0 Up votes0 Down votes

18 views36 pagesOct 12, 2011

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

18 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- 4.7-4.8 Review Worksheet
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10
- Not
- Determinants
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2333.502.10f taught by Qingwen Hu (qxh102020)
- Implementation of Matrix based Mapping Method Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography
- Betke M., Gurvits L. Mobile Robot Localization Using Landmarks 1997
- Topic 1 Matrix 1
- short ques maths
- Aan.docx
- The General Linear Group.pdf
- The General Linear Group
- The General Linear Group.pdf
- ch1
- Example of Cryptography
- Chapter 7.pdf
- matrixid
- A Complete Quantitative Analysis of Self
- Lsq
- Theil

You are on page 1of 36

10

GOALS OF THIS CHAPTER

- develop notion of matrix inverse - discuss properties of matrix inverse - see elementary row operation procedure of finding an inverse - introduce cofactors and the adjoint of a matrix - see the adjoint formula for finding an inverse - understand what the existence of an inverse tells us about linear systems - understand and calculate elementary matrices

When dealing with numbers, we have an understanding of what the inverse of a number a is: it is the unique number b that satisfies the inverse equation

ab = 1

We say b is the inverse of a (provided it exists). We can even solve for b:

b = 1/a

So we can write the inverse equation as:

a * 1/a = aa-1= 1

It is natural to wonder if there is such a thing as an inverse for a matrix A. The answer is maybe. If there is an inverse (call it B), it must satisfy the matrix inverse equations:

AB = I

BA = I

Usually, we write A-1 instead of B, so that the matrix inverse equations look like:

AA-1 = I

A-1A = I

If the inverse does not exist, we say A is singular (or non-invertible). If the inverse does exist, then we say A is non-singular (or invertible).

Thm. 1 Uniqueness of Inverse - done in class Proof - done in class

Next, I will guide you through the steps needed to find the inverse of a square matrix A. This method will either find the inverse, or it will tell you that the inverse does not exist. Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

2 1 1

3 2 2

A=

1 0

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 1 0

2 1 1

3 2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

STEP #1: Adjoin an identity matrix of the same size to the right hand side of A. We call this matrix [A|I].

STEP #2: Use elementary row operations to reduce the lefthand side of [A|I] to RREF.

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 1 0

2 1 1

3 2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R2 R2 R1

1 0 0

2 -1 1

3 -1 2

1 -1 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R2 (-1)R2

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

2 1 1

3 1 2

1 1 0

0 -1 0

0 0 1

R3 R3 R2

1 0 0

2 1 0

3 1 1

1 1 -1

0 -1 1

0 0 1

R1

R1 2R2

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 1

-1 1 -1

2 -1 1

0 0 1

R1

R1 R3

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 1 1

0 1 -1

1 -1 1

-1 0 1

R2 R2 R3

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 2 -1

1 -2 1

-1 -1 1

RREF

A-1

STEP #3: If the RREF of A is an identity matrix, then A has an inverse and the inverse is the matrix on the right hand side!

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O. The only other thing that may happen, is you obtain a full row of zeros along the way. If this happens, then A is not invertible (or A is singular). 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 -1 1 -2 1 -1 -1 1

A-1 does not exist (even though there is a matrix over here)

For a 2x2 matrix, we can calculate a special number called the determinant. We denote it as det(A). Ex. 4 The 2x2 Determinant

1

A=

2 4

Multiply entries on main diagonal. Subtract the product of the remaining entries.

Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 0 5

M11 = det

-7 2

= 0 (-35) = 35

The minor of the (1,1) entry.

Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 1 0 2 -7

M23 =

det

= -7 0 = -7

The minor of the (2,3) entry.

Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 1 3 2 5

M32 = det

= 5 6 = -1

The minor of the (3,2) entry.

