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Objectives
• • After working through this module, you should be able to: Describe in general the phases of immune response.


Explain the mechanisms involved in humoral immunity.
Explain primary and secondary antibody responses toward antigen.

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Immune Response
 Phases of Immune Response    - Antigen recognition - Lymphocyte activation - Antigen elimination

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Lymphocyte Activation
 T and B cells undergo proliferation and clonal expansion T helper (TH1, TH2), T cytotoxic (TC), T suppressor (TS), T memory, antibody producing B cells (plasma cells), B memory  TH cells develop into effector cells that function by secreting cytokines  Different cytokines act on B cells, T cells and macrophages

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Lymphocyte Activation
Macrophage Il-12, TNF- IFN- NK cell

IL-12 IFN-

IFN-
TH1

TH2

Cross-regulation
Il-4, IL-10 IL-4 IL-5 IL-6 IL-10 IL-13

IL-2 IFN- TNF-

Promotes cellular immunity

Promotes humoral immunity 6

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ACTIVATION OF B-LYMPHOCYTE

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• B cell uses surface Ig (sIg) to recognize antigen which is internalized and presented to T cell as peptide-MHC class II complex - T-dependent antigen

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• Lipopolysaccharide activates irrespective of sIg (T-independent antigen)

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• Repeating antigen (e.g. complex sugars) cross-links sIg and activates B cell - (T-independent antigen)

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Antigen Elimination

• The elimination of antigens in the effector phase of specific immune responses occurs by the cooperative actions of differentiated lymphocytes and defense mechanisms of innate immunity

ACTIVITY 1 • How does antibody eliminate antigen in the humoral immune response?
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Primary humoral response: • The activation and response of lymphocytes specific for a newly encountered antigen; generally slower and weaker than the secondary immune response. Secondary humoral response • secondary immune response occurs after a second or subsequent exposure, develops much more rapidly, and is mediated primarily by immunoglobulin G (IgG) Primary Response: • Slow in Onset • Low in Magnitude Magnitude • Short Lived • IgM Secondary Response Rapid in Onset High in Long Lived IgG (Or IgA, or IgE)
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Differences between Primary and Secondary Immune Response

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Primary humoral response
Responding B cell Lag period following antigen administration Naive (virgin) B cell

Secondary humoral response
Memory B cell

Generally 4–7 days

Generally 1–3 days

Time of peak response
Magnitude of peak antibody Isotype produced

7–10 days

3–5 days
Generally 100–1000 times higher response than primary response

Varies depending on antigen

IgM predominates early in the response
Thymus-dependent and thymusIndependent

IgG predominates

Antigens Antibody affinity

Thymus-dependent

Lower

Higher
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