography:  Bale.

4/22/12 .

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