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Toward Independence Chapter 5

5.1 Introduction
Patriot: Americans who believed that the colonies had the right to govern themselves (also called Whigs). Loyalists: Americans who were loyal to Great Britain (also called Tories). Tyranny: The unjust use of governmental power. Repeal: To take back or cancel a law. Boycott: To refuse to buy goods from a certain source (way of protesting).

5.2 What Was It Like Before 1763?


For almost a century, the British government had left the colonies alone to govern themselves.

What Was the Conflict in the Ohio Valley?


People b/g moving west of the Appalachians into the Ohio Valley, which was claimed by both France and Britain. In 1754 VA ordered a militia, led by G. Washington, to attack Ft. Duquesne and drive the French out of the valley. It was an easy victory for the British.

French and British Territory Before 1763

What Was The French and Indian War?


Britain V. the French and the Indians. The British captured Canada in 1759 and in 1763 they signed a treaty, ceding Canada to Britain. The war lasted for 7 years.

Gen. Braddock

What it may have looked like

Braddock Gets It

What Were the Results of the War?


Reduced the colonists need for protection against the French. Led Britain to tax the colonists to help pay off Britains war debt. Greatly expanded Britains North American Empire.

Dont need em

New Taxes

All this new land

5.3 What Were the Early British Actions?


What Was the Proclamation of 1763? To end bloodshed b/t the settlers and the Indians, King George III said Indians had to stay west of the Appalachians and the settlers had to stay east of them. Whats the problem? Why? Settlers were already living to the west of them, and settlers claimed there was no land in the east left. Colonists felt this was tyranny.

What Was the Stamp Act?


To help pay off the debt from the French and Indian War, Britain issued the Stamp Act. Colonists had to buy a stamp for every piece of paper they used. Whats the problem? Colonists believed Britain had no right to tax the colonies because they had no representation in Parliament. The colonists lashed out at the tax collectors and a few months later the tax was repealed.

What Was the Quartering Act?


1765 Parliament passed the Quartering Act. Assemblies (colonists) were required to provide housing and food for British soldiers. Whats the problem? Why is it a problem? The colonists didnt want the troops there to begin with, let alone house and feed them.

5.4 What Were the Townshend Acts?


1767 Parliament passed the Townshend Acts which placed taxes on goods imported from Britain (glass, paint, paper, tea, etc.). Whats the problem? No taxation without representation! How do they handle it? Boycott British goods.

Why Did Colonists Boycott British Goods?


B/c colonists didnt want to pay taxes their assemblies had not voted on (No taxation w/o representation). Led by Sam Adams, all of the colonies agreed to boycott British goods. What role did women play? They had to make everything they werent buying from Britain.

Sam Adams

Why Were the Townshend Acts Repealed?


Britain was losing a ton of money due to the boycott. All the taxes were repealed except for the one on tea.

(Except for tea)

5.5 What Was the Boston Massacre?


Britain sent troops to maintain order in Boston, a hotspot for Patriot troublemakers. A crowed insulted the troops, who were not allowed to fire their weapons.

How Did Mob Violence Break Out?


The crowd b/g throwing rocks and ice balls. A soldier was knocked to the ground and the soldiers panicked and opened fire. 5 Bostonians were killed, 10 wounded. The crowd demanded the troops be tried for murder. Was it a massacre? It was a deadly riot.

Was It Massacre or Self-Defense?


P. Revere made an engraving of the incident that circulated in the colonies, whipping up antiBritish feeling. What does the engraving imply? That it was a massacre.

5.6 What Was the Boston Tea Party?

What Was the Tea Act? The boycott hurt Britain, which now had tons of tea sitting in warehouses. Tea Act made taxed tea xt cheap and gave British East India Co. a monopoly over tea in the colonies. So whats the problem? Colonists were still mad that tea was taxed (no taxation w/o representation).

Tea Ships Arrived


Ships from the B.E.I.C. were stuck in Boston harbor b/c protestors wouldnt let them unload their cargo. 50 Sons of Liberty boarded 3 ships dressed as Mohawk Indians and threw all of the tea (90,000 lbs) overboard.

Sons of Liberty Flag

5.7 What Were The Intolerable Acts?


A series of laws designed to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. Britain thought the laws would force the colonists to give in to British rule. What do you think actually happened? The Intolerable Acts simply united the colonies against Britain.

What Was the First Continental Congress?


1774 50 leaders from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia . They sent a message to King George asking him to consider their complaints and recognize their rights. How do the colonists handled the Intolerable Acts? Came up w/ new boycott until Intolerable Acts were repealed.

First Continental Congress

Why Did the Colonies Form militias?


A militia is a small army made up of ordinary citizens who are available to fight in an emergency. Organized militias in case the boycott didnt work. N.E. volunteers were called Minutemen.

5.8 What Happened At Lexington and Concord?


The King never responded to the colonists message. What Was the First Blow at Lexington? 1775 Gen. Gage marched 700 men at night to Concord where the colonists had weapons and gunpowder. A battle broke out at the town of Lexington in which 8 colonists died.

Gen. Gage

What Was the Second Blow at Concord?


British reached Concord the next day; colonists had moved the weapons. British set fire to the town. Minutemen faced the British and beat them back. Brits retreated towards Boston, being fired on the whole way. What does this show about the colonists? Showed colonists were willing to fight for the right to govern themselves.