DNA Structure

By Joshua Rosenberg

 DNA is the hereditary material of life  This molecule carries the instructions

Introduction

needed to make all living organisms

Introduction
The four Molecules that are very important

to life 1.Lipids 2.Proteins 3.Carbohydrates 4.Nucleic acids DNA is composed of Nucleic Acids

Introduction
In DNA, the Nucleic Acids are found in the

form of a molecule called a Nucleotide

Tell me more, please!

Composition
Remember that the Nucleotide is the basic

building block (Monomer) of DNA

Structure
So, a molecule of DNA is

made up of millions of subunits called Nucleotides Those subunits are the genetic code! The structure of DNA is of 2 strands arranged into a Double Helix

Structure
Each nucleotide consists of three parts:
1.P 2.D 3.A, T, C, G

Structure
Each nucleotide consists of three parts:
1.Phosphate group 2.Deoxyribose sugar 3.Nitrogenous base

The three parts of a Nucleotide
Phosphat e

Nitrogenou s Base Sugar

Structure
And the structure of DNA

is of 2 strands arranged into a Double Helix

The Backbone and the Bases
The phosphate and deoxyribose sugar (P &

D) form the backbone of the DNA molecule The nitrogen bases (A, T, C, G) form the “rungs of the ladder”

Nucleotides
There are four distinct types of Nucleotides Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)

Nucleotides
A T

Adenine

Thymine

C

G

Cytosine

Guanine

Nucleotides
Each base will only bond with one

other specific base.
Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)

Form a base pair. Form a base pair.

DNA Structure
Because of this complementary base

pairing, the order of the bases in one strand determines the order of the bases in the other strand

A C T C A G T

T G A G T C A

DNA Structure
To crack the genetic code found in

DNA we need to look at the sequence of bases.
The bases are arranged in triplets

called codons. AGG-CTC-AAG-TCC-TAG TCC-GAG-TTC-AGG-ATC

What do I need to know?
DNA is the hereditary material DNA contains the instructions for all living

organisms A DNA molecule is composed of many tiny Nucleic Acids called Nucleotides

What do I need to know?
The Nucleotide has three parts Phosphate (P) Deoxyribose Sugar (D) Nitrogenous Base (A, T, C, G) The bases are complimentary and pair-up A-T C-G

Looking Ahead
Each triplet of nitrogenous bases is known

as one codon Each codon encodes one amino acid

Looking Ahead
DNA to RNA is called transcription RNA to Protein is called translation