Magmatismo Alcalino Continental

Rochas Alcalinas ocorrem em todos os ambientes tectônicos, incluindo as bacias oceanicas O magmatismo nos continentes pode ser muito variado, incluindo rochas tholeiitica e calcoalcalinas Vamos focalizar as rochas alcalinas que compõem um amplo espectro de magmas ocorrendo predominantemente em porções anorogenicas de terrenos continentais

Magmatismo Alcalino Continental
Rochas Alcalinas geralmente tem mais alcalis do que pode acomodar os feldspatos sozinhos. O excesso de alcalis aparece em feldspatoides, piroxenio-amfibolios sódicos, ou outra fase rica em alcalis. No sentido mais restrito, rochas alcalinas são deficientes em SiO2 com respeito a Na2O, K2O, e CaO e assim tornam-se “criticamente subsaturados” em SiO2, e Nepheline ou Acmita aparece na norma. Alternativamente, muitas rochas podem ser deficiente em Al2O3 (e não necessariamete SiO2) então o Al2O3 pode não estar apto to o acomodar os alcalis as feldspato normativo. Estas rochas são peralkaline (see Fig. 18-2) e podem ser tanto silica super saturadas ou insaturadas

Table 19-1. Nomenclature of some alkaline igneous rocks (mostly volcanic/hypabyssal) Basanite feldspathoid-bearing basalt. Usually contains nepheline, but may have leucite + olivine Tephrite olivine-free basanite Leucitite a volcanic rock that contains leucite + clinopyroxene ± olivine. It typically lacks feldspar Nephelinite a volcanic rock that contains nepheline + clinopyroxene ± olivine. It typically lacks feldspar. Fig. 14-2 Urtite plutonic nepheline-pyroxene (aegirine-augite) rock with over 70% nepheline and no feldspar Ijolite plutonic nepheline-pyroxene rock with 30-70% nepheline Melilitite a predominantly melilite - clinopyroxene volcanic (if > 10% olivine they are called olivine melilitites) Shoshonite K-rich basalt with K-feldspar ± leucite Phonolite felsic alkaline volcanic with alkali feldspar + nepheline. See Fig. 142. (plutonic = nepheline syenite)

Comendite peralkaline rhyolite with molar (Na2O+K2O)/Al2O3 slightly > 1. May contain Na-pyroxene or amphibole Pantellerite peralkaline rhyolite with molar (Na2O+K2O)/Al2O3 = 1.6 - 1.8. Contains Na-pyroxene or amphibole Lamproite a group of peralkaline, volatile-rich, ultrapotassic, volcanic to hypabyssal rocks. The mineralogy is variable, but most contain phenocrysts of olivine + phlogopite ± leucite ± K-richterite ± clinopyroxene ± sanidine. Table 19-6 Lamprophyre a diverse group of dark, porphyritic, mafic to ultramafic hypabyssal (or occasionally volcanic), commonly highly potassic (K>Al) rocks. They are normally rich in alkalis, volatiles, Sr, Ba and Ti, with biotite-phlogopite and/or amphibole phenocrysts. They typically occur as shallow dikes, sills, plugs, or stocks. Table 19-7

Kimberlite a complex group of hybrid volatile-rich (dominantly CO2), potassic, ultramafic rocks with a fine-grained matrix and macrocrysts of olivine and several of the following: ilmenite, garnet, diopside, phlogopite, enstatite, chromite. Xenocrysts and xenoliths are also common Group I kimberlite is typically CO2-rich and less potassic than Group 2 kimberlite Group II kimberlite (orangeite) is typically H2O-rich and has a mica-rich matrix (also with calcite, diopside, apatite)

Carbonatite an igneous rock composed principally of carbonate (most commonly calcite, ankerite, and/or dolomite), and often with any of clinopyroxene alkalic amphibole, biotite, apatite, and magnetite. The Ca-Mg-rich carbonatites are technically not alkaline, but are commonly associated with, and thus included with, the alkaline rocks. Table 19-3 For more details, see Sørensen (1974), Streckeisen (1978), and Woolley et al. (1996)