For any square matrix, we denote the cofactor of an entry as Aij. The cofactor is defined to be

Aij = (-1)i+jMij

Ex. 6 Cofactors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

M23 =

1 0

2 -7

0 5

A23 = (-1)2+3M23 = (-1)5(-7-0) = (-1)(-7) =7

0 -7 2

For any square matrix, we denote the cofactor of an entry as Aij. The cofactor is defined to be

Aij = (-1)i+jMij

Ex. 6 Cofactors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

M11 =

-7 2

0 5

A11 = (-1)1+1M11 = (-1)2(0+35) = 35

0 -7 2

There is one cofactor for each entry in an nxn square matrix A. If we combine all these cofactors, we obtain the cofactor matrix, or cofmat(A).

A11 A12

cofmat(A) =

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

Since there isnt a matrix left over when we cross out the column and row, we just write down the number left over.

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4)

=

B21 B22

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)

=

B21 B22

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)

=

B21 B22

(-1)3(2)

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)

=

B21 B22

(-1)3(2) (-1)4(1)

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

4

=

-3

B21 B22

-2 1

Ex. 8 3x3 Cofactor Matrix - done in class Once we know the matrix of cofactors, all we have to do is take the transpose of the matrix of cofactors to get to the adjoint.

adj(A) = cofmat(A)T

Why does the adjoint matter? Well, it turns out we can find the inverse of an nxn matrix A using the adjoint formula.

So, if we know the adjoint of a square matrix A, we just scalar multiply by one over the determinant to get the inverse. Right now, we can only use this for 2x2 matrices (we will learn how to find determinants of bigger matrices later).

This formula gives us a shortcut to find the inverse for a 2x2 matrix.

a

A=

b d

1

-b

A-1 =

ad-bc

-c a

Adjoint of A

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

Suppose that the industrial process of a company can be modeled by the matrix equation Ax=b. The input vector x represents the amounts of materials that are entered into the industrial process and the output vector b represents the amounts of materials obtained after the process is complete. If the company would like the output of three materials to be 15, 10 and 5; how much of the materials are required as input into the process?

1 2 3

A= 1

1 2

0 1 2

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

In Ex. 3, we found the inverse of A:

0 1 -1

A-1 = 2

-2 -1

-1 1 1

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

We can use information from the question to write out the output vector b.

15

b=

10 5

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

x y z

=

0 1 -1 2 -2 -1 -1 1 1 5

=

15 10 5

So the company would require 5 units of the first, 5 units of the second, and 0 units of the third input materials.

5 0

If we know that an nxn matrix A is non-singular, then we also know many other things! We often call the following list A List of Non-Singular Equivalences. We will add more to this list in future chapters. (1) The nxn matrix A is invertible. (2) The system Ax=b has a unique solution for every b (3) The only solution of the homogeneous system Ax=0 is the trivial solution x=0 (4) A is row equivalent to I (ie. there is not a full row of zeros in the RREF of A). Proof to be completed in a future chapter

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE I multiplying a row by a non-zero number

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R3 2 R3

1 0 0

0 1 0 E1

0 0 2

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE II adding a multiple of one row to another

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R1 R1 3R3

1 0 0

0 1 0 E2

-3 0 1

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE III switching two rows (called a permutation)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R2 R3

1 0 0

0 0 1 E3

0 1 0

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

Thm. 12 Every elementary matrix is invertible. The inverse of an elementary matrix is an elementary matrix of the same type. Proof not required Appendix B: If and Only If Proofs done in class Thm. 13 A square matrix A is invertible if and only if it is the product of elementary matrices. Proof done in class Note: we can generalize Thm. 11 so that any square matrix A can be written as a product of elementary matrices and an upper triangular matrix. (see textbook pg. 133) This is important since A need not be invertible to do so!

