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American Revolution (17761783)

Chris Keller Period 2

Revolutionary War Thesis


The American Revolutionary War impacted the development of the United States through the American Revolution being a social revolution of ideas leading to a liberal society, the adoption of the Constitution as the only form of federal government, and the wariness of imposing taxes on the new country.

Britain vs. America


60,000 British military soldiers, plus hired German mercenaries knows as Hessians and colonial Loyalists. 50,000 American military soldiers, each colony supporting a local militia.

British Military

Britain at 1776 (social)


France bitter at Britain due to loss of the French and Indian War (1753-1763) Confused and inept London government with inability to relinquish conservative ideals Outspoken British sympathetic to the American cause

Britain at 1776 (military)


British military full of unqualified generals with lack of battle experience Operating 3,000 miles away from Britain led to miscommunications and useless orders from the mother country Scarce and rancid provisions

Colonies at 1776
No urban nerve center Outstanding leadership Open foreign aid Defensive strategy

Causes of the American Revolution


*economic*

High taxes because of the French and Indian War from a parliament that didnt represent them Enacted by Prime Minister George Grenville to have colonists pay for a fair share of their defense

Taxes
Sugar Act (1764) puts an indirect tax on the importation on molasses from the West Indies Stamp Act (1765) mandated affixation of stamps on goods certifying payment Townshend Acts 1767 passed as an indirect customs tax

Colony Responses
Boston Tea Party 1773- colonists upset with the taxation of tea leaves disguised as Indians dumped 342 tea chests into Boston Harbor Continental Congress 1774- 55 delegates from all the colonies except for Georgia met to draft a list of petitions for Britain

Boston Tea Party

Continental Congress

British Responses
Declaratory Act 1766- gave Britain absolute sovereignty over the colonists in North America The Intolerable Acts 1774- aimed primarily at Boston, closing the port and restricting trade until damages were paid for the Boston Tea Party

A Social Revolution of Ideas


It was a part of a larger intellectual movement known as the Age of Enlightenment

Paine Publishes Common Sense


Most widely distributed, read, and talkedabout pamphlet in the Colonies England ruling the colonies from so far away made no logical sense

Declaration of Independence

The Shot Heard round the World


April 1775 British troops left from Boston Port to capture rebel leaders at Lexington American forces retreated back to Concord where ammunition stores were kept and a larger force awaited the British 300 British troops killed and some 70 wounded

Battle of Lexington and Concord

General George Washington

Benjamin Franklin

Sons of Liberty

Thomas Jefferson

The Battle of Bunker Hill


Main battle during the siege of Boston British victory, but at heavy losses allowed British forces to escape Boston Harbor

Washington Crossing the Deleware

Battle of Trenton
December 1776- preceded by General George Washington crossing the Delaware River

Battles at Saratoga
An attempt by Great Britain to gain control of the Hudson River valley in 1777 Drew the French into the war on the side of the Colonists Seen as the turning point of the war

Britain Captures Philadelphia


British wanted to gain control because Philadelphia was the seat of the Continental Congress Americans defeated, Washington retreated to Valley Forge for the winter

British Strategy After Saratoga


Britain had to not only battle its North American colonies, but colonies in India and West Indies colonies as well

Battle of Yorktown
Combined assault of George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau against British General Lord Cornwallis last major battle of the Revolutionary War

Surrender at Yorktown

Treaty of Paris 1783


Signed September of 1783 America got all land west of the Appalachian mountains to the Mississippi

Taxes on the new Nation


Under the Articles, the Continental congress couldnt collect or enforce taxes on the states Couldnt regulate trade between states

Adopting the Constitution


1787 the Continental Congress met to amend the Articles of Confederation Decided to scrap them, and draft a new Constitution that could deal with the problems the new nation faced