:Histological Study of Hard Dental Tissues

Physical properties Chemical Composition
Inorganic phase Organic phase

Development (genesis):
Forming cells: (life history) Matrix formation (protein synthesis) Calcification (mineralization)

Ultra-structure
Structural unit-Regional variation

Incremental lines
Age changes 

ENAMEL
The hardest calcified tissue in the body forms the protective covering of the crown

:PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
COLO R TH ICKNES S HAR DNESS BRI TT LEN ESS PER MEA BILI TY

*

COLOUR - 1
YELLOWIH WHITE TO GRAYISH WHITE

: Depends on Degree of -1 calcification Homogenisity of -2 the enamel YELLOWISH teeth…. Translucent enamel

THICKNESS - 2
mm 2.5 – 2. at the cusps of the molars and .premolars Thinning down to almost knife edge at the cervical margin of the tooth

HARDNESS – 3
ENAMELIT IS THE HARDEST MICROHARDNESS CALCIFIED TISSUE THE IS ENAMEL OF - AT IN - 1GREATEST THEPERMANENT THE BODY SURFACE AND TEETH :DUE TO E. TOWARD DECREASED IS HARDER THAN HIGH CONTENT OF -1 .DEJ THAT OF THE 2 GREATERAT THE IT IS - MINERAL SALTS DECIDUOUS ITS CRYSTALLINE -2 CUSPS AND INCISAL ’ONES .ARRANGEMENT RIDGE ANDDECREASES TOWARD THECERVICAL .LINE
+ + + +

BRITTLNESS - 4
ITS STRUCTURE AND HARDNESS RENDER IT BRITTLE, SPECILY WHEN IT LOOSES ITS ELASTIC FOUNDATION OF HEALTHY DENTIN

ASG

PERMEABILITY -5

CERTAIN ENAMEL HAS ADEGREE OF MAINLY PER. PERMEABILTY ISDEMONSTRATED BY FROM SALIVA TO DYES AND RADIOACTIVE OUTER LAYER OF ISOTOPESBUT LESS ENAMEL, T FROM THE A ACTS AS PULP TO SEMIPERMEABLE THE INNER ENAMEL MEMBRANE FOR LAYER ACROSS CERTAIN IONS AND .THE DENTIN DYESTUFFS OF SMALL MOLECULAR SIZE THROUGH PORES BETWEEN THE

:CHEMICAL COMPOSITION INORGANIC CONTENT 96%
CRYSTALLINE CALCIUM PHOSPHATE

By weight

ORGANIC CONTENT 4%

“HYDROXYAPATITE” Ca 10(PO4)6 (OH)2

AMELOGENINS ENAMELINS and Water

GROUND SECTION

DECALCIFIED SECTION

Methods of Studying ”hard tissues ”

:STRUCTURAL UNIT

ENAMEL ROD or PRISM

NUMBER: DIRECTION: COURSE:

DIAMETER:

:Longitudinal section : Cross Section

ENAMEL PRISM
LOWER CENTRAL INCISOR

NUMBER - 1

5
12

MILLIONS MILLIONS

UPPER FIRST MOLAR

DIRECTION - 2
D

D

p

ENAMEL PRISM
3 - COURSE
STRUCTURELESS ENAMEL

DENTINO-ENAMEL MEMBRANE

Wavy Course of Enamel Rods

GNARLED ENAMEL

: longitudinal Section

: Cross Section ,Hexagonal, fish scales
keyhole pattern

Ameloblast

Tomes process

SUBMICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF ENAMEL ROD
Key hole analogy
Enamel rod

T.S

T.S

L.S

L.S

Enamel prism
Head of keyhole “core”

Key-hole Interprismatic Prism Pattern region
“Tail region”

sheath

Boundary around” the head

HUNTER-SCHREGER BANDS

(optical phenomenon) dark and light bands

HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURES OF ENAMEL
    

Incremental lines Enamel lamellae Enamel tufts Enamel spindle Dentinoenamel junction

STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF ENAMEL

Incremental lines:
 CROSS STRAIATIONS (short increment)  INCREMENTAL LINES OF RETZIUS (long increment )

 INCREMENTAL LINES OF RETZIUS (long increment )

Cross Striations

Enamel Rods

Incremental lines of Retzius

• NEONATAL LINE

dentin

d PRENATAL ENAMEL Before birth POSTNATAL ENAMEL After birth

POSTNATAL ENAMEL

PRENATAL ENAMEL

Incremental lines of Retzius
Surface manifestation : Perikymata

Structural features in Enamel
 1- ENAMEL LAMELLAE ENAMEL TUFTS

 2-

 3- Dentino - Enamel Junction

Enamel lamellae

Enamel lamellae
In enamel only Extending in enamel and dentin

Enamel Spindles

THE AMELODENTINAL JUNCTION
ENAMEL

DENTIN

PRIMARY ENAMEL CUTICLE ((Nasmyth’s membrane
- 0.2 um thick. - Its structure is similar to the basal lamina of the epithelium. - It is the last product of the ameloblasts.
ASG

PR IM ARY ENA ME L C UT IC LE

1ry e.cuticle

Longitudinal Ground Section

Transverse Ground Section

HUNTER-SCHREGER BANDS

(optical phenomenon) dark and light bands

Observed in L.s ground section under reflected light

 SURFACE STRUCTURES OF ENAMEL

* OUTER STRUCTURELESS ENAMEL *PERIK YMAT A

*E NAME L RO D E NDS * CRACK s *Afibrillar cem ent um

SURFACE STRUCTURES
OUTER STRUCTURELESS ENAMEL – 1
REMEMBER: THAT THERE IS AN INNER STRUCTURELESS ENAMEL

um thick 30

Perikymata
Surface manifestation of Incremental lines of Retzius

Perikymata

PARALLELTO EACH OTHER AND TO C.E.J. CONTINUOUSAROUND THE TOOTH. 30/ mm – AT THE REGION OF C.E.J. 10/ mm – NEAR TO THE OCCLUSAL OR INCISAL EDGES

Enamel Rod Ends

SHALLOWER CERVICALLY DEEPER OCCLUSALLY

CRACKs

AFIBRILLAR CEMENTUM
E

C

SALIVARY PELLICLE

Age changes of Enamel
  

Attrition Decreased Permeability Increased Hardness (ionic exchange) Color changes

Attrition
Dentin

PERMEABILITY - 2

Recently Erupted teeth
ASG

Main path

Old enamel

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