- 4.7-4.8 Review WorksheetUploaded bykcarvey
- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- NotUploaded byWorse To Worst Satittamajitra
- DeterminantsUploaded byMirabella Astra
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2333.502.10f taught by Qingwen Hu (qxh102020)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- Implementation of Matrix based Mapping Method Using Elliptic Curve CryptographyUploaded byATS
- Betke M., Gurvits L. Mobile Robot Localization Using Landmarks 1997Uploaded byLegna Lopez
- Topic 1 Matrix 1Uploaded byAfiq Asyraf
- short ques mathsUploaded byAshmita Singh
- Aan.docxUploaded byRega Saputra
- The General Linear Group.pdfUploaded byGelfanduss
- The General Linear GroupUploaded byAnonymous Tph9x741
- The General Linear Group.pdfUploaded byGelfanduss
- ch1Uploaded byspamjimteh
- Example of CryptographyUploaded byNAKRANI HIMANSHU
- Chapter 7.pdfUploaded byoverkilled
- matrixidUploaded byBoazShuval
- A Complete Quantitative Analysis of SelfUploaded byMuntariNglebur
- LsqUploaded byparticleperson
- TheilUploaded bySoumyo Roy
- Row and Column-Max-Average Norm and Max-Min Norm of Fuzzy MatricesUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- A Short Review of Fuzzy Linear Equation SystemsUploaded byfisnunes4447
- SCIENTIA MAGNA. International Book Series (vol. 11, no. 1)Uploaded byMia Amalia
- Linear Algebra Lecture NotesUploaded bySoon Chang
- Crib SheetUploaded bynishanthps
- [Nicholas J. Higham] Accuracy and Stability of NumUploaded byyassirajalil
- Sood 1979Uploaded byFernando Nicolas Ureta Godoy
- 24766466Uploaded byPaVan Nelakuditi
- lessonplan2 algebra 2 combinationUploaded byapi-252935082
- Positive Definite MatricesUploaded byumartayyab

- Complex Numbers HandoutUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Midterm 2 ReviewUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Final Exam Review MATH 1201 (proofs to know)Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Vectors - 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Determinants - Ch. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Midterm ReviewUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrix MultiplicationUploaded byKuber Padia
- Course Syllabus MATH 1201Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrices - Ch. 1.6Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- MatrixMultPractice2solUploaded byBryan Penfound
- MatrixMultPractice2Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrices - Ch. 1.5, 1.9Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrices - Ch. 1.3 (Part), 1.4, 1.7Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Determinants - Ch. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Linear Systems - Ch. 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 (Part)Uploaded byBryan Penfound

- Formula Examf17sUploaded byOsama Ahmad
- 72077 TAM3A (1)Uploaded byBeloved Dhina
- ECP 281 - MATLAB - PART 1.pptxUploaded byCrimson West
- PBL Vector Algebra 4_Question AnsUploaded byCxxuan1016 Cxxuan
- Ma2264- Numerical MethodsUploaded bySUNILKHUNTIA1988
- 6-OperatorIUploaded byhermas67
- KamdinUploaded byEpic Win
- Resistor IC Design LayoutUploaded byTimothyAmado
- Druskin-NLAA1995Uploaded bygioannidis49
- The Geometry of the EarthUploaded byduetto
- Euclidean Spaces PDFUploaded byAbror
- DSP--LAB#01Uploaded byAwais Bashir
- Vector SpacesUploaded bynomore891
- 1125818Uploaded byjuan perez arrikitaun
- Multilinear Algebra PDFUploaded byCarlos Sanchez
- PengUploaded byEpic Win
- Mirzaei-ElasticityLectureUploaded byNeha Kulkarni
- The mortar method with approximate integrationUploaded byslirpa
- Hahn-Banach theoremsUploaded byDragan Rukavina
- Tut-3Uploaded bythezobot1
- 83 Vectomnbr Parametric and Symmetric Equations of a Line in R3Uploaded byJoanna Poshnja
- This Program Performs Matrix AdditionUploaded bymknatoo1963
- Honors Advanced Calculus and Linear Algebra p6Uploaded bymarchelo_chelo
- DaceUploaded byYifu Li
- MAE 640 Lec6Uploaded bykostas.sierros9374
- Some Results on the Radial ProjectionUploaded byFranklin Gálvez
- Coordinate TransformationsUploaded byDeepak Radhakrishnan
- Infinitesimal Strain TheoryUploaded byalokesh1982
- MATHAS3Uploaded byJovan Pavlovic
- Ch4-Sect01Uploaded byichsan91

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.