Magmatismo Alcalino Continental

Figure 19-1. Variations in alkali ratios (wt. %) for oceanic (a) and continental (b) alkaline series. The heavy dashed lines distinguish the alkaline magma subdivisions from Figure 8-14 and the shaded area represents the range for the more common oceanic intraplate series. After McBirney (1993). Igneous Petrology (2nd ed.), Jones and Bartlett. Boston. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

O East African Rift

Figure 19-2. Map of the East African Rift system (after Kampunzu and Mohr, 1991), Magmatic evolution and petrogenesis in the East African Rift system. In A. B. Kampunzu and R. T. Lubala (eds.), Magmatism in Extensional Settings, the Phanerozoic African Plate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 85-136. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Table 19-2. Representative Chemical Analyses of East African Rift Volcanics Series 1: Alkaline Oxide 1 2 SiO2 45.6 51.7 TiO2 Al2O3 FeO* MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O 2.4 15.6 11.3 0.2 6.9 10.4 3.2 1.3 0.9 19.3 5.9 0.2 1.1 4.1 8.9 4.6 0.3 97.0 0.0 29.8 28.6 0.0 0.0 28.3 6.5 0.0 3.9 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.8 1.3 0.4 0.0 Series 2: Ultra-alkaline 3 4 5 46.2 33.1 44.1 1.6 18.6 8.9 0.2 2.3 7.3 9.3 4.2 0.5 99.1 0.0 27.5 8.0 0.0 0.0 39.1 13.7 0.0 5.7 0.0 0.5 0.0 1.3 2.6 1.7 0.0 2.6 11.3 12.4 0.3 7.3 17.2 3.2 3.6 1.9 92.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.3 20.7 18.2 15.0 0.0 0.0 10.9 0.8 0.0 5.5 4.8 0.0 16.8 2.8 17.0 10.0 0.2 3.7 8.4 4.3 7.2 1.2 98.9 0.0 31.0 0.0 6.5 13.2 22.2 16.7 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.5 0.0 3.1 4.9 0.0 0.0 Series 3: Transitional Basalt-Rhyolite Series 4 7 8 9 10 11 47.6 61.8 70.3 72.5 50.8 2.0 14.8 11.4 0.2 6.4 11.5 2.7 0.8 0.3 97.7 2.1 5.5 26.5 30.0 0.0 0.0 20.8 8.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 5.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 14.2 6.4 0.3 0.5 1.8 6.2 5.2 0.2 97.6 9.0 33.7 48.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.7 1.8 0.5 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.3 7.6 8.4 0.3 0.0 0.4 7.3 4.3 0.0 98.8 41.7 28.1 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.0 12.0 0.0 0.2 10.3 4.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 5.9 4.4 97.6 35.8 27.8 30.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 5.3 0.0 1.4 14.9 10.1 0.2 6.9 9.8 2.6 0.4 0.4 97.4 9.1 2.6 25.2 31.9 0.0 0.0 12.7 13.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.3 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

6 55.4 0.5 20.8 4.6 0.2 0.5 2.9 9.2 5.5 0.1 99.7 0.0 34.2 30.2 0.0 0.0 27.1 2.8 0.0 4.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.0

P2O5 0.6 Total 97.5 CIPW NORM q 0.0 or 8.9 ab 31.4 an 28.3 lc 0.0 ne 0.0 di 14.2 hy 0.0 wo 0.0 ol 9.4 il 0.5 ti 4.7 ap 1.6 pf 1.0 ns 0.0 cs 0.0

1. Ave. 32 alkaline basalts, Kenya (B) 2. Ave. phonolite (B) 3. Ave. Kenyan nephelinite (B) 4. Melilitite, W. Rift (KM) 5. Leucitite, W. Rift (KM) 6. Ave. of 55 phonolites, Uganda (B) 7. Ave. of 31 transitional basalts (B) 8. Ave. 40 trachytes (B) 9. Pantellerite (KM) 10. Comendite (KM) 11. Ave. of 26 Tholeiitic basalts (KM). KM = Kampunzu and Mohr (1991), B = Baker, 1987.

