AMELOGENESIS

TWO-PHASE CONCEPT

ORGANIC MATRIX FORMATION
Secretion of ENAMEL PROTIENS

MINERALIZATION MATURATION &
Deposition of HYDROXY-APATITE CRYSTALS

:CHEMICAL COMPOSITION INORGANIC
CONTENT

ORGANIC
CONTENT

By weight

96%
CRYSTALLINE CALCIUM PHOSPHATE

4%
AMELOGENINS ENAMELINS

“HYDROXYAPATITE” Ca 10(PO4)6 (OH)2

Life history
of

Ameloblast

Tooth
development

AMELOGENESIS STAGES: Life History of Ameloblast
1- MORPHOGENIC 2- ORGANIZING
(DIFFERENTIATION)

3- SECRETORY (Initial) (Tomes process) 4- MATURATIVE (ruffle ended) (smooth ended) 5- PROTECTIVE 6- DESMOLYTIC

MORPHOGENIC ORGANIZING

SECRETORY

MATURATIVE PROTECTIVE

DESMOLYTIC

Differentiation Gradient From cusp tip

cervically

Morphogenic Stage
:Crown pattern determination :Inner Enamel Epithelial cells •arrange themselves on B.M. → determine future DEJ • short columnar cells , large oval nucleus •Golgi apparatus & centrioles → in proximal end of the cells •Mitochondria → evenly distributed •Proximal terminal bars • Separated from dental papilla by: B.M. & cell free zone

Organizing Stage
:Inner Enamel Epithelial cells • Become tall columnar cells (40 microns) (cell free zone disappears) • Reversal of polarity: o golgi app. & centrioles → distally o nucleus & mitochondria→ proximmaly

IEE cells

dental papilla cells

IEE cells

induction

differentiation of odontoblasts

MORPHOGENIC ORGANIZING

SECRETORY

induction

odontoblast

Reciprocal induction

Secretory Stage
Formation of dentin → reciprocal induction  histodifferentiation of IEE into ameloblasts with all criteria of protein secreting cells
 

appearance of distal terminal bars

Secretory Stage
Protein Synthesizing and Secreting Cells  Large open-faced nucleus  Abundant cytoplasm  in no. of mitochondria  in rough endoplasmic reticulum RER  in size of Golgi apparatus

Criteria for all

Presence of secretory granules

Enamel Matrix Secretion :Cellular pathway
m RNA RER Golgi apparatus Secretion granules Liberation at the apical cell surface

SECRETORY AMELOBLAST

’Tomes process

Responsible for rod and inter-rod configeation

Rod and inter-rod substance

Maturative Stage
(with the help of stratum intermedium cells)

2. Introduction of minerals 3. Reabsorption of enamel proteins & water

starts after all enamel matrix at incisal edge or cusp tip is formed  Ameloblasts →reduced in size  organells of secretion become enclosed in Selective function of ameloblast during maturation autophagic vacuoles

MATURATIVE AMELOBLAST

• Folding of distal cell membrane → striated boredr • Increase of surface area for transport of materials

 number of
mitochondria, shifted to distal end of cell Smooth-Ruffled • Transitory stage: ended

smooth-ended

ended

Mineralization of Enamel Matrix Initial partial mineralization of of total mineral content
30%

Reabsorption of enamel proteins & water Crystal growth

96% APATITE CONTENT

Protective Stage:
  

After maturation of enamel Ameloblasts → reduced form with other layers of dental organ → reduced dental epithelium protects mature enamel from surrounding C.T.

Desmolytic Stage:
• reduced enamel epithelial cells secrete desmolytic enzymes degenerate C.T. separating developing tooth & oral epithelium: a pathway for eruption

Relationship of Tomes’ process to the key hole pattern

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