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Overview of Low Temperature Solar

Thermal Energy Conversion


Applications

Prepared by

Prof. Dr. A. R. El-Ghalban


Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Engineering and Technology
Taxila, Pakistan

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Low Temperature Solar Thermal Energy
Conversion Applications
 Low temperature solar thermal systems collect
solar radiation to heat air and water for industrial
applications including:
 Water heating.
 Domestic Hot Water.
 Industrial and Process Heat.
 Swimming Pool Heating.

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Low Temperature Solar Thermal Energy Conversion
Applications

 Space heating, ventilation and cooling.


 Solar cooking.
 Water desalination.
 Crop drying.
 Power generation.

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Water heating

 Solar water heater systems are a well-tried and


tested technology.
 They are suitable for both new-build and retrofit.
 A system will typically provide 60-70% of domestic
hot water needs over a year.
 There are many possible designs for a solar water
heater.

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Components of Solar Water Heaters
 In general, it consists of three main components:

3. Solar collector, which converts solar radiation into


useable heat.
5. Heat exchanger, pump, controller module, which
transfers the heat from the solar collector into the
potable water.
7. Storage tank to store the solar heated water.

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Solar Collectors

 There are two types of solar collectors:

3. Flat plate solar collector.


 Unglazed flat plate solar collector.

 Glazed flat plate solar collector.


1. Evacuated tube solar collector.

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Types of water circulating
 Water circulating might be passive and active
systems.
 Passive systems rely on gravity and the tendency
for water to naturally circulate as it is heated,
allowing water or heat-transfer fluid to move
through the system without pumps.
 Because they contain no electric components,
passive systems are generally more reliable, easier
to maintain, and possibly longer-lasting than active
systems.

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 Advantages of passive solar water heaters:
 Passive circuits are that they don’t rely on
electrically powered pumps to circulate the heat-
transfer fluid and they are relatively cheap.
 Disadvantages of passive solar water heaters :
 They require careful planning to optimize
performance, they are prone to sluggish
performance and there is a poor control of over-
heating.
 The hot water storage tank needs locating above the
collector level

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Active circulation ‘Pumped circulation’
 The pump circulates the heat-transfer fluid from the
collector panels through the heat exchanger in the
hot water cylinder and back to the solar collectors
for re-heating.
 The temperature sensors ensure that fluid is only
circulated when the fluid in the collectors is hotter
than in the cylinder.

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 Advantages of active circulation:
 Integral protection against freezing
 Overheat control
 Heat is delivered from the collector at optimal rate
 Greater choice of collector and pipe layout
 Reduces heat loss through pipes

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 Disadvantages of active circulation:
 Increased complexity
 Pump requires electricity (though this can be
alleviated by PV supply)
 More expensive

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Active solar heating circuits

 Primary circuits transfer may be Direct (Open) or,


the more usual Indirect (closed):
Direct (Open) circuits
 Direct circuits are those that directly heat the water
that flows from the household taps. They are rarely
used.
 Advantages of direct circuits :
 Simplicity and increased efficiency over indirect
circuits. through reduction of heat transfer loss.

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 Disadvantages of direct circuits :
 They are subject to freezing unless the water is
drained-back when the pump switches off, which
puts constraints on the positioning of the
collectors in relation to the feed tank.
 As new water continually flows through the
collectors, they can be prone to ‘furring’ in the
collector waterways resulting in loss of efficiency.
 Pump requires electricity (though this can be
alleviated by PV supply)
 More expensive

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Indirect (closed) circuits
 Most circulation systems are indirect. Indirect
circuits use a separate ‘heat-transfer fluid’ circuit to
transfer heat from the collectors to the pre-heat
cylinder. Their main advantage is that they can
employ a wide range of materials and fluids as part
of the circulation. There are different types of
circulation that can be used:

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 Space heating, ventilation and cooling.
 Active space heating.

 Passive space heating and cooling.


 Passive space ventilation.
 Space air conditioning.

 Solar cooking.
 Water desalination.
 Crop drying.
 Power generation.

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Thank you

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Active solar space heating

 Water Space Heating


 Air Space Heating

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Passive Solar Space Heating
 passive solar heating allows the sun to do all the
work.
 That is, there is no additional mechanical assistance.
 In cold climates, south-facing windows designed to
let the sun's heat in while insulating against the cold
are ideal.
 In hot and moderate climates, the strategy is to
admit light while rejecting heat.