O East African Rift

Figure 19-3. 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr for East African Rift lavas (solid outline) and xenoliths (dashed). The “cross-hair” intersects at Bulk Earth (after Kampunzu and Mohr, 1991), Magmatic evolution and petrogenesis in the East African Rift system. In A. B. Kampunzu and R. T. Lubala (eds.), Magmatism in Extensional Settings, the Phanerozoic African Plate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 85-136. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

O East African Rift

Figure 19-4. 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb (a) and 207 Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb (b) diagrams for some lavas (solid outline) and mantle xenoliths (dashed) from the East African Rift . The two distinct Virunga trends in (a) reflect heterogeneity between two different samples. After Kampunzu and Mohr, 1991), Magmatic evolution and petrogenesis in the East African Rift system. In A. B. Kampunzu and R. T. Lubala (eds.), Magmatism in Extensional Settings, the Phanerozoic African Plate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 85-136. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

O East African Rift

Figure 19-5. Chondrite-normalized REE variation diagram for examples of the four magmatic series of the East African Rift (after Kampunzu and Mohr, 1991), Magmatic evolution and petrogenesis in the East African Rift system. In A. B. Kampunzu and R. T. Lubala (eds.), Magmatism in Extensional Settings, the Phanerozoic African Plate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 85-136. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Figure 19-6a. Ta vs. Tb for rocks of the Red Sea, Afar, and the Ethiopian Plateau. Rocks from a particular area show nearly constant ratios of the two excluded elements, consistent with fractional crystallization of magmas with distinct Ta/Tb ratios produced either by variable degrees of partial melting of a single source, or varied sources (after Treuil and Varet, 1973; Ferrara and Treuil, 1974).

Figure 19-7. Phase diagram for the system SiO2-NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-H2O at 1 atm. pressure. Insert shows a T-X section from the silicaundersaturated thermal minimum (Mu) to the silica-oversaturated thermal minimum (Ms). that crosses the lowest point (M) on the binary Ab-Or thermal barrier that separates the undersaturated and oversaturated zones. After Schairer and Bowen (1935) Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 16th Ann. Meeting, and Schairer (1950), J. Geol., 58, 512-517. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Magmatismo Alcalino

Figure 19-8. Part of the Ne-Ks-SiO2-H2O system at 1 atm, 0.1 GPa, and 0.2 GPa, illustrating the reduction in the leucite field with increasing PH2O. At 0.2 GPa the Lc-liquid field crosses the Ab-Or join, and the system goes from peritectic to eutectic behavior. Also shown are contours for analyses of 122 undersaturated volcanics. After Gittins, (1979), The feldspathoidal alkaline rocks. In H. S. Yoder Jr. (ed.), The Evolution of Igneous Rocks Fiftieth Anniversary Perspectives. Princeton University Press. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Figure 19-9. Hypothetical cross sections (same vertical and horizontal scales) showing a proposed model for the progressive development of the East African Rift System. a. Pre-rift stage, in which an asthenospheric mantle diapir rises (forcefully or passively) into the lithosphere. Decompression melting (cross-hatch-green indicate areas undergoing partial melting) produces variably alkaline melts. Some partial melting of the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) may also occur. Reversed decollements (D1) provide room for the diapir. b. Rift stage: development of continental rifting, eruption of alkaline magmas (red) mostly from a deep asthenospheric source. Rise of hot asthenosphere induces some crustal anatexis. Rift valleys accumulate volcanics and volcaniclastic material. c. Afar stage, in which asthenospheric ascent reaches crustal levels. This is transitional to the development of oceanic crust. Successively higher reversed decollements (D2 and D3) accommodate space for the rising diapir. After Kampunzu and Mohr (1991), Magmatic evolution and petrogenesis in the East African Rift system. In A. B. Kampunzu and R. T. Lubala (eds.), Magmatism in Extensional Settings, the Phanerozoic African Plate. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 85-136 and P. Mohr (personal communication). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Carbonatites
Table 19-4. Some Minerals in Carbonatites. Carbonates Calcite Dolomite Ankerite Siderite Strontanite Bastnäsite (Ce,La)FCO3) * Nyerereite ((Na,K)2Ca(CO3)2) * Gregoryite ((Na,K)2CO3) Silicates Pyroxene Aegirine-augite Diopside Augite Olivine Monticellite Alkali amphibole Allanite Andradite Phlogopite Zircon
Source: Heinrich (1966), Hogarth (1989)

