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DC DRIVES

DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors as the prime movers DC motor: industry workhorse for decades Will AC drive replaces DC drive ?
DC strong presence easy control huge numbers AC will eventually replace DC at a slow rate

DC Motors

Advantage: simple torque and speed control without sophisticated electronics

Limitations:

Regular Maintenance Heavy motor

Expensive motor Sparking

General Torque Equation


Translational (linear) motion:

dv F =M dt
Rotational motion:

F : Force (Nm) M : Mass (Kg ) v : velocity (m/s)

T : Torque (Nm) J : Moment of Inertia (Kgm2 ) : angular velocity ( rad/s )

Torque Equation: Motor drives

Te : motor torque (Nm)

TL : Load torque (Nm)

Te TL > 0 Te TL < 0 Te TL = 0

Acceleration Deceleration Constant speed

continue
Drive accelerates or decelerates depending on whether Te is greater or less than TL During acceleration, motor must supply not only the load torque but also dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ). During deceleration, the dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ), has a negative sign. Therefore, it assists the motor torque, Te.

Torque Equation: Graphical


Te

Speed

Forward Forward Reverse Reverse running braking acc. running

Reverse Forward braking acc.

Load Torque
Load torque, TL, is complex, depending on applications. In general:
TORQUE

TL = k TL = k TL = k2
SPEED

4Q OPERATION
F: FORWARD R: REVERSE M : MOTORING B: BRAKING
Te SPEED Te

FB RM
Te

II III

I IV

FM
Te

RB

TORQUE

Principle of Operation

DC Motors
Stator: field windings Rotor: armature windings

Current in Current out

Equivalent circuit of DC motor

Ra + Vt _ ia

La + e a _

Lf if

Rf + Vf _

di vt = R a i a + L a + ea dt

df v = R if + L f f id t

Te = ktia
ea = k E

Electromagnetic torque Armature back e.m.f.

Torque-speed characteristics Armature circuit: In steady state,


Va = Ra ia + L dia + ea dt

Va = Ra I a + Ea

Therefore speed is given by, Ra Va = T + 2 e kT ( kT ) Three possible methods of speed control: Armature resistance Ra Field flux

Torque-speed characteristics of DC motor


Speed

No load speed

Full load speed

Maximum load Torque

Torque

Separately excited DC motors have good speed regulation.

DC Motor Speed Control


Speed

By Changing Ra

Ra increasing

Maximum Torque

Torque

Power loss in Ra Does not maintain maximum torque capability Poor speed regulation

DC Motor Speed Control


Speed

By Decreasing Flux

Flux Decreasing

Maximum Torque

Torque Trate d

Slow transient response Does not maintain maximum torque capability

DC Motor Speed Control


Speed

By Changing Armature voltage Va increasing

Maximum Torque

Torque

good speed regulation maintain maximum torque capability

Trate d

Methods of Armature Voltage Control 1. Ward-Leonard Scheme 2. Phase-controlled rectifier (ACDC) 3. Switch-Mode Converter (Chopper) (DCDC)

Converters For DC motor Drives Switchmode converters: 1Q Converter T 1

+ Vt -

Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4
T

Converters For DC motor Drives

Switchmode converters: 2Q Converter

T 1 T 2

D 1 + Vt D 2

Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4
T

Q1 T1 and D2 Q2 D1 and T2

Converters For DC motor Drives

Switchmode converters: 4Q Converter

T1 D1 D3

+ Vt D4 D2

T3

Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4
T

T4

T2

Advantages of Switch mode converters

Switchmode converters

Switching at high frequency Reduces current ripple Increases control bandwidth

Suitable for high performance applications