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# DC DRIVES

DC DRIVES: Electric drives that use DC motors as the prime movers DC motor: industry workhorse for decades Will AC drive replaces DC drive ?
DC strong presence easy control huge numbers AC will eventually replace DC at a slow rate

DC Motors

Limitations:

## General Torque Equation

Translational (linear) motion:

dv F =M dt
Rotational motion:

## TL : Load torque (Nm)

Te TL > 0 Te TL < 0 Te TL = 0

## Acceleration Deceleration Constant speed

continue
Drive accelerates or decelerates depending on whether Te is greater or less than TL During acceleration, motor must supply not only the load torque but also dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ). During deceleration, the dynamic torque, ( Jd/dt ), has a negative sign. Therefore, it assists the motor torque, Te.

Te

Speed

## Reverse Forward braking acc.

Load torque, TL, is complex, depending on applications. In general:
TORQUE

TL = k TL = k TL = k2
SPEED

4Q OPERATION
F: FORWARD R: REVERSE M : MOTORING B: BRAKING
Te SPEED Te

FB RM
Te

II III

I IV

FM
Te

RB

TORQUE

Principle of Operation

DC Motors
Stator: field windings Rotor: armature windings

## Equivalent circuit of DC motor

Ra + Vt _ ia

La + e a _

Lf if

Rf + Vf _

di vt = R a i a + L a + ea dt

df v = R if + L f f id t

Te = ktia
ea = k E

## Torque-speed characteristics Armature circuit: In steady state,

Va = Ra ia + L dia + ea dt

Va = Ra I a + Ea

Therefore speed is given by, Ra Va = T + 2 e kT ( kT ) Three possible methods of speed control: Armature resistance Ra Field flux

Speed

Torque

## DC Motor Speed Control

Speed

By Changing Ra

Ra increasing

Maximum Torque

Torque

Power loss in Ra Does not maintain maximum torque capability Poor speed regulation

## DC Motor Speed Control

Speed

By Decreasing Flux

Flux Decreasing

Maximum Torque

Torque Trate d

Speed

Maximum Torque

Torque

## good speed regulation maintain maximum torque capability

Trate d

Methods of Armature Voltage Control 1. Ward-Leonard Scheme 2. Phase-controlled rectifier (ACDC) 3. Switch-Mode Converter (Chopper) (DCDC)

+ Vt -

Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4
T

## Switchmode converters: 2Q Converter

T 1 T 2

D 1 + Vt D 2

Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4
T

Q1 T1 and D2 Q2 D1 and T2

T1 D1 D3

+ Vt D4 D2

T3

Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4
T

T4

T2

## Advantages of Switch mode converters

Switchmode converters