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Passive Solar Space Heating
 Passive solar heating system may be direct or indirect gain.
 Direct solar gain system
 The sun's heat is stored by the
building's inherent thermal mass in
materials such as concrete, stone
T
floor slabs, or masonry partitions
that hold and slowly release heat. γ

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Passive Solar Space Heating
 Direct solar gain system

 In this direct gain design - A direct


gain design with an interior water
wall for heat storage. Heat stored in
the water wall is radiated into the
living space at night.

 Diffusing glazing materials.


Translucent glazing scatters
sunlight to all storage surfaces

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Passive Solar Space Heating
Indirect Solar Gain System

 Indirect gain water wall collects and


stores heat during the day. Heat
stored in indirect gain water wall is
radiated into the living space at night.
 Indirect gain Trombe wall stores heat during the day. Excess heat
is vented to the interior space. At night Trombe wall vents are
closed and the storage wall radiates heat into the interior space.

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Passive Solar Space Heating
Indirect isolated Solar Gain System

 Attached greenhouse with vented


storage wall. Heat is stored in the wall
during the day - excess heat is vented
to the interior space. At night the wall
vents are closed and stored heat is
radiated to both the greenhouse and
the interior space.

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Passive Solar Space Heating
Indirect isolated Solar Gain System
 Heating cycle - Roof pond collects and
stores heat during the day. At night
roof ponds are covered and stored
heat is radiated into the space below.

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Passive Solar Space Cooling

 An indirect gain mass wall


can be used to significantly
increase ventilation rates in
adjoining spaces.

 An overhang above a south window will


shade the window completely from early
May to mid-August, yet allow for winter
sun access. Shading devices should be
sized using the given graphic method.

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Passive Solar Space Cooling
 Roof bonds utilizing cool, clear night-skies can
provide total cooling. Panels are kept closed
during the day and opened after dusk to radiate
out the absorbed day time interior heat.

 An overhang above a south


window will shade the
window completely from
early May to mid-August,
yet allow for winter sun
access. Shading devices
should be sized using the
given graphic method

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Passive Solar Space Cooling
 Open pond with water wall - combined
systems can be devised to provide
direct cooling for all interior spaces.

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Passive Solar Ventilation
 Thermal chimneys can be constructed in a narrow
configuration (like a chimney) with an easily heated black
metal absorber on the inside behind a glazed front that can
reach high temperatures and be insulated from the house.

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Solar Cooking

 Solar cooking and baking are easy passive solar


energy application. Solar cookers are safe around
children and provide a great way to learn about
and use solar energy. Solar cookers are clean,
convenient, non-polluting and easy on the
environment.

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Unglazed Flat Plate Solar Collectors

 Low cost
 Low temperature
 Rugged
 Lightweight
 Seasonal pool
heating

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Glazed Flat Plate Solar Collectors

 Moderate cost
 Higher temperature operation
 Can operate at mains water pressure
 Heavier and more fragile
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Evacuated Tube Collectors

 Higher cost
 No convection losses
 High temperature
 Cold climates
 Fragile
 Snow is less of a problem
 Installation can be more complicated

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Evacuated Tube Collectors

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Passive solar water heating system

 Easy to install and


maintain; no moving parts
 Storage tank must be
installed above or close to
collector
 Uses no electricity;

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Passive solar water heating system

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Passive solar water heating system

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Active indirect solar heating system

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Active closed solar heating system

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Active closed solar heating system

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Active open solar heating system

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Active solar heating system

 The main components on an active solar water heating system are


 Solar collector
 A circulating system
 Storage tank
 Back up heating system
 Control system

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Active space heating system

The system
components in
an active space
heating
application are
the same for
water heating
with the addition of radiators for space heating or
under floor heating coils or even forced air systems.

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Active air space heating system

A transpired air collector


preheats air for building
ventilation by using a fan to
draw fresh air through the
system. Outside (ambient) air
passes through holes in the
collector (absorber) and is
heated as it is drawn up the
air space (plenum) between
the collector and the south
wall of the building.

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Solar Cocking

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Solar Cocking

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Solar Cocking

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Solar Cocking

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Solar Assisted Air Conditioning

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Solar Assisted Air Conditioning

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Solar Assisted Air Conditioning

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Solar Water Desalination

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Solar Water Desalination

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Solar Water Desalination

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Solar Crop dryer

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Solar Power Generation

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Solar Power Generation

Prototype tower
Manzanares, Spain

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Solar Power Generation

The Idea of
downdraft tower

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Solar Power Generation

The Idea of Solar


Driven ORC

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