Table 19-3. Carbonatite Nomenclature Name Calcite-carbonatite Dolomite-carbonatite Ferrocarbonatite Natrocarbonatite Alternative Coarse Med.-Fine sövite alvikite rauhaugite* beforsite

Sulfides Pyrrhotite Pyrite Galena Sphalerite Oxides-Hydroxides Magnetite Pyrochlore Perovskite Hematite Ilmenite Rutile Baddeleyite Pyrolusite Halides Fluorite Phosphates Apatite Monazite

* Rarely used, beforsite may be applied to any grain size.

* only in natrocarbonatite

Carbonatites

Figure 19-10. African carbonatite occurrences and approximate ages in Ma. OL = Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite volcano. After Woolley (1989) The spatial and temporal distribution of carbonatites. In K. Bell (ed.), Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution. Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 1537. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Carbonatites

Figure 19-11. Idealized cross section of a carbonatite-alkaline silicate complex with early ijolite cut by more evolved urtite. Carbonatite (most commonly calcitic) intrudes the silicate plutons, and is itself cut by later dikes or cone sheets of carbonatite and ferrocarbonatite. The last events in many complexes are late pods of Fe and REE-rich carbonatites. A fenite aureole surrounds the carbonatite phases and perhaps also the alkaline silicate magmas. After Le Bas (1987) Carbonatite magmas. Mineral. Mag., 44, 133-40. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Table 19-5. Representative Carbonatite Compositions CalciteDolomiteFerroNatrocarbonatite carbonatite carbonatite carbonatite 0.1 2 7 80 13 11 18 24 188 <5 14 119 189 1204 20 5 56 52 9 608 1687 219 883 130 39 105 9 34 6 4 1 5 1 <5 14 89 55 17 33 27 251 5 31 61 165 569* 12 3 1 3 21 10 89 93 13 764 2183 560 634 45 12 5 10 0 10 12 10 191 62 26 26 16 606 12 204 127 1292 71 4 1 1 20 12 217 276 7 2666 5125 550 1618 128 34 130 16 52 6 17 2 16 116 0 0 88 <20 178 7 0 28 125 6 0 0 49 4 11 545 645 102 8 2 2 0

Carbonatites
Table 19-5. Representative Carbonatite Compositions CalciteDolomiteFerroNatrocarbonatite carbonatite carbonatite carbonatite 2.72 3.63 4.7 0.16 0.15 1.06 2.25 1.01 0.52 1.80 49.1 0.29 0.26 2.10 0.76 36.6 0.34 0.86 0.29 0.08 0.41 0.88 0.33 0.99 2.41 3.93 0.96 15.06 30.1 0.29 0.28 1.90 1.20 36.8 0.64 0.69 0.31 0.07 0.35 1.08 0.42 1.46 7.44 5.28 1.65 6.05 32.8 0.39 0.39 1.97 1.25 30.7 3.25 0.88 0.45 0.02 0.96 4.14 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.23 0.38 0.38 14.0 32.2 8.38 0.85 0.56 31.6 1.66 1.42 2.50 3.40 3.72

% SiO2 TIO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 FeO MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O P2O5 H2O+ CO2 BaO SrO F Cl S SO3

% ppm Li Be Sc V Cr Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Rb Y Zr Nb Mo Ag Cs Hf Ta W Au Pb Th U La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Wooley & Kempe (1989), natrocarb. from Keller & Spettel (1995). * one excluded analysis contained 16,780 ppm Nb.

Carbonatites

Figure 19-12. Initial 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagrams for young carbonatites (dark shaded), and the East African Carbonatite Line (EACL), plus the HIMU and EMI mantle reservoirs. From Bell and Blenkinsop (1987, Geology, 15, 99-102), (1989, in K. Bell (ed.), Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution. Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 278-300 ). Also included are the data for Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites and alkali silicate rocks (from Bell and Dawson, 1995, in Bell, K. and J. Keller (eds.), (1995). Carbonatite Volcanism: Oldoinyo Lengai and the Petrogenesis of Natrocarbonatites. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, pp. 100-112 ). MORB values and the Mantle Array are from Figure 10-15. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Carbonatites
Figure 19-13. Solidus curve (purple) for lherzolite-CO2-H2O with a defined ratio of CO2 : H2O = 0.8. Red curves = H2O-saturated and volatile-free peridotite solidi. Approximate shield geotherm in dashed green. After Wyllie (1989) Origin of carbonatites: Evidence from phase equilibrium studies. In K. Bell (ed.), Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution. Unwin Hyman, London. pp. 500-545. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Magmatismo Alcalino

Figure 19-14. Grid showing the melting products as a function of pressure and % partial melting of model pyrolite mantle with 0.1% H2O. Dashed curves are the stability limits of the minerals indicated. After Green (1970), Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 3, 221-235. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Carbonatites
Figure 19-15. Silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility in the system Na2OCaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CO2 (modified by Freestone and Hamilton, 1980, to incorporate K2O, MgO, FeO, and TiO2). The system is projected from CO2 for CO2-saturated conditions. The dark shaded liquids enclose the miscibility gap of Kjarsgaard and Hamilton (1988, 1989) at 0.5 GPa, that extends to the alkali-free side (A-A). The lighter shaded liquids enclose the smaller gap (B) of Lee and Wyllie (1994) at 2.5 GPa. C-C is the revised gap of Kjarsgaard and Hamilton. Dashed tie-lines connect some of the conjugate silicate-carbonate liquid pairs found to coexist in the system. After Lee and Wyllie (1996) International Geology Review, 36, 797819. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Carbonatites

Figure 19-15. Schematic cross section of an asthenospheric mantle plume beneath a continental rift environment, and the genesis of nephelinitecarbonatites and kimberlitecarbonatites. Numbers correspond to Figure 19-13. After Wyllie (1989, Origin of carbonatites: Evidence from phase equilibrium studies. In K. Bell (ed.), Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution. Unwin Hyman, London. pp. 500-545) and Wyllie et al., (1990, Lithos, 26, 3-19). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Lamproites

Figure 19-17. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element diagram showing the range of patterns for olivine-, phlogopite-, and madupitic-lamproites from Mitchell and Bergman (1991) Petrology of Lamproites. Plenum. New York. Typical MORB and OIB from Figure 10-13 for comparison. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Lamproites
Table 19-6. Lamproite Nomenclature
Old Nomenclature Recommended by IUGS

wyomingite orendite madupite cedricite mamilite wolgidite fitzroyite verite jumillite fortunite cancalite

diopside-leucite-phlogopite lamproite diopside-sanidine-phlogopite lamproite diopside madupidic lamproite diopside-leucite lamproite leucite-richterite lamproite diopside-leucite-richterite madupidic lamproite leucite-phlogopite lamproite hyalo-olivine-diopside-phlogopite lamproite olivine diopside-richterite madupidic lamproite hyalo-enstatite-phlogopite lamproite enstatite-sanidine-phlogopite lamproite

From Mitchell and Bergman (1991).

Lamproites

Figure 19-18a. Initial 87Sr/86Sr vs. 143Nd/144Nd for lamproites (red-brown) and kimberlites (red). MORB and the Mantle Array are included for reference. After Mitchell and Bergman (1991) Petrology of Lamproites. Plenum. New York. Typical MORB and OIB from Figure 1013 for comparison. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Lamproites

Figure 19-18b. 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb for lamproites and kimberlites. After Mitchell and Bergman (1991). Mitchell and Bergman (1991) Petrology of Lamproites. Plenum. New York. Typical MORB and OIB from Figure 10-13 for comparison. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Lamprophyres
Table 19-7. Lamprophyre Nomenclature Light-colored constituents Predominant mafic minerals

biotite, hornblende, Na- Ti- amphib., melilite, biotite, feldspar foid diopsidic augite, diopsidic augite, Ti-augite, ± Ti-augite (± olivine) (± olivine) olivine, biotite ± olivine ± calcite or > pl -minette vogesite pl > or -kersantite spessartite or > pl feld > foid sannaite pl > or feld > foid camptonite -glass or foid monchiquite polzenite --alnöite Lamprophyre branch: Calc-alkaline Alkaline Melilitic
After Le Maitre (1989), Table B.3, p. 11.

Kimberlites

Figure 19-19. Model of an idealized kimberlite system, illustrating the hypabyssal dike-sill complex leading to a diatreme and tuff ring explosive crater. This model is not to scale, as the diatreme portion is expanded to illustrate it better. From Mitchell (1986) Kimberlites: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology. Plenum. New York. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Table 19-8. Average Analyses and Compositional Ranges of Kimberlites, Orangeites, and Lamproites. SiO2 Kimberlite 33.0 27.8-37.5 1.3 2.0 7.6 0.14 34.0 6.7 0.12 0.8 1.3 10.9 14 100 893 965 65 93 69 885 847 263 5 171 12 20 4 150 1 0.4-2.8 1.0-5.1 5.9-12.2 0.1-0.17 17.0-38.6 2.1-21.3 0.03-0.48 0.4-2.1 0.5-1.9 7.4-13.9 Orangeite 35.0 27.6-41.9 1.1 2.9 7.1 0.19 27. 7.5 0.17 3.0 1.0 11.7 20 95 1722 1227 77 28 65 3164 1263 268 7 120 9 28 5 186 1 0.4-2.5 0.9-6.0 4.6-9.3 0.1-0.6 10.4-39.8 2.9-24.5 0.01-0.7 0.5-6.7 0.1-3.3 5.2-21.5 Lamproite* 45.5 2.3 8.9 6.0 11.2 11.8 0.8 7.8 2.1 3.5 19 66 430 152 41

Kimberlites

TiO2 Al2O3 FeO* MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O P2O5 LOI Sc V Cr Ni Co Cu Zn Ba Sr Zr Hf Nb Ta Th U La Yb

9831 3860 1302 42 99 6 37 9 297 1

Data from Mitchell (1995), Mitchell and Bergman (1991) * Leucite Hills madupidic lamproite

Kimberlites

Figure 19-20a. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram for kimberlites, unevolved orangeites, and phlogopite lamproites (with typical OIB and MORB). After Mitchell (1995) Kimberlites, Orangeites, and Related Rocks. Plenum. New York. and Mitchell and Bergman (1991) Petrology of Lamproites. Plenum. New York. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Kimberlites

Figure 19-20b. Chondrite-normalized spider diagram for kimberlites, unevolved orangeites, and phlogopite lamproites (with typical OIB and MORB). After Mitchell (1995) Kimberlites, Orangeites, and Related Rocks. Plenum. New York. and Mitchell and Bergman (1991) Petrology of Lamproites. Plenum. New York. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Kimberlites

Figure 19-20b. Hypothetical cross section of an Archean craton with an extinct ancient mobile belt (once associated with subduction) and a young rift. The low cratonal geotherm causes the graphite-diamond transition to rise in the central portion. Lithospheric diamonds therefore occur only in the peridotites and eclogites of the deep cratonal root, where they are then incorporated by rising magmas (mostly kimberlitic- “K”). Lithospheric orangeites (“O”) and some lamproites (“L”) may also scavenge diamonds. Melilitites (“M”) are generated by more extensive partial melting of the asthenosphere. Depending on the depth of segregation they may contain diamonds. Nephelinites (“N”) and associated carbonatites develop from extensive partial melting at shallow depths in rift areas. After Mitchell (1995) Kimberlites, Orangeites, and Related Rocks. Plenum. New York. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

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